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«Assessment Guide Primary Agriculture Ev a lu a t e Ba s ic Ex t er n al An im al An atom y an d M o r p ho lo g y Assessor:............. ...»

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1. Identify the different basic anatomical parts of any farm animal specie?

Model Answer(s):

This section should contain a detailed drawing or picture or photo of any farm

animal labelled with all the body parts. an example is shown below:

–  –  –

2. Describe the importance of normal anatomical features in efficient production of farm animals?

Model Answer(s):

Farmers developed farm animals through the years as highly productive animals and it is therefore very important that the animal is healthy in order to produce. It is important that farm animals are true to the breeding standards of the breed. Breed standards provide guidelines to farmers indicating the traits which are important for production. Usually these breed standards discriminate against animals with large visible anatomical abnormalities (such as having 5 legs!). However, breed standards also assist in creating uniform animals that produce uniform carcasses for market, or uniform quality of product (such as wool or milk). Breed characteristics also discriminate against gross abnormalities which may have an effect on production, such as a goat with an extra teat that gets in the way of the kid suckling from the functional teats.

B. Your Portfolio of Evidence for Activity 3 should include:

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Model answers:

1. A description of the farm animal on which you based your observations. What type of farm animal have you chosen to study?

I have chosen to describe and study a sheep.

2. A description of the farm animal’s mouth, nostrils, eyes, ears, front and hind limbs (or lack of any of these parts).

The mouth is shaped like an upside-down T which goes up to the nose with a slit.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The eyes are large and yellow in colour with a horizontal black pupil.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The front limbs (legs) have a knee half-way down & end in a hoof which has 2 parts.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The hind limbs have what looks like a knee at the back which allows the lower part of

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------the leg to bend forwards. This “knee” is called the hock.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The nostrils are above the mouth, are black and split down the middle.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The ears are small and set towards the back and either side of the head.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------A description of the farm animal’s body cover (Examples of hair or wool or feathers can be mounted in the Portfolio of Evidence – in the same manner as is done for feathers in the previous section).

The sheep’s body is covered with a fleece of wool. The wool is short and tightly

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Packed all over its body. There is no wool on the lower part of the legs or on the belly

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------of the sheep. The face, belly and lower legs are covered with short white hairs.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Descriptions on how the farm animal moves and what anatomical feature(s) allows it to move.

The sheep moves by walking on its legs and hooves. It looks like it is doing ballet,

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------because it moves on its hooves which look like pointed ballet shoes. The sheep moves

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------different legs in a sequence which allows it not to fall over.


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The sheep ate grass while I was watching it. It bites off the grass, chews it a bit, and

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------then swallows it. Later when the sheep was lying in the shade of a tree I saw it still

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------chewing even though it was not grazing. This means that it was ruminating its food.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------This is when it “regurgitates” the food it has already eaten and chews it again.

6. A description of how the animal breathes.

The sheep breathes through its nose and used lungs for breathing. When the sheep is

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------hot or has been running it may pant – by breathing through its mouth.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------My Notes …

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S u mma t i v e T e s t a n d At t i t u de & A t t r i b u t e E v a l u a t i on B efore the knowledge test is undertaken, the learner must be reminded of what is expected from him / her in terms of summative and reflexive competence. Read and explain to the learner, the Preparation for Your Final Assessment section in the learner workbook. Learners and assessor should sign off this section to acknowledge that this step was completed.

Please set up a knowledge test from the questions given as a guideline to learners and supply each learner with a test sheet.

Supply each report with the following heading:

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An exo-skeleton occurs on the outside of the body, where it protects the soft inner tissues.

An endo-skeleton occurs inside the body, with the soft tissues on the outside, but attached to the skeleton. The endoskeleton provides leverage for the muscles to effect movement.

Question 6 What is a characteristic of Arthropods?

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They have an internal skeleton of bone and cartilage (cartilage is a soft fibrous and • flexible type of bone). Sometimes, as in the case of sharks, the entire skeleton is made of cartilage.

All have a backbone or spinal column made up of vertebrae (back bones). That is • where the group name “vertebrates” comes from.

The heart is muscular and has 2, 3 or 4 chambers.

• The blood contains red blood corpuscles (specialised cells that are able to carry • oxygen).

All have a brain and a spinal cord. The brain, as well as the spinal cord, is protected • by bones such as the skull and the back bones (vertebrae).

All except the fishes breathe by means of lungs in the adult stage.

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Farmers need to be able to recognize what constitutes the normal anatomy of an animal so that he/she can recognize abnormal anatomy. Normal anatomy is required for the healthy production of farm animals.

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Fish breathe with gills, amphibians with gills and lungs, and birds, reptiles and mammals with lungs.

Fish, amphibians and reptiles are covered with scales, birds are covered with feathers and mammals are covered with hair or wool (sometimes with spines like a hedgehog).

Fish move by using fins, birds have wings and feet, and amphibians, reptiles and mammals move with legs and feet.


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Fish, amphibians and reptiles are covered with scales, birds are covered with feathers and mammals are covered with hair or wool (sometimes with spines like a hedgehog).

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Fish, amphibians, reptiles and birds lay eggs. Mammals give birth to live young.

Amphibians like frogs look different from the adult when they first hatch, they look like little fishes and are called tadpoles. Tadpoles change into frogs as they mature.

Insects also hatch from eggs, but they first go through a larval and pupae stage before they metamorphose into the adult insect.

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My Notes …

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Version: 01 Version Date: July 2006

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