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«Green Revolution in Africa August 2009 Report Contributions: Sam Moyo, Walter Chambati, Tendai Murisa and Amade Sucá TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. ...»

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• Fund research on the potential impacts of GMOs vis-à-vis conventional breeding and household seed banks in Africa and advise African countries on the negative consequences of adopting GMOs.

• Support governments to introduce effective national environmental regulations and mitigation strategies to limit environmental damage caused by chemical inputs.

• Conduct research on the benefits of reviving parastatals which guarantee agricultural markets and prices above the costs of production for smallholder surplus production, extend affordable credit to farmers and maintain strategic food reserves.

• Support the establishment of a farmers’ platform for monitoring and evaluating progress towards the achievement of sustainable agriculture.

Assessing the Alliance for Green Revolution in Africa P a g e | 24

7. REFERENCES

ActionAid, (2007). The World Bank and Agriculture: a Critical Review of the World Bank’s World Development Report. London: ActionAid (Discussion paper).

ActionAid (2008). Country studies on green revolution Kenya, Ghana, Mali and Mozambique.

Unpublished.

AGMARK, CNFA (2009). Quarterly Newsletter. Issue No 8. December – February 2009.

AGRA (2008). Audit Report and Financial Statements for the Year 2007. Ernst & Young.

AGRA (2009). AGRA Annual Report 2007. Nairobi: Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa.

AGRA (2009). Audit Report and Financial Statements for the Year 2008. Ernst & Young, Agra-alliance, www.agra-alliance.org Alumira J. and Rusike J., (2005). ‘The Green Revolution in Zimbabwe’, Journal of Agricultural and Development Economics Vol.2, No.1, 2005, pp. 50-66 www.fao.org/cs/esa/eJADE Amanor, K.S. (2008). ‘Introduction: Land and Sustainable Development issue in Africa’, in Kojo S.

Amanor and Sam Moyo (eds) Land and Sustainable Development in Africa. Zed Books, London.

Babu, S.K. (2006). Globalisation, Ecology and Peasant Life in Andhra Pradesh. accessed from http://213.207.98.217/?q=panel32 on 9 July 2008.

Chen, M.A. (2007).’Rethinking the Informal Economy: Linkages with the Formal Economy and the Formal Regulatory of Environment’ in Ocampo and Jomo (eds). Towards Full and Decent Employment. London and New York, Hyderabad, Penang: Zed Books, Orient Longman and Third World Network.

Chipeta M. E, (2007). Applying the Green Revolution to the realities of Mozambique and Africa - how can all essentials for success be orchestrated? Conference on Agricultural Development. Agrarian Development Strategy in the Context of the Green Revolution -Opportunities for rural communities’ empowerment in Mozambique. Maputo, 17-18 August 2007.

Dano E. C., (2007). Unmasking the New Green Revolution in Africa. Motives, Players and Dynamics.

Penang: Third World Network.

Dorward, A.P. h and Poulton, C (2008). Rethinking agricultural input subsidies in poor rural economies.

Future Agricultures briefing Paper: www.futures-agricultures.org/pdf%20files/briefing_input_subsidies.pdf Freebairn D.K. (1995). ‘Did the Green Revolution Concentrate Incomes? A quantitative study of research reports’, World Development, Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 265-79.

Gill, S., S. Lindberg, S. Thandi and K.S. Babu, (2006). Panel 32: Post Green Revolution Agrarian Transformation in South Asia: Ecology and Peasant Life under Globalisation. accessed from http://213.207.98.217/?q=panel32 on 9 July 2008.

GRAIN (2007). ‘A new Green Revolution for Africa?,’ Grain Briefing www.grain.org/briefings Haggblade, S., Hazell, P., Kirsten, I and Mkandawire, R. (2004). ‘African agriculture: Past performance, future imperatives.’ IFPRI Focus 12, Brief 1 of 10. April 2004.

Assessing the Alliance for Green Revolution in Africa P a g e | 25 Holt-Gimenez E., Miguel A. and Rosset P. (2006). ‘Ten Reasons Why the Rockefeller and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundations’ Alliance for Another Green Revolution Will not Save the Problems Of Poverty and Hunger in Sub-Saharan Africa.’ Food First Policy Brief No.12.

IFAD (2008). Developing countries to make use of $US200 million initiative to increase food production quickly. www.ifad.org/media/press/advisory/2008/07.htm IFPRI, Green Revolution: Curse or Blessing?

Kalirajan K.P. and Otsuka K., (2005). ‘Special Edition on An Exploration of a Green Revolution in SubSaharan Africa’. Journal of Agricultural and Development Economics Vol.2, No.1, 2005, pp. 50-66 www.fao.org/cs/esa/eJADE Kanyinga, K. (2000). ‘Re-Distribution from above. The Politics of Land Rights and squatting in Coastal Kenya’. The political and Social Context of Structural Adjustment in Africa. Research Report no. 115.

Nordiska Afrikainstitutet. Uppsala 2000.

Kanyongolo, F. E. (2005). ‘Land Occupations in Malawi: Challenging the Neoliberal Legal Order.’ In Sam Moyo and Paris Yeros (Eds) Reclaiming the Land: The Resurgence of Rural Movements in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Zed Publishers. London.

Lastarria-Cornhiel S. and J. Melmed-Sanjak (1999). Land Tenancy in Asia, Africa and Latin America: A Look at the Past and a View to the Future. Wisconsin: Land Tenure Centre Working Paper No. 27.

Lipton M. (2008). Why Asia needed staples yield growth, and what happened. AGRA conference. Asia’s

green revolution (GR) and the implications for Africa. Nairobi, 2008:





Mafeje, A. (1999). Imperatives and Options for Agricultural Development in Africa: Peasant or Capitalist Revolution? (Unpublished essay).

Mafeje, A. (2003). The Agrarian question, Access to land and Peasant Responses in sub-Sahara Africa.

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Mayet, M. (2007). Policy Brief on the New Green Revolution in Africa. ActionAid.

Migot–Adholla, S. E. (1994). ‘Land, Security of Tenure and Productivity in Ghana’, in Bruce, J. W. and Migot-Adholla, S. E. (eds) (1994). Searching for Land Tenure Security in Africa, Dubuque: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company: 169-198.

Moyo S and P Yeros (eds) (2005). Reclaiming the Land: the Resurgence of Rural Movements in Africa, Asia and Latin America. London and New York; Cape Town: Zed Books and David Philips.

Moyo S. (2008). The State of Food Security in Southern Africa. Harare: AIAS Published Monograph.

Moyo, S, (2006). Africa’s Agrarian Transformation: The Efficacy of the NEPAD Agriculture Strategy. Africa & Development: Challenges in the New Millennium. The NEPAD Debate. CODESRIA and Zed Books.

Moyo, S. (2008). African Land Questions, Agrarian Transitions and the State: Contradictions of Neoliberal Land Reforms, Dakar: CODESRIA.

Assessing the Alliance for Green Revolution in Africa P a g e | 26 Muir, K. (1994). ‘Agriculture in Zimbabwe’ In Rukuni and Eicher (eds), Zimbabwe Agricultural Revolution.

Harare:University of Zimbabwe Publications.

Muller P. and Zeddies J. (1988). ‘Economic Valuation of Varieties and Breeding Objectives’. Plant Breeding, vol 100, no.1, pp. 59-70.

Murisa T. (2007). Challenges and Potentialities of Agricultural Development in Africa. Paper presented at a conference on ‘Agrarian Development Strategy in the Context of the Green Revolution held in Maputo, Mozambique, August, 2007.

Ng Francis and Alexander Yeats (1996). Open Economies Work Better! Did Africa’s Protectionist Policies Cause Its Marginalization in World Trade? World Bank Working Paper No. 1636.

Nkurunziza, J.D. (2007). ‘Generating Rural Employment in Africa to Fight Poverty’ in Ocampo and Jomo (eds), op. cit.

Oxfam (2002). Rigged Rules and Double Standards: Trade, Globalisation and the fight against poverty.

Oxford: Oxfam available on www.marketradefair.com Patnaik P, (2008). The accumulation process in the period of globalization.

www.networkideas.org/focus/may 2008/fo28_globalisation.htm Takavarasha T. (1994). ‘Agricultural Price Policy’. In Rukuni and Eicher (eds), Zimbabwe Agricultural Revolution. Harare:University of Zimbabwe Publications.

Thompson C. (2008). Biofuels for Africa? Revised background paper (6 May 2008) prepared for National Consultative Workshop on Current Issues affecting Agro-Biodiversity for Civil Society Positions to CBDCOP9, held at ZIPAM, Norton, Zimbabwe, 28-30 April 2008.

Wolfhenson, J.D. (2001). The Challenges of Globalisation: the role of World Bank. Paper addressed to the Bundestag, Berlin, April.

World Bank (2008). World Development Report 2008. Washington D.C: World Bank.

1 The Food First (Gimenez et al, 2006) were one of the first ones to respond to AGRA, in a ten point policy brief, and many civil society responses repeat their arguments, and to date no evaluation of AGRA has been published.

2 st The White Paper entitled, Africa’s Turn; the Green Revolution for the 21 Century (2006). It broadly defines Africa’s agricultural and poverty challenge and a cocktail of interventions necessary to address the constraints. During 2006 it launched a number of programmes such as the programme on improved varieties for Africa, and also helped training of post-graduate studies on crop and plant breeding. The Foundation also helped in the training of local merchants in the basics of retailing farm supplies and in the process cultivating a new market sector that strengthens both small retailers and small farmers. In the course of 2006 the Rockefeller Foundation entered into an agreement with the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to establish the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa 3 In January 2008 AGRA funded the establishment of the Western African Centre for Crop Improvement (WACCI) at the University of Ghana. This project is funded to the tune of USD$4.9million and seeks to train 40 students, for a period of five years (Grain, 2007).

4 The Rockefeller Foundation is the second largest philanthropic organisation. The bulk of the foundation’s wealth comes from the Rockefeller family’s endowment in the form of substantial shares. The foundation was involved in the first green revolution in Asia and has since invested about USD$150 million to establish a beachhead for bringing the green revolution. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation is currently the world’s richest charity with over USD$60billion in funds.

5 Two telecom entrepreneurs; one from South Africa and another from Zimbabwe, a former minister of finance for Benin and a former Managing Director of the World Bank from South Africa, a former World Food prize winner recipient from Ghana and one of the architects of the MDGs who is also an academic at Wageningen University.

6 (see Moyo, 2001; Muir, 2004; Holt-Gimenez, Altieri and Rosset, 2006; Forum for Environment and Development, 2007; Mayet, 2007) 7 For example, in Ethiopia, Ghana, Nigeria, Mali, Ivory Coast. (Lasstaria-Cornhiel and Melmed-Sanjak, 1999;

Amanor, 2008) 8 In Zimbabwe, between 1974 and 1984 about 100,000 jobs were lost in the large scale commercial farming due to capital intensification (Loewenson, 1992). Similar trends were experienced in Kenya, where tractorisation and heavy duty machines during the 1980s, replaced techniques such as ox-drawn ploughs and hand tools (Nkurunziza, 2007).

Whilst large capital equipment was exempted from import duty and sales taxes, hand tools and ploughs were subject to high import duties and placed in the most restrictive import category (Nkurunziza, 2007).

9 Even some public faces in AGRA have a long association with biotechnology and genetic engineering research. For instance Robert Horsch, the Global Development Officer in the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, was a former employee of Monsanto, where he was employed for more than 25 years (Mayet, 2007).

10 Statement from African Civil Society Organisations at the World Social Forum, 2007.

11 Aid flows to Africa declined from USD$32 per capita in 1990 to USD$18 per capita in 1998 (Wolfehsohn, 2001), whilst external debt surged in most countries (see World Bank, 2001) 12 For instance Monsanto, Dupont and Syngenta controlled 46 percent of the total proprietary seed market in the world (ETC Group, 2007) indicating the level of concentration in global input markets.

13 There is no evidence of wide consultation within Africa in the authoring of the White Paper and also in designing AGRA related programmes.

14 See for instance report from a Regional Food Sovereignty Workshop convened by TCOE in Windhoek, April, 2008 15 Seventy percent of African exports are destined for Northern Europe, North America or Japan (WTO cited in Oxfam, 2002) and thus heavily exposed to unfair trade practices.

16 Zimbabwe’s fertiliser industry while catering for some SADC countries a toll manufacturing basis, is unable to supply national needs, let alone regional ones, and requires resuscitation.

17 The Programme for Africa’s Seeds Systems (PASS) also includes the Agro-Dealer Development Programme and the Education for African Crop Improvement (EACI).

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