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«A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences ...»

-- [ Page 17 ] --

Plant Anal. 20:2023-2047.

Wilson, C.E., Jr., R.J. Norman, and B.R. Wells. 1989. Seasonal uptake patterns of fertilizer nitrogen applied in split applications to rice. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J.

53:1884-1887.

Yoshida, S. 1981. Fundamentals of rice crop science. Int. Rice Res. Inst., Manila, The Philippines.

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6248--6674 6464 111 19.5

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Preflood urea 3596+ 65.5N-0.206N 2 0.94 117 8440 8019-8861 41.4 100 "fHighest order model (quadratic or linear) that was significant presented.

JNitrogen rate required for highest yield in preflood urea treatments.

§Nitrogen agronomic efficiency = (predicted yield - y-intercept)/urea N rate.

TJUrea basis = Source N agronomic efficiency/urea N agronomic efficiency* 100.

ttPoultry litter + urea (PLU) and PLU + DCD (PLUDCD).

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Preflood urea 0.73 c 8.04 a 11.01a f Averaged over year and N rate treatments.

JNo-fertilizer control = 0.73 g N kg"1, 8.06 g C kg"1, and 11.04 C:N.

§Means with different letters can be separated with Fisher's protected LSD at the 0.10 significance level within each column.

UPLU = Poultry litter + urea and PLUDCD = PLU + DCD.

168 2004

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25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 2005

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Fig. 7.1. Rice plant N uptake for fresh poultry litter (PL), granular PL fortified with urea (PLU), PLU fortified with a nitrification inhibitor (PLUDCD), and preflood applied urea for 2004, 2005, and 2006 on a Dewitt silt loam.

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100 25 50 125 150 175 200 225 75 2005 12000 150 175 200 225 25 50 75 100 125

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In conclusion, traditional poultry litter (PL) application to P saturated soils surrounding poultry production units caused non-point source water quality concerns;

thereby, limiting PL use in environmentally sensitive watersheds. In soils receiving longterm PL applications, P associated with Al, reductant soluble and Ca were primarily responsible for reducing dissolved reactive P (DRP) concentrations in runoff water.

However, significant concentrations of runoff DRP still pose an environmental threat and PL applications should be limited in sensitive watersheds. Agglomeration of PL into spherical granules allowed for additions of biosolids (BS), dicyandiamide (DCD), binding agents, and urea to change fertilizer physical, solubility, and nutrient release characteristics to forms that are more beneficial for urban and agronomic fertilizer users.

Depending on formulation, N-fortified PL and BS granular fertilizers may compete economically with production costs similar to urea per kg of N. Transforming organic waste products into valuable fertilizer sources offer the opportunity for a synergistic market to develop between fertilizer consumers, poultry producers, and municipalities for relocating regions with excess nutrients to areas with soil nutrient deficiencies.

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Mark Stephen Reiter, son of George James Jr. and Virginia (Ann) Michalek Reiter, was born April 11,1979 in Petersburg, Virginia. He was raised on a barley, corn, hay, peanut, sorghum, soybean, wheat, rye, calf-to-finishing beef cattle, farrow-to-finish swine, and laying hen family farm in Dinwiddie County, Virginia, along with his three brothers James, Michael, and Brian. He graduated fourth in his class in 1997 from Dinwiddie County High School in Dinwiddie, Virginia. During his time in high school, he was active in the National FFA Organization and received the American FFA Degree in November of 1999. Following high school, Mark pursued his interests in agronomy, soils and the environment by enrolling at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in Blacksburg, Virginia. Mark was active and served on numerous committees and offices with the Agronomy Club of Virginia Tech and was a member of the Crops Judging Team. Mark graduated magna cum laude with a Bachelor of Science Degree in Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences with a concentration in Agroecology and a minor in Agribusiness Management in May 2001. He then entered the Graduate School at Auburn University in May 2001 to complete a Masters of Science in Agronomy and Soils in December 2003 under D. Wayne Reeves, Ph.D. in conjunction with the USDA-ARS National Soil Dynamics Laboratory. His thesis was titled, Nitrogen Management for High-Residue Conservation Tillage Cotton in the Tennessee Valley Region of Alabama.

After receiving his Masters of Science Degree, Mark moved to Fayetteville, Arkansas to pursue a Doctor of Philosophy in Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences at the University of Arkansas under Tommy C. Daniel, Ph.D. During his Ph.D. program, Mark received over $80,000 in grant money to support his research and spent four months studying with the Soil Fertility Team in the Soil Management and Soil Care Department at Ghent University in Ghent, Belgium. Prior to completing his Ph.D. program, Mark was married on November 27, 2004 to his wife, Sara (Steele) Thacker Reiter, whom he met at Auburn University. Mark is currently in his 8th year as a member of the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America and Gamma Sigma Delta Honor Society of Agriculture. Following graduation, Mark hopes to pursue a professorship at a Land Grant University with a balance of extension, research and teaching appointments in the soil fertility, waste management, and water quality arenas.

173

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