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«A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences ...»

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however, ground PL did not have significant N mineralization until 14 d. The PL grinding process, ground to pass a 5.8 mm screen using a commercial feed mill mixer, likely increased NH3 volatilization and initially reduced labile N concentrations. Nonlabile fractions were not affected by grinding as significant mineralization occurred by 14

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research showed that PL labile N fractions mineralize by 14 d, and that most initial inorganic N and labile N end products are NH3, which are vulnerable to N losses via volatilization (Bitzer and Sims, 1988; Sims and Wolf, 1994). Consistent available N concentrations for the remainder of the incubation study indicated that mineralization of organic N in PI was similar to N loss and immobilization in both PL treatments.

Milorganite had 32.2% of total N in inorganic N forms 7 d after application and inorganic soil N continued to increase until 84 d after application (Fig. 6.2), similar to mineralization rates in a turfgrass study by Waddington and coworkers (1994). After 7 d, only 17.5% of total N was mineralized in the BS used in our formulations. High heat during the drying process aggravates NH3 volatilization and was shown to reduce BS total N concentration by 20% and NH4-N concentrations by 80% (Smith and Durham, 2002). Dicyandiamide did not have a net mineralization gain after soil background concentrations were subtracted even with a 0.4:1 C:N ratio. Several studies showed that DCD undergoes microbial degradation; however, application rates, microflora and soil C concentrations all influence N mineralization and DCD may be stable for 3 months or longer (Vilsmeier, 1981; Hauser and Haselwandter, 1990; Rajbanshi et al., 1992). A field study by Reeves and Touchton (1986) demonstrated similar results as DCD-N was not available for crop uptake from sandy loam soils over a growing season.

Averaged over BS and binding agent treatments, granular PL and BS fertilizers had an average of 6.7% less available N when DCD was added to formulations compared to treatments without DCD (Fig. 6.3). Dicyandiamide N began to mineralize after the 56l d and had statistically similar N mineralization as treatments without DCD by the 84l d

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coworkers (1985) who found that 4 to 10% of DCD-N was mineralized 60 d after application on acidic soils. The most significant release of inorganic N occurred by day 3 in granular PL and BS fertilizers (Fig. 6.3). After day 3, granular PL and BS fertilizers without DCD averaged 75.2% total N availability while formulations with DCD only had 67.7%o available N. Nitrogen-fortified PL and BS fertilizers had more available N 84 d after application than fresh PL, BS or urea (Fig. 6.2 and 6.3).

Binding agent and BS additives also significantly influenced N mineralization in a BS x binding agent interaction (Table 6.2), averaged over DCD and time treatments.

Urea formaldehyde bound granules containing BS had less available N compared to all other treatments. Since urea formaldehyde is a slow release N fertilizer source, low urea formaldehyde resin and low BS N availability (Fig. 6.2) possibly caused part of the interaction response. Attrition tests (this dissertation, Chapter 4) also indicated that urea formaldehyde granules were more resistant to degradation when exposed to force;

therefore, these granules may be less water soluble than other treatments.

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Ammonium-N concentrations in organic and commercial fertilizers quickly increased after fertilizer application, except with DCD (Fig. 6.4). Dicyandiamide treated soil had negative mineralization rates resulting in no inorganic N accumulation from the DCD product until 112 d in the NH4-N fraction (Fig. 6.4). By day 28, fresh PL, ground PL, Milorganite, and BS soil NH4-N concentrations were negligible. Ammonium-N in urea treatments rapidly decreased between 7 and 28 d after application, but still had significant soil NH4-N concentrations until 84 d after application (Fig. 6.4).

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loam incubation soil (Fig. 6.1). Nearly all inorganic N was transformed into NO3-N soon after mineralized from soil organic matter. Nitrate-N concentrations are correlated to plant N use efficiency since this inorganic fraction is vulnerable to leaching or denitrification as well as assimilation by microbes (Bock, 1984). Significant amounts of NO3-N accumulated 7 d after fertilizer application for fresh PL and urea treatments (Fig.

6.4). Milorganite and BS needed 28 d for significant NO3-N concentrations to form in the soil. By the 112th day of the incubation, both urea and Milorganite indicated NO3-N losses from immobilization and/or denitrification (Fig. 6.4).

Biosolids and binding agent additives to granular PL and BS fertilizers did not statistically impact soil NH4-N or NO3-N concentrations. Lack of a significant binding agent relationship indicated that any binding agent would be suitable for use at the current binder application rate. Dicyandiamide additions were significant in a DCD x time interaction for soil inorganic N concentrations (Fig. 6.5), averaged over BS and binding agent treatments. Treatments without DCD had significant nitrification occurring 7 d after fertilizer application and NO3-N concentrations continued to increase for the remainder of the experiment (Fig. 6.5), mimicking fresh PL and urea treatments (Fig.

6.4). A concomitant decrease was observed in soil NH4-N concentrations in no DCD treatments as nitrification ensued (Fig. 6.5). Hamilton and Sims (1995) indicated similar inorganic N release and nitrification patterns in N enriched PL pellets during an aerobic incubation study on sandy loam and loamy sand soils. In our study, treatments with DCD did not have appreciable soil NO3-N concentrations until 56 days after fertilizer application. Other research found DCD effectiveness lasting 28 d or more before

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Ammonium-N concentrations for DCD treatments peaked 14 d after fertilizer application (243.5 mg NH4-N kg"1) and began to decline thereafter (Fig. 6.5), likely from immobilization and nitrification.

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Soil NH4-N is quickly converted to NO3-N under aerobic soil conditions and would be subjected to N loss through denitrification and leaching. Binding agent and BS additives to N-fortified PL and BS granular fertilizers had isolated impacts on total N availability but had no significant differences on soil NH4-N and NO3-N concentrations.

Dicyandiamide additions decreased overall total N mineralized during the 112 d incubation but kept N in the NH4-N fraction. Significant nitrification did not occur until 56 d after fertilizer application when DCD was included in formulations. Overall, Nfortified PL and BS fertilizers had higher inorganic soil N concentrations than fresh PL or BS during the incubation period.

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Reference to trade or company name is for specific information and does not imply approval or recommendation of the company by the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville or the University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture to the exclusion of others that may be suitable.

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Bitzer, C.C., and J.T. Sims. 1988. Estimating the availability of nitrogen in poultry manure through laboratory and field studies. J. Environ. Qual. 17(l):47-54.

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Brye, K.R., N.A. Slaton, R.J. Norman, and M.C. Savin. 2005. Short-term effects of poultry litter form and rate on soil bulk density and water content. Comm. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 35:2311-2325.

Cabrera, M.L., S.C. Chiang, W.C. Merka, O.C. Pancorbo, and S.A. Thompson. 1994.

Pelletizing and soil water effects on gaseous emissions from surface-applied poultry litter. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 58:807-811.

Christianson, C.B., M.F. Carter, and L.S. Holt. 1988. Mineralization and nitrification of ureaform fertilizers. Nutr. Cycling Agroecosystems 17(l):85-95.

Colombo, B. and G. Giazzi. 1982. Total automatic nitrogen determination. Am. Lab.


Cooperband, L., G. Bollero, and F. Coale. 2002. Effect of poultry litter and composts on soil nitrogen and phosphorus availability and corn production. Nutrient Cycling Agroecosystems 62:185-194.

Cowie, G.A. 1918. Decomposition of cyanamide and dicyandiamide. J. Agric. Sci. 9:113Cox, D.A. 1995. Pelletized sewage sludge as a fertilizer for containerized plants: Plant growth and nitrogen leaching losses. J. Plant Nutr. 18(12):2783-2795.

Edwards, D.R., and T.C. Daniel. 1992. Environmental impacts of on-farm poultry waste disposal - A review. Bioresour. Technol. 41:9-33.

Gilmour, J.T., C.C. Cogger, L.W. Jacobs, G.K. Evanylo, and D.M. Sullivan. 2003.

Decomposition and plant-available nitrogen in biosolids: Laboratory studies, field studies, and computer simulation. J. Environ. Qual. 32:1498-1507.

Gilmour, J.T., and V. Skinner. 1999. Predicting plant available nitrogen in land-applied biosolids. J. Environ. Qual. 28:1122-1126.

Gordillo, R.M., and M.L. Cabrera. 1997. Mineralizable nitrogen in broiler litter: II. Effect of selected soil characteristics. J. Environ. Qual. 26:1679-1686.

Hadas, A., B. Bar-Yosef, S. Davidov, and S. Sofer. 1983. Effect of pelleting, temperature, and soil type on mineral nitrogen release from poultry and dairy manures. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 47:1129-1133.

Hamilton, CM., and J.T. Sims. 1995. Nitrogen and phosphorus availability in enriched, pelletized poultry litters. J. Sustainable Agric. 5(3): 115-132.

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Hauser, M., and K. Haselwandter. 1990. Degradation of dicyandiamide by soil bacteria.

Soil Biol. Biochem. 22(1):113-114.

Hinesly, T.D., R.L. Jones, and E.L. Ziegler. 1972. Effects of corn by application of heated anaerobically digested sludge. Compost Sci. 13(4):26-30.

Hoskins, B., A. Wolf, and N. Wolf. 2003. Dry matter analysis, p. 14-17. In J. Peter (ed.) Recommended Methods of Manure Analysis. Rep. A3769. Univ. Wisconsin Cooperative Extension, Madison.

Linn, D.M., and J.W. Doran. 1984. Aerobic and anaerobic microbial populations in notill and plowed soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 48(4):794-799.

Mikkelsen, R.L., H.M. Williams, and A.D. Behel, Jr. 1994. Nitrogen leaching and plant uptake from controlled-release fertilizers. Fert. Res. 37:43-50.

Miller, D.M., B.R. Wells, and R.J. Norman. 1991. Fertilization of rice on graded soils using organic materials, p. 55-58. In W.E. Sabbe (ed.) Arkansas soil fertility studies, 1990. Univ. Arkansas Agric. Exp. Stn., Fayetteville.

Miller, D.M., B.R. Wells, R.J. Norman, and T. Alvisyahrin. 1990. Fertilization of rice on leveled soils, p. 45-48. In W.E. Sabbe (ed.) Arkansas soil fertility studies, 1989.

Univ. Arkansas Agric. Exp. Stn., Fayetteville.

Mitchell, C.C., and S. Tu. 2005. Long-term evaluation of poultry litter as a source of nitrogen for cotton and corn. Agron. J. 97:399-407.

Moyo, C.C., D.E. Kissel, and M.L. Cabrera. 1989. Temperature effects on soil urease activity. Soil Biol. Biochem. 21(7):935-938.

Mulvaney, R.L. 1996. Nitrogen-Inorganic forms, p. 1123-1184. In D.L. Sparks (ed.) Methods of soil analysis. Agronomy 9. ASA-SSSA, Madison, WI.

Norman, R.J., L.T. Kurtz, and F.J. Stevenson. 1987. Distribution and recovery of nitrogen-15-labeled liquid anhydrous ammonia among various soil fractions. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 51:235-241.

Norman, R.J., B.R. Wells, and R.S. Helms. 1988. Effect of nitrogen source, application time and dicyandiamide on rice yields. J. Fert. Issues 5(3):78-82.

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Pratt, P.F., F.E. Broadbent, and J.P. Martin. 1973. Using organic wastes as nitrogen fertilizers. Calif. Agric. 27:10-13.

Rajbanshi, S.S., G. Benckiser, and J.C.G. Ottow. 1992. Mineralization kinetics and utilization as anN source of dicyandiamide (DCD) in soil. Naturwissenschaften 79:26-27.

Reeves, D.W., and J.T. Touchton. 1986. Relative phytotoxicity of dicyandiamide and availability of its nitrogen to cotton, corn, and grain sorghum. Soil Sci. Soc. Am.

J. 50:1353-1357.

Reeves, D.W., and J.T. Touchton. 1989. Effect of dicyandiamide on growth and nutrient uptake of cotton. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 20(19-20):2091-2103.

Reynolds, E.B. 1926. Activated sludge as a fertilizer for cotton and corn. J. Am. Soc.

Agron. 22(6):537-539.

Rodgers, G.A., K.N. Wickramasinghe, and D.S. Jenkinson. 1985. Mineralization of dicyandiamide, labeled with 15N, in acid soils. Soil Biol. Biochem. 17:253-254.

SAS Institute. 2003. The SAS system for windows. Release 9.1. SAS Inst., Cary, NC.

Shortall, J.G., and W.C. Liebhardt. 1975. Yield and growth of corn as affected by poultry manure. J. Environ. Qual. 4:186-191.

Sims, J.T. 1986. Nitrogen transformations in a poultry manure amended soil:

Temperature and moisture effects. J. Environ. Qual. 15:59-63.

Sims, J.T. 1987. Agronomic evaluation of poultry manure as a nitrogen source for conventional and no-tillage corn. Agron. J. 79:563-570.

Sims, J.T., and D.C. Wolf. 1994. Poultry waste management: Agricultural and environmental issues. Adv. Agron. 52:1-83.

Sistani, K.R., D.E. Rowe, J. Johnson, and H. Tewolde. 1988. Supplemental nitrogen effect on broiler-litter-fertilized cotton. Agron. J. 96:806-811.

Smith, S.R., and E. Durham. 2002. Nitrogen release and fertiliser value of thermallydried biosolids. J. Chart. Inst. Water Environ. Manage. 16:121-126.

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USEPA. 1995. Process design manual - land application of sewage sludge and domestic septage. USEPA/625/R-95/001. USEPA, Office of Res. And Development, Washington, D.C.

Waddington, D.V., A.E. Grover, and D.B. Beegle. 1994. Nutrient concentrations of turfgrass and soil test levels as affected by soil media and fertilizer rate and placement. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 25:1957-1990.

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Vilsmeier, K. 1981. Action and degradation of dicyandiamide. p. 18-24. In R.D. Hauck and H. Behnke (ed.) Technical workshop on dicyandiamide, Muscle Shoals, Alabama. 4-5 Dec. 1981. SKW Trostberg AG, Trostberg, W. Germany.

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