WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 8 | 9 || 11 | 12 |   ...   | 17 |

«A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences ...»

-- [ Page 10 ] --

USDA-Economic Research Service, 2007); however, DCD may reduce N loss and still prove itself as a beneficial additive. Formulations containing BS may become more competitive if municipal tipping fees are directed away from landfill fees and applied toward granular fertilizer production. Overall, other constituents such as C, P and K (Tables 4.2a and 4.2b) would add additional nutrients and physical benefits to urban and agronomic soil; which was not accounted for in this economic comparison and may further increase granular fertilizer value.

–  –  –

Granulation of value-added N-fortified PL and BS is a viable alternative for fertilizer production. Various binding agents and ingredients can be used to give differential strength and nutrient water solubility. Heat may increase overall granule DRP

–  –  –

similar to or more than urea (depending on formulation), but additional nutrients (P, K, etc.) would provide additional monetary value that was not accounted for in this study.

Government incentives, such as tipping fees for BS and transportation cost share for PL, may make this product cheaper than commercial fertilizers. Production of N fortified granular PL and BS fertilizers would provide urban and agronomic consumers with a valuable fertilizer source while transporting PL and BS out of nutrient surplus watersheds to protect environmental integrity.

–  –  –

The authors would like to thank the US Poultry & Egg Association for financial support and Mars Mineral Inc. and Georgia-Pacific Resins, Inc. for their expertise.

–  –  –

Reference to trade or company name is for specific information and does not imply approval or recommendation of the company by the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville; the University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture; or U.S. Poultry & Egg Association to the exclusion of others that may be suitable.

–  –  –

AgriRecycle. 2007. A manure management company for the 21 st century [Online].

Available at http://www.agrirecycle.com/ (accessed 13 July 2007; verified 16 July 2007). AgriRecycle. Bolivar, Missouri.

American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers. 2006. Cubes, pellets, and crumbles — Definitions and methods for determining density, durability, and moisture content. ASABE Standard S269.4. ASABE, St. Joseph, MI.

Bitzer, C.C., and J.T. Sims. 1988. Estimating the availability of nitrogen in poultry manure through laboratory and field studies. J. Environ. Qual. 17(l):47-54.

–  –  –

Cabrera, M.L., S.C. Chiang, W.C. Merka, S.A. Thompson, and O.C. Pancorbo. 1993.

Nitrogen transformations in surface-applied poultry litter: Effect of litter physical characteristics. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 57:1519-1525.

Colombo, B. and G. Giazzi. 1982. Total automatic nitrogen determination. Am. Lab.

14:38-45.

DeLaune, P.B., B.E. Haggard, T.C. Daniel, I. Chaubey, and M.J. Cochran. 2006. The Eurcha/Spavinaw phosphorus index: A court mandated index for litter management. J. Soil Water Conserv. 61(2):96-105.

Deng, S.G., and Y.S. Lin. 1997. Granulation of sol-gel-derived nanastructured alumina.

Am. Inst. Chem. Engineers. 43(2):505-514.

DeVol, R., L. Wallace, and A. Bedroussian. 2006. Best performing cities 2005: Where America's jobs are created and sustained [Online]. Available at http://www.milkeninstitute.org/research/research.taf?cat=indexes&function=detai l&ID=27&type=BPC (accesses 12 July 2007; verified 12 July 2007). Milken Inst.

Santa Monica, California.

Edwards, D.R., and T.C. Daniel. 1993. Effects of poultry litter application rate and rainfall intensity on quality of runoff from fescue grass plots. J. Environ. Qual.

22:361-365.

Ferriss, R.S. 1984. Effects of microwave oven treatment on microorganisms in soil.

Phyto-pathology 74:121-126.

Haggard, B.E., P.A. Vadas, D.R. Smith, P.B. Delaune, and P.A. Moore, Jr. 2005. Effect of poultry litter to water ratios on extractable phosphorus content and its relation to runoff phosphorus concentrations. Biosystems Engineering 92(3):409-417.

Hinkle, R.G., and R. Rosenthal. 1991. "Of beer, leather, and beets." A study of alternative binders in agitation pelletizing. Proc. 22nd Inst. Briquetting and Agglomeration, Biennial Conf. 22:131-142. (Available online at http://www.marsmineral.com/library/AlternativeBinders.doc) (accessed 2 July 2004; verified 16 July 2007). Mars Mineral Inc. Mars, Pennsylvania.

Hoskins, B., A. Wolf, and N. Wolf. 2003. Dry matter analysis, p. 14-17. In J. Peter (ed.) Recommended Methods of Manure Analysis. Rep. A3769. Univ. Wisconsin Cooperative Extension, Madison.

78 International Plant Nutrition Institute. 2007. Nutrient uptake and harvest removal for Southern crops [Online]. Available at http://www.ipni.net/ppiweb/usams.nsf/$webindex/6603E5603BCA967586256966 004DAEEC?opendocument&navigator=Nutrient+Uptake+and+Removal (accessed 14 September 2007; verified 14 September 2007). Internaional Plant Nutrition Inst. Norcross, Georgia.

Knud-Hansen, C.F., and A. K. Pautong. 1993. On the role of urea in pond fertilization.

Aquaculture 114:273-283.

McMullen, J., O.O. Fasina, C.W. Wood, and Y. Feng. 2005. Storage and handling characteristics of pellets from poultry litter. Applied Engineering Agric.





21(4):645-651.

Miller, D.M., P.A. Moore, Jr., D.R. Edwards, D.A. Stephen, and E.E. Gbur. 1993.

Determination of water soluble phosphorus in soil. Arkansas Farm Res. 42(2): 10Miller, D.M., B.R. Wells, and R.J. Norman. 1991. Fertilization of rice on graded soils using organic materials, p. 55-58. In W.E. Sabbe (ed.) Arkansas soil fertility studies, 1990. Univ. Arkansas Agric. Exp. Stn., Fayetteville.

Miller, D.M., B.R. Wells, R.J. Norman, and T. Alvisyahrin. 1990. Fertilization of rice on leveled soils, p. 45-48. In W.E. Sabbe (ed.) Arkansas soil fertility studies, 1989.

Univ. Arkansas Agric. Exp. Stn., Fayetteville.

Milorganite. 2007. Milorganite lawn and garden products [Online]. Available at http://www.milorganite.com/home/ (accessed 13 July 2007; verified 16 July 2007). Milorganite. Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Murphey, J., and J.P. Riley. 1962. A modified single solution method for the determination of phosphate in natural waters. Anal. Chem. Acta 27:31-36.

National Agricultural Statistics Service. 2004. 2002 Census of agriculture for Arkansas [Online]. Available at http://www.nass.usda.gov/census/census02/volumel/ar/index2.htm (accessed 9 July 2007; verified 16 July 2007). USDA-Natl. Agric. Statistics Serv.

Washington, D.C.

National Agricultural Statistics Service. 2006. Arkansas agricultural overview [Online].

Available at http://www.nass.usda.gov/Statistics_by_State/Ag_Overview/AgOverview_AR.pd f (accessed 9 July 2007; verified 16 July 2007). USDA-Natl. Agric. Statistics Serv. Washington, D.C.

–  –  –

Northwest Arkansas Conservation Authority. 2003. Regional biosolids management projects: Preliminary engineering report. NACA, Fayetteville, AR.

Peters, J., A. Wolf, and N. Wolf. 2003. Ammonium nitrogen, p. 25-29. In J. Peter (ed.) Recommended Methods of Manure Analysis. Rep. A3769. Univ. Wisconsin Cooperative Extension, Madison.

Pote, D.H., T.C. Daniel, A.N. Sharpley, P.A. Moore, Jr., D.R. Edwards, and D.J. Nichols.

1996. Relating extractable soil phosphorus to phosphorus losses in runoff. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 60:855-859.

Reynolds, E.B. 1926. Activated sludge as a fertilizer for cotton and corn. J. Am. Soc.

Agron. 22(6):537-539.

SAS Institute. 2003. The SAS system for windows. Release 9.1. SAS Inst., Cary, NC.

Self-Davis, M.L., and P.A. Moore, Jr. 2000. Determining water-soluble phosphorus in animal manure. In G.M. Pierzynski (ed.) Methods of phosphorus analysis for soils, sediments, residuals, and waters. Southern Cooperative Ser. Bull. #396.

North Caroline State Univ., Raleigh.

Sharpley, A.N., S.J. Smith, and R.G. Menzel. 1986. Phosphorus criteria and water quality management for agricultural watersheds. Lake Reservoir Manage. 2:177-182.

Shortall, J.G., and W.C. Liebhardt. 1975. Yield and growth of corn as affected by poultry manure. J. Environ. Qual. 4:186-191.

Sistani, K.R., D.E. Rowe, J. Johnson, and H. Tewolde. 1988. Supplemental nitrogen effect on broiler-litter-fertilized cotton. Agron. J. 96:806-811.

Skipper, H.D., and D.T. Westermann. 1973. Comparative effects of propylene ozide, sodium azide, and autoclaving on selected soil properties. Soil Biol. Biochem.

5:409-414.

Slaton, N.A., K.R. Brye, M.B. Daniels, T.C. Daniel, R.J. Norman, and D. M. Miller.

2004. Nutrient input and removal trends for agricultural soils in nine geographic regions in Arkansas. J. Environ. Qual. 33:1606-1615.

Steel, R.G., and J.H. Torrie. 1980. Principles and procedures of statistics. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, NY.

–  –  –

Toor, G.S., B.E. Haggard, M.S. Reiter, T.C. Daniel, and A.M. Donoghue. 2007.

Phosphorus solubility in poultry litters and granulates: Influence of litter treatments and extraction ratios. Trans. ASABE. 50(2):533-542.

USA Census Bureau. 2007. Arkansas county 2006 population estimates [Online].

Available athttp://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/GCTTable?_bm=y&geo_id=04000US05&-_box_head_nbr=GCT-Tl&-ds_name=PEP_2006_EST&- _lang=en&-format=ST-2&-_sse=on (accessed 13 July 2007; verified 16 July 2007). USA Census Bureau. Washington, D.C.

USDA-Economic Research Service. 2007. U.S. fertilizer use and price [Online].

Available at http://www.ers.usda.gov/Data/FertilizerUse/ (accessed 15 Dec. 2007;

verified 5 Feb. 2008). USDA-Economic Research Service. Washington, D.C.

Van Kessel, J.S., J.B. Reeves III, and J.J. Meisinger. 1999. Storage and handling can alter the mineralization characteristics of manure. J. Environ. Qual. 28:1984-1990.

Veverka, J. and R. Hinkle. 2001. A comparison of liquid binders for limestone pelletizing [Online]. Proc. 27th Inst. Briquetting and Agglomeration, Biennial Conf, Providence, RI. Available at http://www.pelletizedlimestone.com/library/liquidbinders.pdf (Accessed 13 July 2007; Verified 16 July 2007). Mars Mineral, Inc.

Mars, Pennsylvania.

Wolfe, K., C. Ferland, and J. McKissick. 2002. The feasibility of operating a poultry litter pelletizing facility in south Georgia. FR-02-08. Center Agribusiness & Economic Dev., Univ. of GA; Athens.

–  –  –

RUNOFF WATER QUALITY FROM TURFGRASS APPLICATIONS OF

NITROGEN FORTIFIED POULTRY LITTER BIOSOLIDS FERTILIZERS

USING SIMULATED RAINFALL

–  –  –

Nitrogen and P are potential water quality pollutant sources in regions with high concentrations of poultry production units. Processing fresh poultry litter (PL) and municipal biosolids (BS) into fertilizers with additives may reduce the risk of nutrient recycling by replacing turfgrass inorganic fertilizers. We manufactured 12 formulations of PL fertilizers and tested them in a 2 x 2 x 3 factorial arrangement composed of granules with and without BS, with and without a nitrification inhibitor [dicyandiamide (DCD)] and bound with three different binding agents (lignosulfonate, urea formaldehyde and water). Nitrogen fortified PL and BS fertilizers were also compared to fresh PL, BS, Milorganite, urea + triple superphosphate (TSP), and a no-fertilizer control under simulated rainfall of 6.7 cmh"1 in a randomized complete block design (RCB).

Treatments were applied to a turfgrass golf fairway on a total P (TP) basis of 20 kg P ha" V A composite runoff sample was collected for 30 min and analyzed for NH4-N, NO3-N, total N (TN), dissolved reactive P (DRP), TP, dissolved solids, total solids, electrical conductivity (EC) and pH. Additions of DCD to formulations increased TN loss by 1.3% over no DCD formulations. Additions of BS to formulations decreased total nutrient and solid loss compared to granules composed primarily of PL; although, BS had up to 47% of TP loads present as algae available inorganic P fractions compared to 31% for formulations made solely of PL. Binding agent results had random effects but generally indicated that water-bound granules had less or similar risk for nutrient loss than more expensive lignosulfonate and urea-formaldehyde bound granules. Granular organic fertilizers had similar TN loss as urea (3.9%) and were less than fresh PL in most cases (7.3%). Triple superphosphate applications resulted in 24.7% of TP being lost in runoff

–  –  –

BS (2.4%). Overall, N fortified granular PL and BS fertilizers have comparable or less nutrient and solid losses when applied to golf fairways than inorganic fertilizers or fresh PL. Granulation is a viable method for recycling PL and BS nutrients on turfgrass without increasing risks to nearby waterways.

–  –  –

BS, biosolids; CAFO, confined animal feeding operation; DCD, dicyandiamide; DRP, dissolved reactive P; EC, electrical conductivity; epm, evolutions per minute; ICAP, inductively coupled argon plasma spectrometer; LS, lignosulfonate; LSD, least significant difference; NTU, Nephelometric turbidity units; NWA, Northwest Arkansas;

PL, poultry litter; PLU, PL + urea; PLUB, PLU + BS; PLUBDCD, PLUB + DCD;

PLUDCD, PLU + DCD; RCB, randomized complete block; TN, total N; TP, total P;

TSP, triple superphosphate; UF, urea formaldehyde; W, water.

–  –  –

Agricultural non-point source pollution of macronutrients N and P was identified by the USEPA (2000) as the major source of surface water contamination in the United States. Confined animal feeding operations (CAFO) were cited as significant sources for P and N loading into waterways that exacerbated eutrophication (Sharpley et al., 1994).

Confined animal feeding operations historically apply manure to soil close to the point of production, which increases soil concentrations above agronomic needs after many years if not removed by plants (Slaton et al., 2004). Based on nutrient value economics, manures must be applied within a 40 km radius from the source in the unprocessed form for hauling to remain an option (Bosch and Napit, 1992).

–  –  –



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 8 | 9 || 11 | 12 |   ...   | 17 |


Similar works:

«Freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) farming in Greater Noakhali Districts Catherine Lecouffe January 2005 The Greater Noakhali Aquaculture Extension Project (GNAEP) is a project of the Government of Bangladesh (GoB) supported by Danish International Development Assistance (Danida), under the overall responsibility of the Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock (MoFL) and implemented by the Department of Fisheries (DoF). The project began in July 1998 and has been extended until June 2006....»

«Pak. J. Bot., 41(4): 1627-1635, 2009. DEVELOPMENT OF GENETIC LINKAGE MAP OF LEAF HAIRINESS IN GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM (COTTON) USING MOLECULAR MARKERS IFTIKHAR ALI1*, ABIDA KAUSAR1, MEHBOOB-UR-REHMAN3, YUSUF ZAFAR3, MUHAMMAD ASIF3, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF2, SANA RIAZ1, SARA ZAFAR1, ABDUL WAHID2, SOBIA MAQSOOD1, MUBASHIR NIAZ1 AND SYED QAISER ABBAS1 1 Department of Botany, GC University, Faisalabad, Pakistan 2 Department of Botany, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan 3 National Institute of...»

«SAFER TO STEAL THAN SCORE: PRESS COVERAGE OF FINANCIAL AND SEXUAL SCANDALS, AND ELECTORAL OUTCOMES A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in The Manship School of Mass Communication by Chance York B.G.S., University of Kansas, 2008 M.S., Kansas State University, 2010 May 2014 ©Copyright 2014 Chance York All rights reserved ii...»

«ANDREW G. VAUGHN Gustavus Adolphus College 800 West College Ave. St. Peter, MN 56082 507–933–7475 (O); 507–934–1225 (H) email: avaughn@gustavus.edu http://www.gac.edu/~avaughn POSITIONS HELD Associate Professor of Religion: Gustavus Adolphus College, St. Peter, MN. Appointment with continuous tenure in area of Hebrew Bible. 2002 – present. Chair, Department of Religion: Gustavus Adolphus College, St. Peter, MN. 2003 – present (on sabbatical 2004–5 academic year). Supply Preacher:...»

«Tsakiri, Ioannidis, Carty 1 LASER SCANNING ISSUES FOR THE GEOMETRICAL RECORDING OF A COMPLEX STATUE Maria TSAKIRI1, Charalambos IOANNIDIS1, Alistair CARTY2 1 School of Rural and Surveying Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Greece. 2 Archaeoptics Ltd, Glasgow, UK KEY WORDS: laser scanning, heritage applications, three-dimensional, close range, data capture ABSTRACT Recent advances in laser scanning technology allow for fast and efficient 3D documentation of cultural heritage...»

«2013 South Dakota Crop Protection Guide Corn Weed Control (text) Weeds: Mike Moechnig, Darrell L. Deneke, Leon J. Wrage, Jill Alms, Dave Vos, and Mark Rosenberg Insects: Adrianna Szczepaniec and Buyung Hadi Diseases: Kay Ruden “This document represents only a portion of the 2013 Corn Crop Protection Guide. The complete guide is available at iGrow.org. Information in this publicationis based on SDSU and other research and observations and provides a summary of label recommendations. It is not...»

«This work is used with the permission of Joelle G. Zeitouny. © 2007, Joelle G. Zeitouny. Wild Edible Plant Consumption and Age-Related Cataracts in a Rural Lebanese Elderly Population: A Case control Study By Joelle Zeitouny School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition McGill University Montreal, Quebec, Canada A thesis submitted to the Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Master of Science August 2007 © Joelle G. Zeitouny, 2007 i Abstract The...»

«52 Chimera 26: Geographical Journal, University College Cork Suburbia: social and spatial trends that emerged in Celtic Tiger Ireland. Matthew Williams Department of Geography, University College Cork, Ireland. Long after the roar of the “Celtic Tiger” has become inaudible; its effects remain in the form of ghost estates, incomplete rural development and inadequate service provision across the Irish landscape. This paper will give a brief account of suburban housing development in Ireland...»

«SOUT H ERN RURAL SOCIOLOGY, 24(2), 2009, pp. 169–191. Copyright © by the Southern Rural Sociological Association CREATING ALTERNATIVES: A PARTICIPANT OBSERVER’S REFLECTIONS ON THE EMERGING LOCAL FOOD SYSTEM IN KANSAS CITY* MARY HENDRICKSON UN IVERSIT Y OF M ISSOURI-COLUM BIA ABSTRACT The Missouri School has been known for its study of the structure of agriculture and food, and what affects structural arrangements have on farmers, communities, and environments. A lesser known aspect of the...»

«Patient & Family Guide to Hospice Care Serving Colorado’s Front Range The Kingfisher, calm and at peace, nested upon water, quieter of restlessness. A Patient & Family Guide to Hospice Care To All, I just want you to know what an honor it is for Halcyon to be invited into your lives in such an intimate way. We are very much committed to living up to your expectations, wishes and desires. Halcyon is a clinician owned hospice. It’s vision is to provide patient centered care to people who...»

«Assessing the Alliance for Green Revolution in Africa August 2009 Report Contributions: Sam Moyo, Walter Chambati, Tendai Murisa and Amade Sucá TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION 2. THE CONTEXT: DECLINING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY 3. OVERVIEW OF THE AGRA PROJECT 3.1 Background 3.2 Principles and policies: defining the problem and interventions 3.3 Programmes and their implementation 3.4 The actors and partnerships involved 3.4.1 AGRA Leadership 3.4.2 Implementation partnerships 3.4.3 AGRA and...»

«SAFETY DATA SHEET Section 1. Identification Ammonia, Anhydrous Product Name: Synonyms: Ammonia CAS REGISTRY NO: 7664-41-7 Supplier: Tanner Industries, Inc. 735 Davisville Road, Third Floor Southampton, PA 18966 Website: www.tannerind.com Telephone (General): 215-322-1238 Corporate Emergency Telephone Number: 800-643-6226 Emergency Telephone Number: Chemtrec: 800-424-9300 Recommended Use: Various Industrial / Agricultural Section 2. Hazard(s) Identification Hazard: Acute Toxicity, Corrosive,...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.