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«A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College in partial fulfillment of ...»

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Example. 3-20 Impromptus Pentatoniques movement IV mm. 5-6 and mm. 7-8, Call-andResponse The strong double stops of the introduction repeat once more as a transition to the second section. While the first section is very melodic, the second section changes to 9/8 and is based on the Semachi pattern and example 3-21 shows Park’s version of the Semachi pattern. In this section, Park applied various combinations of embellishments of Korean and Western techniques including Sigimsae, harmonics, descending half-step double stops with spiccato and Yosung (one of the Nong-hyun techniques).

Example. 3-21 Traditional Semachi vs. Impromptus Pentatoniques movement IV mm. 23-24, Park’s version

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V. Allegro Scherzando The last movement of this piece is the most brilliant with a fast tempo. Park applied many ornaments including Sigimsae and Nong-hyun, double stops, rhythmic changes, trills and harmonics. Park reflects the Sanjo style in for this movement. Sanjo is a style of Korean solo instrumental music originating from Sinawi 58 and Pansori. 59 The Sanjo consists of various modes such as Pyong-jo, Kyemyo-Jo, and Woo-jo. The most remarkable feature is the tempo change, beginning with a quite slow tempo, gradually speeding up, and then finishing with a quite fast tempo. In Sanjo performers demonstrate their technique and musicality. 60 This movement is also freer in tempo, full of fermatas, breathing marks, ritardando, and caesuras. As shown in example 3-22, the section after the repeat sign brings variety to rhythmic changes based on the Korean traditional rhythmic pattern, Danmori. As I mentioned, Korean traditional rhythmic patterns usually have an accent on the first beat, thus the first beat of every two measures should be emphasized. From m.34, Park shows another rhythmic change, which is syncopation. The syncopation is one of the fundamental elements of Korean traditional music especially folksongs.

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In this treatise I have sought to introduce the great Korean violinist and composer MinChong Park and explored his two compositions, Suite No. 1 and Impromptus Pentatoniques. I have provided the viewpoint of the performer, offering elements of Korean traditional music to help with the understanding of his fundamental musical ideas, and a guide to imitating the timbre from Korean traditional instruments on the violin.

Although Korean traditional music has a long history, it is not as well known in the Western countries, compared to other non-Western classic music, such as Chinese, Japanese or Indian music. In this respect, Park’s violin works are significant, since he uses rhythmic patterns, melodies, and unique timbres that can only be found in Korean traditional music. Also, he blends Korean and Western techniques, ways, and sounds of instruments. One hindrance to the dissemination of Korean traditional music outside Korea is that its elements have not been organized systematically to facilitate a better understanding. In the 1990s, many people began to perform Korean traditional music that had been forgotten, and ordinary people in Korea took an active interest in Korean traditional music. Nowadays, a large number of crossover genres that combine elements of Korean and Western are composed and performed. Twentieth-century music uses various experimental elements. In terms of diversity of music, introducing Korean music into the world that was forgotten due to indifference is a very meaningful and valuable endeavor.

Min-Chong Park was one of the pioneers who introduced Korean traditional music into Europe through performance and compositions. He is one of the most prominent Korean musicians and was influential internationally as a performer and teacher. Also, he played a

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Baek, Tae-Woong. Gukgakyongahaesuljip[Gugak term explanation book]. Seoul: Bogosa, 2007.

Ban, Hae-Seung. Juntong eumak iron [Korean traditional music theory]. Seoul: Doseo Chulpan Donam,1999.

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---. Hanguk Eumaksa [The History of Korean Music]. Seoul: SaekwangEumaksa,1986.

Choi, Kyu-Jin. Geundaereulbonunchang 20 [the twenty windows that watch modern history].

Seoul: SeohaeMoongip, 2007.

Ham, Kyu-Jin. 108 gajikyuljung [the 108 choice]. Seoul: Paper Road, 2008.

Han, Hyun-Jin. “An Analytical Overview of Min-Chong Park’s Impromptus Pentatoniques for Violin Solo.” DMA diss., Florida State University, 2012.

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Hanguk Yesu lChonghap Hakkyo Hanguk Yesul Yeonguso, Korean Composers Dictionary.

Seoul: Sigongsa, 1999.

Howard, Keith. The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music ed. Robert C. Provine, YosihikoTokumaru, and J. Lawrence Witzleben, vol.7 East Asia: China, Japan, and Korea.

New York and London: Routledge, 2002.

Joo, Young-Ha. Hankookhakeijulgeoum [Joy of Korean studies]. Seoul: Humanist,2011.

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InmulguaSasangsa, 2007.

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Ko, Jee-yeoun. “Isang Yun and His Selected Cello Works.” DMA Diss., Louisiana State University, 2008.

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Lee, Sung-Jae. Woori gugakiyagi [our gugak story]. Seoul: SeohaeMoongip, 2006.

Park, Beomhoon. A Practical Guide Korean Musical Instruments for composition and arrangement.Seoul: Sekwang Music Press, 1994.

Park, Qua-Ho. Records of Scented Ninety-Nine People, vol.2. Seoul: Kosunjae, 2007.

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---. EumakilanMooutinga[What is Music].Kyungsan: Youngnam University Publishing Co, 2006.

---. Hankookeumaknonjeon[Korean music controversy].Kyungsan: Youngnam University Co, 2002.

Yoo, Youngdae. “Isang Yun: His Compositional Technique as Manifested in the Two Clarinets Quintets” PhD diss., Louisiana State University, 2000.

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Violinist Sin Myung Min was born in Daegu, Korea in 1982. Ms. Min holds a Bachelor of Music degree from Kookmin University in Korea in 2006. She was scholarship recipient at the Kookmin University from 2002- 2005. She earned the Master of music degree from Temple University where she studied with Helen Kwalwasser. Ms. Min continued her studies with Lin He at Louisiana State University, pursuing her doctoral degree. She will receive the degree of Doctor of Musical Arts at the December 2014.

57

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