«A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College in partial fulfillment of ...»
A GREAT KOREAN MUSIC PIONEER
A PERFORMANCE GUIDE OF HIS SELECTED VIOLIN WORKS
Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the
Louisiana State University and
Agricultural and Mechanical College
in partial fulfillment of the
requirement for the degree of
Doctor of Musical Arts
The School of Music
Sin Myung Min
B.A., Kookmin University, 2006 M.M., Temple University, 2009 December 2014
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSI would like to express my deep appreciation to the members of my committee: Professor Lin He, Jeffrey Perry and Espen Lilleslåtten. Especially, I would like to give profound gratitude and thanks to my major professor Dr. Lin He who always taught me with passion and encouragement and inspired me as a musician. Also, I would like to thank Dr. Perry who advised and edited this treatise and Professor Espen Lilleslåtten for his tremendous kindness and encouragement. Without their support and guidance, I could not finish this treatise and my Doctoral degree at Louisiana State University.
I wish especially to thank my friends who always support and encourage me: Hannah- Phyllis Urdea-Marcus, Ming Ying Chiu, Lotti Dorkota, Isaac Casal, Rafal Zyskowski and Alvaro Pereiro.
Finally, I would like to give my deepest gratitude to both of my parents (Byung-Chul Min, Sin-Ja Lim, Myung-Ho Yun and Dong-wal Kim), my sister’s family (Moon-Sun Min, Jae Chang, Eva Chang, and Allen Chang) and my lovely husband Young-Jin Yun, for their endless love and encouragement.
TABLE OF CONTENTSACKNOWLEDGMENTS
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF MUSIC EXAMPLES
Background and Significance
Biography of Min-Chong Park
2 INTRODUCTION OF KOREAN MUSIC
3 PERFORMANCE METHODOLOGY
Suite No. 1, Seven Korean Folksongs for Violin and Piano
Impromptus Pentatoniques for Violin Solo
APPENDIX LETTER OF PERMISSION
2-1. Twelve Yul: Hwang=C
2-2. Twelve Yul: Hwang=Eb
2-4 a. Kyemyon-Jo: five-note scale
2-4 b. Kyemyon-Jo: four-note scale
2-4 c. Kyemyon-Jo: three-note scale
2-5. performance method of Janggo
2-6 a. Jinyangjo
2-6 b. Joongmori
2-6 c. Joongjoongmori
2-6 d. Jajinmori
2-6 e. Danmori
2-6 f. Kootguri
2-7 a. Prefix Sigimsae
2-7 b. Suffix Sigimsae
2-8 a. Dae-Ajaeng
2-8 b. So-Ajaeng
3-1. Traditional Semachi rhythmic pattern in 3/4 meter
3-1. Suite No. 1 movement I: mm. 21-24
3-2 a. Suite No. 1 movement I: m. 12, m. 59 and m. 60
3-2 b. Suite No.1 movement I: m. 47 and mm. 54-55
3-3. Suite No. 1 movement II: mm. 23-26
3-4. Suite No. 1 movement III mm. 12-13, 16, 21, 24, 28
3-5. Suite No.1 movement III mm. 18-25
3-6. Suite No. 1 movement IV mm. 11-15
3-7 a. Suite No.1 movement IV mm. 15-22
3-7 b. Suite No.1 movement IV mm. 30-35
3-8. Suite No.1 movement IV mm. 32-32, mm. 36-37
3-9. Suite No.1 movement IV m. 3
3-10. Suite No.1 movement VII mm. 1-4
3-11. Impromptus Pentatoniques movement I mm. 34-36
3-12. Impromptus Pentatoniques movement I mm. 1-4 and mm. 17-19
3-13. Impromptus Pentatoniques movement I mm. 5-6 and m. 31
3-14 a. Impromptus Pentatoniques movement II m. 2 and m. 31
3-14 b. Impromptus Pentatoniques movement II m. 7 and mm. 21-22
3-14 c. Impromptus Pentatoniques movement II m. 23 and m. 38
3-15. Impromptus Pentatoniques movement II mm. 1-8
3-16. Impromptus Pentatoniques movement II mm. 63-67
3-17. Impromptus Pentatoniques movement III mm. 6-9
3-18 a. Impromptus Pentatoniques movement III m. 22 and m. 28
3-19 a. Suite No. 1 VII in mm. 9-16
3-19 b. Impromptus Pentatoniques movement III mm. 22-29
3-20. Impromptus Pentatoniques movement IV mm. 5-6 and mm. 7-8
3-21. Impromptus Pentatoniques movement IV m. 23
3-22. Impromptus Pentatoniques movement V mm. 23-26
Min-Chong Park (1918-2006) was one of the most prominent musicians in Korea and was influential internationally as a performer and teacher. As a composer, he left a large output including string works, vocal works, and short pieces for piano. The combination of the traditional and the modern is the most distinctive feature of Park’s compositions. Park applied traditional Korean performance techniques to western instrumental music, especially when writing for string instruments.
The purpose of this research is to provide knowledge of Korean traditional music in selected violin works by Korean composer Min-Chong Park and to bridge the gap between western Classical music and Korean traditional music. I will concentrate on the performance methodology for Park’s violin repertoire, which reflects his enduring interest in Korean philosophy and culture. Park’s music successfully blends Korean traditional folk music and his own personal musical style, which is why it is helpful to the performer to have both sufficient background information about Park’s own musical ideas and thorough knowledge of the characteristics of Korean traditional music. Also, this paper will introduce Korean traditional
Christian missionaries introduced Western music to Korea in the 1880s by disseminating the practice of using hymns for worship. 1 Though the Catholic Church had taken root in Korea at least 100 years earlier than other Christian denominations the common people encountered Western music along with Protestantism through the singing of hymns as part of the church service. Also, the church was the only place where a large group of people could assemble.
Therefore, the church and its worship music were at the center of the early stages of Western music in Korea. From this point onwards, Western music spread beyond the church service, and professional concerts became more common in Korea after the 1920s. 2 Recently, the range of interest in Korean traditional music has been expanding, and the practice of combining Korean traditional music and Western Classical music is also progressing.
Min-Chong Park was one of the pioneers of introducing Korean traditional music and techniques to the world and was also at the center of a Korean musical enlightenment. Today, his achievements deserve to be remembered as those of a pioneer in the history of Korean music.
1 Keith Howard. The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music ed. Robert C. Provine, YosihikoTokumaru,
and J. Lawrence Witzleben, vol.7 East Asia: China, Japan, and Korea. New York and London: Routledge, 2002:
2 Sa-Hun Chang. Hanguk Eumaksa [The History of Korean Music]. Seoul: Saekwang Eumaksa, 1986: 481.
Min-Chong Park (1918-2006), one of the most important and influential violinists, composers, professors, and conductors in Korea, is considered one of the pioneers of introducing Korean music in Europe and acting as a bridge between Western music and Korean traditional music. Park was born on August 27, 1918 in Gaesung, Korea. At that time, Korea was under the colonial administration of the Empire of Japan and the political situation was unstable. He had begun to learn violin when he was a middle school student and studied with Young-Se Lee (1909-1988), part of the first generation of Korean violinists and teachers who studied abroad. 3 Despite his family’s opposition, he moved to Japan in order to continue his violin studies
Academy, which later became the Tokyo University of the Arts, and studied violin, counterpoint, and piano. At the time, entering that school as an undergraduate was very difficult, and he was the first and last Korean student to do so. After finishing his undergraduate studies, he continued his graduate studies at the same school until 1942. During his time in Tokyo, he studied with many great teachers including Kawakami, Alexander Yakovlevich Mogilevsky, and Leonid Kreutzer. 4 He was a remarkable student and his fame spread not only through Korea and Japan, but also China. His colleague, Watanabe, a conductor, said to him, “I changed my major from violin to conducting since I cannot catch up with your playing.” 5 He was appointed the first Korean faculty member of the school after graduating. As a soloist, he participated in a nationwide performing tour with the Tokyo University of the Arts Orchestra and was featured in
friend Ki-sun Yun. 6 As a composer, he composed his first work Valse in 1938 and premiered it in 1940. In 1943, 7 he returned to Korea and begun teaching at the Holston Girls’ High School, Ewha Woman’s University, and Seoul National University. As a professor at the Seoul National University, he played a significant role in developing the university’s orchestra. During the Korean War (1950-1953), he led music activities as concertmaster of the Navy Troop Band of Korea, which was established by recruiting young musicians affected by the war. This band contributed to the development of a Korean orchestra and was an ensemble with numerous performing activities. 8 However, he was not satisfied with his position at the time, and he decided to study in France. In 1952, he was admitted into the Conservatoire National Supérieur de la Musique de Paris. He was the first Korean musician who studied in France after the Korean War and became an inspiration to young Korean musicians, since achieving the dream of studying abroad during the War was an unthinkable adventure at that time. Isang Yun, the wellknown Korean composer, also decided to study in France in 1954, inspired by Park. 9 Park completed the regular curriculum in two years and graduated in 1954. He became a member of the Orchestra de Paris, making him the first Korean to get an official position in a French orchestra in 1953. He maintained this position for eight years and he also became a member of the Pasdeloup Orchestra in Paris the following year. As a soloist he was very active, performing with the Orchestra de Paris, Radio France, and the Chouteau Orchestra in Salle Gaveau. In 1959,
Holger, and the recital was broadcast live across the country. It is significant that, for the recital, he performed his Suite no.1, Seven Korean Folksongs for Violin and Piano (1958), his own arrangement, in order to introduce Korean traditional folksongs in Europe. It is notable that he was active and successful both as composer and as performer, with the ability to combine the two skills. His performance was also broadcast on many stations such as ORTF in Paris and
concertmaster of the Westfalen Symphony Orchestra in 1964. He was also appointed as soloist to perform with the WSO and performed under Hubert Reichert in 1966. In 1967 and 1968, he had recitals in the cities of Ireland and Germany. Through his active performances that included works that reflected the austere emotion and ethnicity of Korea, he attempted to introduce Korean music to Europeans. During the time he was active in Europe, in the 1950s and 1960s, the European music field did not easily its open door to foreigners, especially to Asian people, who could not even consider promoting their music overseas. However, his pioneering achievement inspired the dream that young Korean musicians could advance internationally.
In 1970 Park returned to Korea and became the Dean of the Music Department of Kyung Hee University. He led the Seoul Philharmonic Orchestra as a conductor in 1971, which was his first performance after his return to Korea. In 1972 he returned to Seoul National University and retired in 1983. While he served as a professor, he formed a string quartet and served as the first violinist. The intense activities of his piano trio with his colleagues, cellist Bong-Cho Jeon (1919-2002) and pianist Jin-Woo Jeong (1928- ), contributed greatly to the development of
performed with Seoul Philharmonic Orchestra, Daegu Philharmonic Orchestra and Pusan Philharmonic Orchestra, and gave many recitals. Even though his active performance career as soloist ended with his retirement, he continued his activities as educator and became president of the Korean Music Society. He organized the Madri Chamber Orchestra in 1983 and served as its conductor and director. 12 Late in his career Park received many awards, including the Korea Art Academy Award (1980), Korea Culture and Arts Award (1981), Musician of the Year Award (1984), Monthly Publication Music Award (1987), Bogwan Culture Medal (1987), Public Music Award (1994), and 3.1 Culture Award (1998). He also was interested in the development of new repertoire, and he composed and arranged many violin works. Besides arranging violin works, he composed many other works including three vocal suites, Suite no.2 for Violin (or cello) and Piano, short pieces for piano, and a Duo for Violin and Cello (or viola). He applied Korean traditional rhythms and melodies in his works, which is the most distinctive feature of his compositions. He passed away in 2006. He was an outstanding performer and one of the pioneers in Korean music history. As a first generation Korean violinist and educator, he educated many excellent musicians and influenced them in their solo performances and ensembles. Also he contributed much to introducing Korean music into Europe. Even though he did not produce abundantly and diversely for varied instrumentation, his works are marked by his unique compositional style that combines Korean traditional techniques into Western music, and are valuable in the history of Korean music.
Music in Korea has existed since ancient times, however no one knows its exact origin.