WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 3 | 4 || 6 |

«Lars Wiking Faculty of Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences Department of Food Science Uppsala Doctoral thesis Swedish University of ...»

-- [ Page 5 ] --

The results clearly demonstrate that increased milking frequency is a factor contributing to the elevated levels of FFA in automatic milking systems. It is also a factor difficult to avoid since more frequent milking increases the milk yield which affects the economic performance of the milk producer. However, other experiments in this thesis (paper II and III) showed that the feeding of cows affected the stability of MFGs during pumping of milk. Similar, spontaneous lipolysis such as caused by increased milking frequency could presumably be lowered trough feeding of cows.

–  –  –

The average diameter of the MFG was positive correlated to the diurnal fat yield. The results clearly indicated that this can be ascribed to a limitation in production of MFG membrane resulting in that the MFGs became larger when the fat synthesis increase. The average diameter of the MFG was also affected by the diets offered and milk from cows fed saturated fat supplements contained MFGs with a large average diameter and had an increased fat content.

The highest degree of coalescence of MFGs upon pumping of raw milk occurred in milk with the highest fat content and largest average diameter of MFGs. This suggests that the use of saturated fat supplements for dairy cows should be limited, since it will result in milk with a large average diameter of MFGs and a high fat content.

Milking an udder half four times daily significantly increased the level of FFA in milk compared with milk from the udder half milked twice daily.

Furthermore, the average diameter of milk fat globules increased upon increased milking frequency. The results suggest that limiting the milking frequency in automatic milking systems will increase the milk quality in regards to FFA.

32 References Ahrné, L. & Björck, L. 1985. Lipolysis and the distribution of lipase activity in bovine milk in relation to stage of lactation and time of milking. Journal of Dairy Research 52, 55-64.

Anderson, M. 1983. Milk lipases and off-flavour development. Journal of the Society of Dairy Technology 36, 3-7.

Bachman, K. C. & Wilcox, C. J. 1990a. Effect of blood and high-densityLipoprotein preparations upon lipase distribution and spontaneous lipolysis in bovine-milk. Journal of Dairy Science 73, 3393-3401.

Bachman, K. C. & Wilcox, C. J. 1990b. Effect of time of onset of rapid cooling on bovine-milk fat hydrolysis. Journal of Dairy Science 73, 617-620.

Back & Reuter, H. 1973. Auswirknung von Strömungsvorgängen auf die Xanthinoxydase-Aktvität in Rohmilch. Milcwissenschaft 28, 284-291.

Banks, W., Clapperton, J. L. & Morag, E. 1976. The physical properties of milk fats of different chemical compositions. Journal of the Society of Dairy Technology 29, 86-90.

Baumrucker, C. R. 1979. Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase of bovine-milk membranes- distribution and characterization. Journal of Dairy Science 62, 253Baumrucker, C. R. 1980. Purification and identification of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase of milk membranes. Journal of Dairy Science 63, 49-54.

Beaulieu, A. D. & Palmquist, D. L. 1995. Differential effects of high-fat diets on fatty-acid composition in milk of jersey and holstein Cows. Journal of Dairy Science 78, 1336-1344.

Bengtsson, G. & Olivecrona, T. 1982. Activation of lipoprotein lipase by apolipoprotein CII : Demonstration of an effect of the activator on the binding of the enzyme to milk-fat globules. FEBS Letters 147, 183-187.

Bessa, R. J. B., Santos-Silva, J., Ribeiro, J. M. R. & Portugal, A. V. 2000.

Reticulo-rumen biohydrogenation and the enrichment of ruminant edible products with linoleic acid conjugated isomers. Livestock Production Science 63, 201-211.

Bhavadasan, M. K. & Ganguli, N. C. 1980. Free and membrane-bound xanthineoxidase in bovine-milk during cooling and heating. Journal of Dairy Science 63, 362-367.

Bhavadasan, M. K., Abraham, M. J. & Ganguli, N. C. 1982. Influence of agitation on milk lipolysis and release of membrane-bound xanthine-oxidase. Journal of Dairy Science 65, 1692-1695.

Bitman, J. & Wood, D. L. 1990. Changes in milk fat phospholipids during lactation. Journal of Dairy Science 73, 1208-1216.

Bitman, J., Wood, D. L., Miller, R. H., Wilk, J. C. & Moore, E. D. 1995.

Comparison of lipid composition of milk from half-Danish jersey cows and United States jersey cows. Journal of Dairy Science 78, 655-658.

Briard, V., Leconte, N., Michel, F. & Michalski, M. C. 2003. The fatty acid composition of small and large naturally occurring milk fat globules. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 105, 677-682.

Briley, M. S. & Eisenthal. L, R. 1975. Association of xanthine oxidase with the bovine milk fat globule membrane- nature of enzyme-membrane association.

Biochemical Journal 147, 417-423.

Buchheim, W. 1970. The process of fat crystallization in the milk fat globules of milk. Electron studies by means of the freeze etching method. Milchwissenschaft 25, 65-70.

Børsting C.F., Hermansen J.E & Weisbjerg M. R. 2003. Fedtforsyningens betydning for mælkeproduktionen. In; Kvægets ernæring og fysiologi, bind 2 – Fodring og produktion. DJF rapport, husdyrbrug nr. 54. ( Eds. F. Strudsholm og 33 K. Sejersen ). Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Foulum, Denmark. pp.

133-152.

Cartier, P. & Chilliard, Y. 1990. Spontaneous lipolysis in bovine milk: combined effects of nine characteristics in native milk. Journal of Dairy Science 73, 1178Cartier, P. & Chilliard, Y. & Paquet, D. 1990. Inhibiting and activating effects of skim milks and proteose-peptone fractions on spontaneous lipolysis and purified lipoprotein-lipase activity in bovine-Milk. Journal of Dairy Science 73, 1173Cerbulis, J., & Farrell, J.R. 1977. Xanthine oxidase activity in Dairy products.





Journal of Dairy Science, 60, 170-176.

Chilliard, Y. 1993. Dietary-fat and adipose-tissue metabolism in ruminants, pigs, and rodents - A Review. Journal of Dairy Science 76, 3897-3931.

Deeney, J. T., Valivullah, H. M., Dapper, C. H., Dylewski, D. P. & Keenan, T. W.

1985. Microlipid droplets in milk secreting mammary epithelial cells: evidence that they originate from endoplasmic reticulum and are precursors of milk lipid globules. European Journal of Cell Biology 38, 16-26.

Deeth, H. C. & Fitz, G. C. 1977. Some factors involved in milk lipase activation by agitation. Journal of Dairy Research 44, 569-583.

Depeters, E. J., Medrano, J. F. & Reed, B. A. 1995. Fatty-acid composition of milk-fat from 3 breeds of dairy-cattle. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 75, 267-269.

Drackley, J.K., Beaulieu, A.D. & Elliott, J. P. 2001. Responses of milk fat composition to dietary fat or nonstructural carbohydrates in Holstein and Jersey cows. Journal of Dairy Science 84, 1231-1237.

Duncan, S. E., Christen, G. L. & Penfield, M. P. 1991. Rancid flavor of milk Relationship of acid degree value, free fatty acids, and sensory perception.

Journal of Food science 56, 394-397.

Duncan, S. E., Christen, G. L. 1991. Sensory detection and recovery by acid degree value of fatty acids added to milk. Journal of Dairy Science 74, 2855Dylewski, D. P., Dapper, C. H., Valivullah, H. M., Deeney, J. T. & Keenan, T. W.

1984. Morphological and biochemical characterization of possible intracellular precursors of milk lipid globules. European Journal of Cell Biology 35, 99-111.

Evers, J. M., Luckman, M. S. & Palfreyman, K. R. 2000. The BDI method - Part I:

Determination of free fatty acids in cream and whole milk powder. Australian Journal of Dairy Technology 55, 33-36.

Evers, J. M. J. 2004. The milkfat globule membrane-compositional and structural changes post secretion by the mammary secretory cell. International Dairy Journal 14, 661-674.

Fitz, G. C. 1974. Milk lipase activation by agitation - influence of temperature.

Australian Journal of Dairy Technology 29, 28-32.

Girardet, J. M., Linden, G., Loye, S., Courthaudon, J. L. & Lorient, D. 1993.

Study of mechanism of lipolysis inhibition by bovine milk proteose-peptone component 3. Journal of Dairy Science 76, 2156-2163.

Glass, R. L., Jenness, R. & Lohse, L. W. 1969. Comparative biochemical studies of milks.V. triglyceride composition of milk fats. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 28, 783-&.

Gonzalez-Cordova, A. F. & Vallejo-Cordoba, B. 2003. Detection and prediction of hydrolytic rancidity in milk by multiple regression analysis of short-chain free fatty acids determined by solid phase microextraction gas chromatography and quantitative flavor intensity assessment. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51, 7127-7131.

Gonzalez, S., Duncan, S. E., O'Keefe, S. F., Sumner, S. S. & Herbein, J. H. 2003.

Oxidation and textural characteristics of butter and ice cream with modified fatty acid profiles. Journal of Dairy Science 86, 70-77.

34 Goodridge, J., Ingalls, J. R. & Crow, G. H. 2001. Transfer of omega-3 linolenic acid and linoleic acid to milk fat from flaxseed or Linola protected with formaldehyde. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 81, 525-532.

Government Research Institute for Dairy Industry. 1962 Hillerød, Denmark.

Report No. 136.

Grummer, R. R. 1991. Effect of feed on the composition of milk fat. Journal of Dairy Science 74, 3244-3257.

Hinrichs, J. (1994). Die mechanische Stabilität von Fettkugeln mit kristallinem Fettanteil im Strömungsfeld-Verfahrenstechnische Einflussgrössen und technologische Veränderungen. TU-München, Weihenstephan, Report nr. 368.

ISSN 0178-9503.

Hinrichs, J. & Kessler, H. G. 1997. Fat content of milk and effects on fat globule stability. Journal of Food science.

Hinrichs, J. 1998. Flow rates for milk and cream in pipelines. Milcwissenschaft 53, 139-143.

Hisserich, v. D. & Reuter, H. 1984. Grenzen der mechanischen Beanspruchung von Rohmilch für die induzierte Lipolyse. Milcwissenschaft 39, 333-335.

Hogeveen, H., Ouweltjes, W., de Koning, C. J. A. M. & Stelwagen, K. 2001.

Milking interval, milk production and milk flow-rate in an automatic milking system. Livestock Production Science 72, 157-167.

Hohe, K. A., Dimick, P. S. & Kilara, A. 1985. Milk lipoprotein lipase distribution in the major fractions of bovine milk.. Journal of Dairy Science 68, 1067-1073.

Hvarregaard, J., Andersen, M. H., Berglund, L., Rasmussen, J. T. & Petersen, T.

E. 1996. Characterization of glycoprotein PAS-6/7 from membranes of bovine milk fat globules. European Journal Of Biochemistry 240, 628-636.

IDF. 1991. Determination of free fatty acids in milk & milk products.

International Dairy Federation, Brussels. Bulletin 265.

Jack, L. J. & Mather, I. H. 1990. Cloning and analysis of cDNA encoding bovine butyrophilin, an apical glycoprotein expressed in mammary tissue and secreted in association with the milk-fat globule membrane during lactation. Journal of Biological Chemistry 265, 14481-14486.

Jellema, A. 1986. Physiological factors associated with lipolytic activity in cow´s milk. Bulletin of the International Dairy Federation 118, 33-40.

Jensen, R. G. 2002. The Compositionof bovine milk lipids, Invited Review.

Journal of Dairy Science 85, 295-350.

Jensen, R. G., Ferris, A. M. & Lammi-Keefe, C. J. 1991. The composition of milk Fat. Journal of Dairy Science 74, 3228-3243.

Johnston, S. L., Kitson, K. E., Tweedie, J. W., Davis, S. R. & Lee, J. 2004.

gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase inhibition suppresses milk protein synthesis in isolated ovine mammary cells. Journal of Dairy Science 87, 321-329.

Justesen, P. & Rasmussen, M. D. 2000. Improvements of milk quality by the Danish AMS self-monitoring programme. In: Proc. of the international symposium Robotic Milking.( Eds. H. Hogeveen & A. Meijering). Wageningen Pers, Lelystad, The Netherlands pp.83-88.

Kanno, C. M. & Kim, D. H. 1990. A simple procedure for the preparation of bovine milk fat globule membrane and a comparison of its composition, enzymatic activities, and electropheretic properties with those prepared by other methods. Agricultural And Biological Chemistry 54, 2845-2854.

Keenan, T. W. & Heid, H. W. 1982. Tight attachment of fatty acids to proteins associated with milk lipid globule membrane. European Journal of Cell Biology 26, 270-276.

Kintner, J. A. & Day, E. A. 1965. Major free fatty acids in milk. Journal of Dairy Science 48, 1575-1579.

Klei, L. R., Lynch, J. M., Barbano, D. M., Oltenacu, P. A., Lednor, A. J. & Bandler, D. K. 1997. Influence of milking three times a day on milk quality.

Journal of Dairy Science 80, 427-436.

35 Klungel, G. H., Slaghuis, B. A. & Hogeveen, H. 2000. The effect of the introduction of automatic milking systems on milk quality. Journal of Dairy Science 83, 1998-2003.

Lee, S. J. E. & Sherbon, J. W. 2002. Chemical changes in bovine milk fat globule membrane caused by heat treatment and homogenization of whole milk. Journal of Dairy Research 69, 555-567.

Leewenhoeck. 1674. More microscopical observations. Philos. Transact. 9, 23-24 Lindqvist, B., Roos, T. & Fujita, H. 1975. Auto-Analyzer dtermination of free fatty acids in farm millk. Modification of present method to simplify transportation of the sample. Milchwissenschaft 30, 12-17.

Lopez, C., Lesieur, P., Keller, G. & Ollivon, M. 2000. Thermal and structural behavior of milk fat - 1. Unstable species of cream. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 229, 62-71.

Lopez, C., Lavigne, F., Lesieur, P., Bourgaux, C. & Ollivon, M. 2001. Thermal and structural behavior of milk fat. 1. Unstable species of anhydrous milk fat.

Journal of Dairy Science 84, 756-766.

Lopez, C., Lavigne, F., Lesieur, P., Keller, G. & Ollivon, M. 2001. Thermal and structural behavior of anhydrous milk fat. 2. Crystalline forms obtained by slow cooling. Journal of Dairy Science 84, 2402-2412.

Lopez, C., Lesieur, P., Bourgaux, C. & Ollivon, M. 2005. Thermal and structural behavior of anhydrous milk fat. 3. influence of cooling rate. Journal of Dairy Science 88, 511-526.

Lopez, C., Lesieur, P., Bourgaux, C., Keller, G. & Ollivon, M. 2001. Thermal and structural behavior of Milk Fat: 2. crystalline forms obtained by slow cooling of cream. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 240, 150-161.

Mather, I. H. & Keenan, T. W. 1998. Origin and secretion of milk lipids. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology And Neoplasia 3, 259-273.

Mather, I. H. 2000. A review and proposed nomenclature for major proteins of the milk-fat globule membrane. Journal of Dairy Science 83, 203-247.



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 3 | 4 || 6 |


Similar works:

«Research in ISSN : P-2409-0603, E-2409-9325 AGRICULTURE, LIVESTOCK and FISHERIES An Open Access Peer Reviewed Journal      Open Access Res. Agric. Livest. Fish. Research Article Vol. 2, No. 1, April 2015: 125-133 FISHERS ACCESS TO THE COMMON PROPERTY WATERBODIES IN THE NORTHERN REGION OF BANGLADESH Md. Amzad Hossain1*, Mousumi Das1, Md. Shahanoor Alam2 and Md. Enamul Haque3 1 Department of Aquaculture, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU), Gazipur-1706,...»

«Tsakiri, Ioannidis, Carty 1 LASER SCANNING ISSUES FOR THE GEOMETRICAL RECORDING OF A COMPLEX STATUE Maria TSAKIRI1, Charalambos IOANNIDIS1, Alistair CARTY2 1 School of Rural and Surveying Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Greece. 2 Archaeoptics Ltd, Glasgow, UK KEY WORDS: laser scanning, heritage applications, three-dimensional, close range, data capture ABSTRACT Recent advances in laser scanning technology allow for fast and efficient 3D documentation of cultural heritage...»

«Kara Loo and Jennifer Young Eastridge@SchoolForAdventurers.com EASTRIDGE ACADEMY: SCHOOL FOR ADVENTURERS BY KARA LOO AND JENNIFER YOUNG Eastridge Academy: School for Adventurers Prologue Explain why you would be a strong candidate for attending Eastridge Academy, School for Adventurers, in 500 words or less. “Hey, Farmington. You stupid farmboy, what have you got there?” Fell Farmington gulped and quickly tried to hide the application for Eastridge Academy: School for Adventurers. But he...»

«Digital soil map of Cyprus (1:25,000) AGWATER Options for sustainable agricultural production and water use in Cyprus under global change Scientific Report 6 Deliverable D15, D16 Zomenia Zomeni1, Corrado Camera2, Adriana Bruggeman2, Andreas Zissimos1, Irene Christoforou1, Jay Noller3 1 Geological Survey Department of Cyprus 2 Energy, Environment and Water Research Center, The Cyprus Institute 3 Department of Crop and Soil Science, Oregon State University Nicosia, 15 November 2014 Table of...»

«Freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) farming in Greater Noakhali Districts Catherine Lecouffe January 2005 The Greater Noakhali Aquaculture Extension Project (GNAEP) is a project of the Government of Bangladesh (GoB) supported by Danish International Development Assistance (Danida), under the overall responsibility of the Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock (MoFL) and implemented by the Department of Fisheries (DoF). The project began in July 1998 and has been extended until June 2006....»

«FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (FAQs): MINNESOTA’S STAFF DEVELOPMENT STATUTES Minnesota Statutes, sections 122A.60 and 122A.61 Created September 2001 Updated July 2002, March 2006, February 2008, November 2010, August 2013 In response to many interpretation and implementation questions about Minnesota’s staff development statutes, the organizations listed below have jointly developed this set of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs). The statutes discussed in this set of FAQs can be found at Minn....»

«Assessing the Alliance for Green Revolution in Africa August 2009 Report Contributions: Sam Moyo, Walter Chambati, Tendai Murisa and Amade Sucá TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION 2. THE CONTEXT: DECLINING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY 3. OVERVIEW OF THE AGRA PROJECT 3.1 Background 3.2 Principles and policies: defining the problem and interventions 3.3 Programmes and their implementation 3.4 The actors and partnerships involved 3.4.1 AGRA Leadership 3.4.2 Implementation partnerships 3.4.3 AGRA and...»

«International Journal of Plant Production 1(1), March 2007 ISSN 1735-6814 GUASNR This is a refereed journal and all articles are professionally screened and reviewed. www.ijpp.info Tea yield and soil properties as affected by slope position and aspect in Lahijan area, Iran F. Khormalia,*, Sh. Ayoubia, F. Kananro Foomania, A. Fatemib, Kh. Hemmatic a Department of Soil Science, cDepartment of Horticulture, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran. b Tea...»

«1 116173 NQF Level: US No: Assessment Guide Primary Agriculture Ev a lu a t e Ba s ic Ex t er n al An im al An atom y an d M o r p ho lo g y Assessor:.......................................... Workplace / Company:................................. Commodity:................... Date:................. The availability of this product is due to the financial support of the National...»

«52 Chimera 26: Geographical Journal, University College Cork Suburbia: social and spatial trends that emerged in Celtic Tiger Ireland. Matthew Williams Department of Geography, University College Cork, Ireland. Long after the roar of the “Celtic Tiger” has become inaudible; its effects remain in the form of ghost estates, incomplete rural development and inadequate service provision across the Irish landscape. This paper will give a brief account of suburban housing development in Ireland...»

«Patient & Family Guide to Hospice Care Serving Colorado’s Front Range The Kingfisher, calm and at peace, nested upon water, quieter of restlessness. A Patient & Family Guide to Hospice Care To All, I just want you to know what an honor it is for Halcyon to be invited into your lives in such an intimate way. We are very much committed to living up to your expectations, wishes and desires. Halcyon is a clinician owned hospice. It’s vision is to provide patient centered care to people who...»

«EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PURPLE PIGMENT FROM Chromobacterium violaceum GROWN IN AGRICULTURAL WASTES AKRAM NESHATI A Dissertation Submitted To The Faculty Of Science In Partial Fulfillment Of The Requirement For The Award Of The Degree In Masters of Science (Chemistry) Faculty of Science Universiti Teknologi Malaysia APRIL 2010 EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PURPLE PIGMENT FROM Chromobacterium violaceum GROWN IN AGRICULTURAL WASTES AKRAM NESHATI iii To my Beloved Mother and Father...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.