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«A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences ...»

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USDA-Economic Research Service, 2007); however, DCD may reduce N loss and still prove itself as a beneficial additive. Formulations containing BS may become more competitive if municipal tipping fees are directed away from landfill fees and applied toward granular fertilizer production. Overall, other constituents such as C, P and K (Tables 4.2a and 4.2b) would add additional nutrients and physical benefits to urban and agronomic soil; which was not accounted for in this economic comparison and may further increase granular fertilizer value.

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Granulation of value-added N-fortified PL and BS is a viable alternative for fertilizer production. Various binding agents and ingredients can be used to give differential strength and nutrient water solubility. Heat may increase overall granule DRP

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similar to or more than urea (depending on formulation), but additional nutrients (P, K, etc.) would provide additional monetary value that was not accounted for in this study.

Government incentives, such as tipping fees for BS and transportation cost share for PL, may make this product cheaper than commercial fertilizers. Production of N fortified granular PL and BS fertilizers would provide urban and agronomic consumers with a valuable fertilizer source while transporting PL and BS out of nutrient surplus watersheds to protect environmental integrity.

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The authors would like to thank the US Poultry & Egg Association for financial support and Mars Mineral Inc. and Georgia-Pacific Resins, Inc. for their expertise.

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Reference to trade or company name is for specific information and does not imply approval or recommendation of the company by the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville; the University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture; or U.S. Poultry & Egg Association to the exclusion of others that may be suitable.

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Nitrogen and P are potential water quality pollutant sources in regions with high concentrations of poultry production units. Processing fresh poultry litter (PL) and municipal biosolids (BS) into fertilizers with additives may reduce the risk of nutrient recycling by replacing turfgrass inorganic fertilizers. We manufactured 12 formulations of PL fertilizers and tested them in a 2 x 2 x 3 factorial arrangement composed of granules with and without BS, with and without a nitrification inhibitor [dicyandiamide (DCD)] and bound with three different binding agents (lignosulfonate, urea formaldehyde and water). Nitrogen fortified PL and BS fertilizers were also compared to fresh PL, BS, Milorganite, urea + triple superphosphate (TSP), and a no-fertilizer control under simulated rainfall of 6.7 cmh"1 in a randomized complete block design (RCB).

Treatments were applied to a turfgrass golf fairway on a total P (TP) basis of 20 kg P ha" V A composite runoff sample was collected for 30 min and analyzed for NH4-N, NO3-N, total N (TN), dissolved reactive P (DRP), TP, dissolved solids, total solids, electrical conductivity (EC) and pH. Additions of DCD to formulations increased TN loss by 1.3% over no DCD formulations. Additions of BS to formulations decreased total nutrient and solid loss compared to granules composed primarily of PL; although, BS had up to 47% of TP loads present as algae available inorganic P fractions compared to 31% for formulations made solely of PL. Binding agent results had random effects but generally indicated that water-bound granules had less or similar risk for nutrient loss than more expensive lignosulfonate and urea-formaldehyde bound granules. Granular organic fertilizers had similar TN loss as urea (3.9%) and were less than fresh PL in most cases (7.3%). Triple superphosphate applications resulted in 24.7% of TP being lost in runoff

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BS (2.4%). Overall, N fortified granular PL and BS fertilizers have comparable or less nutrient and solid losses when applied to golf fairways than inorganic fertilizers or fresh PL. Granulation is a viable method for recycling PL and BS nutrients on turfgrass without increasing risks to nearby waterways.

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BS, biosolids; CAFO, confined animal feeding operation; DCD, dicyandiamide; DRP, dissolved reactive P; EC, electrical conductivity; epm, evolutions per minute; ICAP, inductively coupled argon plasma spectrometer; LS, lignosulfonate; LSD, least significant difference; NTU, Nephelometric turbidity units; NWA, Northwest Arkansas;

PL, poultry litter; PLU, PL + urea; PLUB, PLU + BS; PLUBDCD, PLUB + DCD;

PLUDCD, PLU + DCD; RCB, randomized complete block; TN, total N; TP, total P;

TSP, triple superphosphate; UF, urea formaldehyde; W, water.

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Agricultural non-point source pollution of macronutrients N and P was identified by the USEPA (2000) as the major source of surface water contamination in the United States. Confined animal feeding operations (CAFO) were cited as significant sources for P and N loading into waterways that exacerbated eutrophication (Sharpley et al., 1994).

Confined animal feeding operations historically apply manure to soil close to the point of production, which increases soil concentrations above agronomic needs after many years if not removed by plants (Slaton et al., 2004). Based on nutrient value economics, manures must be applied within a 40 km radius from the source in the unprocessed form for hauling to remain an option (Bosch and Napit, 1992).

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