«A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences ...»
however, ground PL did not have significant N mineralization until 14 d. The PL grinding process, ground to pass a 5.8 mm screen using a commercial feed mill mixer, likely increased NH3 volatilization and initially reduced labile N concentrations. Nonlabile fractions were not affected by grinding as significant mineralization occurred by 14
research showed that PL labile N fractions mineralize by 14 d, and that most initial inorganic N and labile N end products are NH3, which are vulnerable to N losses via volatilization (Bitzer and Sims, 1988; Sims and Wolf, 1994). Consistent available N concentrations for the remainder of the incubation study indicated that mineralization of organic N in PI was similar to N loss and immobilization in both PL treatments.
Milorganite had 32.2% of total N in inorganic N forms 7 d after application and inorganic soil N continued to increase until 84 d after application (Fig. 6.2), similar to mineralization rates in a turfgrass study by Waddington and coworkers (1994). After 7 d, only 17.5% of total N was mineralized in the BS used in our formulations. High heat during the drying process aggravates NH3 volatilization and was shown to reduce BS total N concentration by 20% and NH4-N concentrations by 80% (Smith and Durham, 2002). Dicyandiamide did not have a net mineralization gain after soil background concentrations were subtracted even with a 0.4:1 C:N ratio. Several studies showed that DCD undergoes microbial degradation; however, application rates, microflora and soil C concentrations all influence N mineralization and DCD may be stable for 3 months or longer (Vilsmeier, 1981; Hauser and Haselwandter, 1990; Rajbanshi et al., 1992). A field study by Reeves and Touchton (1986) demonstrated similar results as DCD-N was not available for crop uptake from sandy loam soils over a growing season.
Averaged over BS and binding agent treatments, granular PL and BS fertilizers had an average of 6.7% less available N when DCD was added to formulations compared to treatments without DCD (Fig. 6.3). Dicyandiamide N began to mineralize after the 56l d and had statistically similar N mineralization as treatments without DCD by the 84l d
coworkers (1985) who found that 4 to 10% of DCD-N was mineralized 60 d after application on acidic soils. The most significant release of inorganic N occurred by day 3 in granular PL and BS fertilizers (Fig. 6.3). After day 3, granular PL and BS fertilizers without DCD averaged 75.2% total N availability while formulations with DCD only had 67.7%o available N. Nitrogen-fortified PL and BS fertilizers had more available N 84 d after application than fresh PL, BS or urea (Fig. 6.2 and 6.3).
Binding agent and BS additives also significantly influenced N mineralization in a BS x binding agent interaction (Table 6.2), averaged over DCD and time treatments.
Urea formaldehyde bound granules containing BS had less available N compared to all other treatments. Since urea formaldehyde is a slow release N fertilizer source, low urea formaldehyde resin and low BS N availability (Fig. 6.2) possibly caused part of the interaction response. Attrition tests (this dissertation, Chapter 4) also indicated that urea formaldehyde granules were more resistant to degradation when exposed to force;
therefore, these granules may be less water soluble than other treatments.
Ammonium-N concentrations in organic and commercial fertilizers quickly increased after fertilizer application, except with DCD (Fig. 6.4). Dicyandiamide treated soil had negative mineralization rates resulting in no inorganic N accumulation from the DCD product until 112 d in the NH4-N fraction (Fig. 6.4). By day 28, fresh PL, ground PL, Milorganite, and BS soil NH4-N concentrations were negligible. Ammonium-N in urea treatments rapidly decreased between 7 and 28 d after application, but still had significant soil NH4-N concentrations until 84 d after application (Fig. 6.4).
loam incubation soil (Fig. 6.1). Nearly all inorganic N was transformed into NO3-N soon after mineralized from soil organic matter. Nitrate-N concentrations are correlated to plant N use efficiency since this inorganic fraction is vulnerable to leaching or denitrification as well as assimilation by microbes (Bock, 1984). Significant amounts of NO3-N accumulated 7 d after fertilizer application for fresh PL and urea treatments (Fig.
6.4). Milorganite and BS needed 28 d for significant NO3-N concentrations to form in the soil. By the 112th day of the incubation, both urea and Milorganite indicated NO3-N losses from immobilization and/or denitrification (Fig. 6.4).
Biosolids and binding agent additives to granular PL and BS fertilizers did not statistically impact soil NH4-N or NO3-N concentrations. Lack of a significant binding agent relationship indicated that any binding agent would be suitable for use at the current binder application rate. Dicyandiamide additions were significant in a DCD x time interaction for soil inorganic N concentrations (Fig. 6.5), averaged over BS and binding agent treatments. Treatments without DCD had significant nitrification occurring 7 d after fertilizer application and NO3-N concentrations continued to increase for the remainder of the experiment (Fig. 6.5), mimicking fresh PL and urea treatments (Fig.
6.4). A concomitant decrease was observed in soil NH4-N concentrations in no DCD treatments as nitrification ensued (Fig. 6.5). Hamilton and Sims (1995) indicated similar inorganic N release and nitrification patterns in N enriched PL pellets during an aerobic incubation study on sandy loam and loamy sand soils. In our study, treatments with DCD did not have appreciable soil NO3-N concentrations until 56 days after fertilizer application. Other research found DCD effectiveness lasting 28 d or more before
Ammonium-N concentrations for DCD treatments peaked 14 d after fertilizer application (243.5 mg NH4-N kg"1) and began to decline thereafter (Fig. 6.5), likely from immobilization and nitrification.
Soil NH4-N is quickly converted to NO3-N under aerobic soil conditions and would be subjected to N loss through denitrification and leaching. Binding agent and BS additives to N-fortified PL and BS granular fertilizers had isolated impacts on total N availability but had no significant differences on soil NH4-N and NO3-N concentrations.
Dicyandiamide additions decreased overall total N mineralized during the 112 d incubation but kept N in the NH4-N fraction. Significant nitrification did not occur until 56 d after fertilizer application when DCD was included in formulations. Overall, Nfortified PL and BS fertilizers had higher inorganic soil N concentrations than fresh PL or BS during the incubation period.
Reference to trade or company name is for specific information and does not imply approval or recommendation of the company by the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville or the University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture to the exclusion of others that may be suitable.
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