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and the rhythmic accompaniment in the piano. This movement begins with a two-measure introduction with a strong Semachi rhythmic pattern in the piano part. Also, Park used various techniques to vary and ornament the simple melodic line, such as using an octave higher range in the violin, strongly articulated Semachi rhythmic patterns, and a variety of embellishments and extra trills. Especially, I want to recommend imitating the sound of the Haegeum for the section that contains the melodic line an octave higher. As mentioned in Chapter 2, Haegeum is a highpitched Korean instrument, and its dynamic range is limited (it is usually soft). Since the movement’s pitch range is very high and dynamic, and gradually gets softer from mm. 28 to the end, performers should consider playing with a soft and light sound, with varied tone colors and a decrescendo. As shown in figure 3-1, Park uses the Semachi rhythmic pattern in 3/4 as in movement III rather than in 9/8 in this movement. For twenty two measures, Park applies a strong Semachi rhythmic pattern and its variations. Later, he provides freer rhythms, often imitating and ornamenting the rhythms of the folksong. As shown in figure 3-2, the rhythmic pattern is varied in various ways; example 3-6 shows of the Sigimsae that Park applies to the tune.
Figure. 3-1 Traditional Semachi rhythmic pattern in 3/4 meter
The Milyang-Arirang is one of the most famous Arirang songs. This folk song belongs to Dongbuminyo, which includes the provinces of Kangwondo, Hamkyungdo, and part of Kyungsando. Milyang, a small town, is located in the Kyungsangdo province in southeastern Korea. Kyungsandominyo like the Milyang-Arirang, use many fast rhythmic patterns such as Semachi, Jajinmori, and Danmori; thus it is very exciting and pleasant. Since each part of the region has its own repertoire of Arirang songs melodic and features are unique to each province.
The Milyang-Arirang is derived from the legend of Arang, who was the only daughter of Milyang’s mayor. She died to defend her chastity. 52 While the story is a tragedy, the music consists of light, joyful, dance-like characteristics. This folksong is primarily based on the Semachi rhythmic pattern, plus the repetition and alternation of two contrasting rhythmic patterns such as a dotted eighth-note followed by a sixteenth-note and its retrograde rhythmic pattern in the melodic line. This song is joyful, cheerful, and carefree because of those rhythmic patterns. Also, the folksong is composed of an anhemitonic pentatonic scale on E, G, A, C, and D.
The Milyang-Arirang by Park is divided into three sections, marked by a key change.
The first section consists of a nine-bar introduction, which provides the strongly articulated Semachi rhythmic pattern in the piano in order to set the mood for the entrance of the violin with the main melody in the remaining ten bars. In the second section from mm. 20, the articulation of the rhythmic pattern is diminished, but returns strongly in the third section (mm. 38 ff). In the entire movement, the piano plays the role of Janggo, thus the accents should be placed on the
tempo of this movement is much faster, so the pianist should create a joyful and exciting mood.
Park imitates the timbre of traditional Korean string instruments, especially the Gayageum with strong dynamics and Haegeum with soft dynamics. In this movement, pizzicato appears as in other movements. The pizzicato of the Gayageum is similar to the that of the violin with regard to sound and playing method in that the string is plucked by the right hand and the left hand adjusts pitch and vibrating and expresses glissandi for both instruments. Only the basic concept is similar however, since these instruments are very different. While in general violin pizzicatos are executed either by plucking strings with the index finger of the right hand, or (for the “Bartók pizzicato”) with the nail, the Gayageum has more than ten different types of performance techniques for the right hand. 53 The role of each finger is different as each finger makes a unique sound. For example, the sound made by one of the techniques is similar to the double-tonguing sound of wind instruments. Moreover, several other techniques including nail plucking, harmonics and con sordino are similar to those of Western string instruments. Because the Gayageum has a longer and larger body and thicker strings than the violin, the pizzicatos of Gayageum are closer to the double bass than the violin. Therefore, I would recommend having a wider and heavier vibrato to make a similar sound.
VI. Chant de Mong-Gum-po (Mong-Gum-potaryoung) The song, also called Jansangot by the native singers, belongs to the Seodomingyo style which derives from areas of Hwanghaedo and Pyongando (northewest Korea now located in 53 Ta-Ryong Son. Hankookeumaknonjeon[Korean music controversy].Kyungsan: Youngnam University Co, 2002: 217.
development of vibration techniques and various exquisite ornaments. 54 This song is based on the Joongmori rhythmic pattern and comprises pentatonic scales including pitches A, C, D, E, and G.
Park arranged this movement as a continuous variation form by using fragments of the original folksong. In this movement, the full folksong is not provided in any section because of the fragmentary method of expression. As shown in example 3-7a and b, most parts of the original folksong appear from mm.15 to 22 and the rest appears in variation from mm. 30 to 35.
Park ornaments this movement in various ways such as artificial harmonics, single or double grace notes, double stops, and trills.
This movement is especially unique since he did not apply the traditional Joongmori rhythmic pattern in the accompaniment, while he normally uses traditional rhythmic patterns for accompanying each song. Example 3-8 shows Park’s application of variation techniques Joongmori rhythmic pattern and traditional Joongmori rhythmic pattern.
As shown in example 3-9, although he only marked glissandi in m. 3, I recommend playing glissandi (a frequent expressive technique of Korean traditional string instruments, specifically as the Sigimsae) to imitate the sound of Gayageum.
38 Example 3-8 Suite No.1 movement IV mm. 32-32, mm. 36-37, and mm. 8-9, Park’s application of variation techniques Joongmori rhythmic pattern vs. traditional Joongmori rhythmic pattern (Figure. 2-6b) Example 3-9 Suite No.1 movement IV mm.3, Nong-hyun technique effect of glissandi
The Arirang is the most representative and symbolic of all Korean folksongs. The lyrics of this ethnic song were handed down by tradition from ancient times. In 1896, it was written down by American missionary H.B. Hilbert, and the English lyrics appeared under the title “Korea Vocal Music” in the magazine Korea Repository. 55 Arirang is widely considered the only song from the Kyunggido region of central Korea (where Seoul, the capital city, is located) to have spread throughout the country. Thus there are countless Arirangs in Korea using melodic or lyric variations. There are Arirangs in other provinces: Kangwon Arirang, Milyang Arirang, Long Arirang, and New Arirang, for example. The lyrics express the sweetness and bitterness of love, despairing over the country’s ruination, and anti-Japanese sentiment. This song has a sorrowful and melancholy tune in a slow 3/4 meter and is definitely the most well known Korean historical song. 56 A simple and lyrical melody is the most representative characteristic of Arirang, and this feature is strengthened through small intervals and simple rhythms in the melody. This song is comprised of the anhemitonic pentatonic scale G, A, C, D and E and the Korean traditional Semachi rhythmic pattern. Even though it consists of a simple and plain melody, the sound is made even more energetic with the Semachi rhythmic pattern.
Park’s Arirang contains a theme and two variations. In the introduction, the Semachi rhythmic pattern is introduced by the piano and it builds the mood for the entrance of the folksong melody. As shown in example 3-10, Park uses artificial harmonics in the violin part, as it probably imitates the sound of birds singing in the distance. In mm.9-24, Park presents the
variation starts at a lower dynamics, and then the piano and violin exchange themes, and the violin accompanies the piano theme through more rhythmic changes based on Semachi rhythm pattern. Park includes a short cadenza in order to build up to the climax of this movement and then returns to the harmonics part of the introduction to prepare Variation II. In the last section, Park uses a faster tempo, louder dynamics, and strongly articulated rhythmic patterns in the piano.
Example 3-10 Suite No.1 movement VII mm.1-4, artificial harmonics imitating the sound of bird While the original folksong is simple and sorrowful, Park makes more energetic and dance-like mood in this movement through continuous use of the Semachi rhythmic pattern with strong accents and alterations. When the theme appears, I would recommend playing with much wider vibratos and more legato than other movements. Also, it accents on dotted eighth-notes should be emphasized when the violin accompanies the piano theme.
Min-Chong Park composed Impromptus Pentatoniques for Violin Solo in 1979. It was premiered in 1983 in Seoul, Korea. This piece comprises five continuous movements, performed
and Korean traditional music including rhythm, melody, and embellishments as well as some brief improvisational passages. I will explore his compositional style based on Korean traditional elements and Western music techniques and provide performance recommendations for performers.
I. Andante Energico The first movement of this piece is based on the Kyemyon-Jo scale (B, D, E, G, and A), and is divided into three sections by rhythmic and melodic changes. As shown in example 3-12, Park applies a call-and-response texture, which is usually used in Korean folk songs, such as the farmer’s song, children’s song, or strophic songs, to the opening of this movement. 57 This pattern of call-and-response repeats (mm. 17-mm. 32) two octaves higher and occurs several more times.
In the second section, Park emphasizes a more pulsing rhythmic pattern with double, triple or quadruple stops, with more of a melodic line compared to the other two sections. As shown in figure 3-3 and Example 3-11, he employs the Mihwanyip and Sehwanyip rhythmic pattern of the Yongsan Hoesang, which is the most representative chamber work of Chung-ak.
Figure. 3-3 Mihwanyip and Sehwanyip rhythmic patterns
Park ornaments this movement with a variety of embellishments, or Sigimsae since the main melody exhibits the simplicity characteristic of Korean traditional music, which is based on elaboration of a melodic line rather than on harmony or counterpoint. He uses the Nong-hyun technique in this movement to imitate the sound of the Gayageum. As shown in example 3-13, he applied two types of Nong-hyun; Chooseong and Toeseong. As mentioned above, the vibrato of Gayageum is much heavier and slower than vibrato of western instruments, and I would recommend performing Nong-hyun techniques with slow glissandi and vibrato.
Example. 3-12 Impromptus Pentatoniques movement I mm. 1-4 and mm. 17-19, showing Sigimsae and Call-and-Response
II. Andante Grazioso The second movement is highly ornamented through a diversity of Sigimsae. While the first movement is serious, this movement has a convivial mood and an ornate surface, despite its slow tempo. As shown in example 3-14a, b and c, Park uses two different kinds of Nong-hyun, Chooseong and Toeseong as in the first movement.
Example. 3-14a Impromptus Pentatoniques movement II mm.2 and mm.31 showing Toeseong Example. 3-14b Impromptus Pentatoniques movement II mm.7 and mm.21-22 showing Chooseong
Park combines Western and Korean traditional techniques in this piece. In this movement, he uses a thematic progression of intervals. As shown in example 3-15, the beginning of this movement progresses from a combination of major sixths, perfect fourths and major tenths and major thirds, diminished fifths and minor sevenths. As shown in example 3-16, the movement fades into the next movement with a peaceful atmosphere through the use of a higher register, a slight change such a fifth higher range from the beginning, and harmonics technique.
III. Moderato Rustica The third movement comprises seven times of four -measure phrases in 3/4 and is the shortest movement in this piece. Example 3-17 shows the Joongmori rhythmic pattern appears after five measures of introduction, which is a rhythmic pattern in a moderate tempo and pizzicato imitating the plucking sounds of the Gayageum and Gomungo. Also, he employs a fragment of the melody of Arirang, a Korean folksong borrowed from his Suite No.1 and example. 3-19a and b show of this. As shown in example 3-18a and b, Park uses a combination of techniques of Korean and Western origin in this section; Nong-hyun techniques, Chooseong and Toeseong and technique equivalent to pedal tone in Western technique, G and D. In this movement, Park does not use many Sigimsae. This movement ends with a reintroduction of the beginning section and Chooseong with double stops.
Example. 3-17 Traditional Joongmori (Figure. 2-6b) vs. Impromptus Pentatoniques movement III mm. 6-9
Example. 3-18a Impromptus Pentatoniques movement III mm.22 and mm. 28, showing Toeseong Example. 3-18b Impromptus Pentatoniques movement III mm.35-36, showing Choosung
The introduction of the fourth movement begins with perfect fifth double stops, attacked forte and released poco ritardando and diminuendo. As shown in example 3-20, this introduction links to the first section using the call-and-response technique. Also this section is very melodic, imitating the sound of the Gayageum. It also uses Nong-hyun techniques such as Chooseong and Toeseong.