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«Item type text; Electronic Dissertation Authors DeJong, David Henry Publisher The University of Arizona. Rights Copyright © is held by the author. ...»

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142 “John Walker to James L. Collins,” dated May 31, 1859, Tucson, New Mexico, RG 75, T21, Records of the New Mexico Superintendency, 1849-1880 (Letters Received from the Agencies, 1859-1860), roll 4. Walker’s understanding of Silas St. John’s appointment as special Indian agent for the Overland Mail Company was that he was “to superintend the purchase of all the grain raised by these Indians.” 143 Noel M. Loomis, Journal of I.C. Woods on the Establishment of the San Antonio & San Diego Mail Line (San Diego: Brand Book of the San Diego Corral of the Westerners, 1968) no. 1, pp. 111-112.

144 “Sylvester Mowry to the Honorable Charles Mix,” dated Tubac, Arizona, September 24, 1858, in RG 75, M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1881, (New Mexico Superintendency, 1858-1859), roll 549.

95 station at the Maricopa Wells which encourages the [Pima] to farm more largely as they can find a good market for a great portion of their grains.”145 The Pima reminded Walker of the implements and tools they had requested earlier at Fort Buchanan. In the spring, they again informed Walker they needed ploughs, hoes, axes, shovels and spades.146 That same spring Walker informed New Mexico Superintendent of Indian Affairs James L. Collins that the Pima were restless because the agricultural tools they had requested were not yet in hand. So desirous of implements were the Pima that Walker observed them selling captive Apache children at Fort Buchanan and using the proceeds to purchase “such implements as they need for their farming operations.” Collins informed Walker implements had been purchased and would be forwarded to the villages as soon as practical.147 Delays in fulfilling the government promise strained relations with the Pima.

When Lieutenant A. B. Chapman and a detachment of U.S. soldiers passed through the villages in late summer 1858, Maricopa village captain Juan Jose became incensed when Chapman refused his offer of five dollars apiece in gold for shovels and axes. Jose told the Lieutenant, “I believe your people are a nation of liars…. I trust you no more.” Even Antonio Azul was upset, telling Sylvester Mowry that he and his people were “sick of 145 “John Walker to James W. Denver, Commissioner of Indians Affairs” dated January 16, 1858, in RG 75, M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1881, (New Mexico Superintendency, 1858-1859), roll 549.

146 “John Walker to the Honorable Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Charles Mix,” dated Tucson Agency, Gadsden Purchase, New Mexico, March 1, 1858, in RG 75, M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1881, (New Mexico Superintendency, 1858-1859), roll 549.

147 “John Walker to the Honorable Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Charles Mix,” dated Gadsden Purchase, New Mexico, April 4, 1858, in RG 75, M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1881, (New Mexico Superintendency, 1858-1859), roll 549. “Superintendent J. L. Collins to John Walker,” dated May 22, 1858, in RG 75, T21, Records of the New Mexico Superintendency, 1849-1880, (Letters Sent, March 29, 1856 to December 11, 1859), roll 26. “John Walker to James L. Collins, Superintendent,” dated August 31, 1858, in RG 75, M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1881, roll 549.

96 promises made by every white man.”148 Walker found himself in a quandary, caught between the Pima and government bureaucracy. In November, he dispatched another letter to Collins reminding him that the Pima planted two crops each year and that winter crops would soon be sown. The Indians “annoy me very much,” Walker wrote, and demanded the implements needed to farm land to which the Pima had constructed a new canal four miles upstream.149 In January 1859, Walker again notified Collins of the importance of the promised implements. The Butterfield Overland Mail Company now had three stage stations— Casa Blanca in addition to Maricopa Wells and Capron’s Ranch—in or near the villages and if the Pima were to increase cultivation to meet local demands, they needed additional tools. This was critical as the Pima had men enough for constructing a new canal upstream but if they were to sow their crops in time they would have to abandon the construction work as they did not have tools enough to simultaneously do both jobs.150 The Pima, Walker boasted, were “inclined to work and love[d] to make money.”151 After more than a year of delay, the Indian Service allocated $2,000 to purchase tools and implements, with Walker distributing in March the promised ploughs, harrows, spades, axes, and blacksmithing and carpenter’s tools.152 To assist Pima farmers with a 148 “Goddard Bailey to Charles E. Mix,” dated November 4, 1858, in RG 75, M234, Letters sent by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824New Mexico Superintendency, 1858-1859) roll 549. See also Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1858 (Washington, DC: William A. Harris, 1858), p. 204. “Mowry to Greenwood,” dated November 21, 1859, p. 354.

149 “John Walker to James L. Collins, Superintendent,” dated November 30, 1858, in RG 75, T21, Records of the New Mexico Superintendency, 1849-1880, (Letters Received from the Agencies, 1858-1858), roll 3.

150 “John Walker to James L. Collins, Superintendent,” dated January 1, 1859, in RG 75, T21, Records of the New Mexico Superintendency, 1849-1880, (Letters Received from the Agencies, 1859-1860), roll 4. Sylvester Mowry wrote the Commissioner on October 6, 1859, that he had informed the Pima and Maricopa “that the government needed the use of the [stage stations]” for communication purposes and that the Pima and Maricopa readily agreed, recognizing it was “a convenience to them, as they disposed of much of their grain to the mail company.” “Mowry to Greenwood,” p. 360.





151 “John Walker to James L. Collins, Superintendent,” dated February 4, 1859, in RG 75, T21, Records of the New Mexico Superintendency, 1849-1880, (Letters Received from the Agencies, 1859-1860), roll 4.

152 Indian Commissioner James Denver informed St. John on February 18 that the funds were available to purchase the tools in San Francisco. See “James Denver to Silas St. John, dated February 18, 1859, Department of the Interior, Office of Indian Affairs,” in RG 97 crop selection that appealed to the Overland Mail Company, Walker introduced American seed corn, the first non-native corn introduced among the Indians.153 In addition to corn and Spanish wheat, the Pima were also growing barley, a grain introduced by Walker a year earlier.154 So desirous were the Pima of selling their grain that they over sold, finding themselves having to request a small amount of food from Walker in May to tide them over until the harvest later that month.155 Despite material success, the Pima remained “extremely anxious about the tenure of their land.” When Sylvester Mowry met in an official capacity with the Pima, he was informed they had a recognized Spanish grant for their land, an assertion affirmed by Sonora Governor Cubillias. While no record or document existed to prove this assertion, Mowry was convinced that justice and humanity compelled the United States to recognize and protect Pima lands.156 Penning a letter to officials in Washington, D.C., Mowry underscored the rationale for such action. “Their villages [will] be made of great service to the Territory by supplying large quantities of breadstuffs,” Mowry asserted. Furthermore, their lands “are in all respects reservations, and have the advantage of being their homes by title of law and by preference.” While concerned about non-Indian settlement, Mowry believed 75, T21, Records of the New Mexico Superintendency, 1849-1880, (Letters Received from the Agencies, 1859-1860), roll 4. “John Walker to James L. Collins, Superintendent,” dated March 31,1859, in RG 75, T21, Records of the New Mexico Superintendency, 1849-1880, (Letters Received from the Agencies, 1859-1860), roll 4. Walker arranged with the Overland Mail Company blacksmith to repair the Indians tools. The goods were transported to Maricopa Wells by Major Samuel P. Heintzelman stationed at Fort Yuma.

153 “John Walker to James Collins,” dated May 9, 1859, Tucson, New Mexico in RG 75, T21, Records of the New Mexico Superintendency, 1849-1880, (Letters Received from the Agencies, 1859-1860), roll 4.

154 “John Walker to James Collins, Superintendent,” dated February 4, 1859. Daily Alta California, San Francisco, California, July 1, 1860, p. 1.

155 “John Walker to James Collins,” dated May 9, 1859. Walker advised the Pima to grow a large crop in the coming months and “next fall be sure to keep enough on hand for bread.” With wheat ripening in the field that month, the shortage was ephemeral.

156 “Sylvester Mowry to J. W. Denver, Commissioner of Indian Affairs,” dated November 10, 1857, Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1857, (Washington, DC: William A. Harris, 1857), pp. 298, 303. “Mowry to Greenwood,” dated Washington, DC, November 21, 1859, p. 359.

98 there was ample room for settlers above the Pima villages “without interfering with the Pimos”—but only if “a man of great tact and intelligence” respected Pima sovereignty.157 Lieutenant Chapman echoed Mowry’s sentiments and encouraged the United States to recognize Pima land rights. “These Indians have strong claims upon the consideration of the United States Government, the prompt recognition of which not only justice and humanity, but sound policy, renders a matter of prime necessity.” Their agricultural skills, the lieutenant added, “present an appearance of beauty and civilization that is truly pleasing.” Pima fidelity and hospitality to American emigrants further strengthened the cause of recognizing their rights. This latter consideration warranted the Pima receiving farm implements that would assist them in expanding their agricultural capacities. “So far, they have been more blessed in giving than receiving, and have looked in vain for recognition by the government of the many kindnesses they have rendered our people.” Without recognition of their land and water rights and the distribution of gifts, the Pima might be “induce[d] to throw off an alliance from which they have derived no benefit.”158 Promised they would be compensated for their hospitality with “an abundance of agricultural implements,” the patience of the Pima wore thin. When special agent Goddard Bailey visited the villages in the fall of 1858, he added to the chorus of concern.

“It is necessary to do more than conciliate these Indians by presents. They must be secured in their possession of their lands.” Without such protection, the rich soil and advantageous location of their villages “will excite the cupidity of a class of settlers not

–  –  –

over nice in their regard for the rights of the Indians.” Sound policy suggested “the necessity of preventing any cause of complaint on this score, and of doing so at once.”159 Bailey and Mowry may have had ulterior reasons for cultivating a strong political alliance with the Pima and Maricopa: the traditional antipathy between the confederated tribes and the Apache. Bailey noted the Pima and Maricopa were “a barrier between the Apaches and all western Arizona.” As long as this alliance was secure, commerce was assured between Fort Yuma and Tucson via the Pima villages. Without it, commerce and the growth of American settlements was uncertain. To this end, Bailey recommended the adoption of several policy strategies, beginning with patenting the land of the Pima. This would prevent emigrants from settling the land, an action prohibited by the Indian Trade and Intercourse Act. Furthermore, Bailey urged the Indian Service to assign a resident government agent to serve as the local representative of the U.S. Government in its political dealings with the Pima.160 Two policy considerations centered on the desires of the United States in its longterm objectives for the Arizona portion of New Mexico Territory. To ensure the Pima produced an adequate food supply for the territory, Bailey favored the Indian Service distributing “a reasonable amount” of agricultural tools and seed annually. This would encourage the Pima to bolster crop production. Bailey, like Steen before him, also encouraged Mix to provide the Pima with arms and ammunition. “[T]heir loyalty has 159 “Goddard Bailey to Charles Mix,” dated November 4, 1858, in RG 75, M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1881, (New Mexico Superintendency, 1858-1859), roll 549.

160 “Bailey to Mix,” ibid. “James L. Collins to A. B. Greenwood,” dated Santa Fe, New Mexico, August 5, 1860, in RG 75, M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1881, (New Mexico Superintendency, 1860-1861), roll 550. “Cyrus Lennan to the Honorable Caleb B. Smith, Secretary of the Interior,” dated Pimo Villages, July 11, 1861, in Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1881, RG 75, M234, (New Mexico Superintendency, 1860-1861), roll 550. This was important to prevent occurrences like the Navajo experience to the north, which resulted in open hostilities.

100 been sufficiently tested that they may be safely trusted” as a “frontier militia.” It was absolutely indispensable for the United States to ensure the favor of the Pima, as “these are precisely the people who will least brook an invasion of their territorial rights.”161 To maintain a policy of peace and friendship, Bailey encouraged Mix to send a diplomatic representative to visit with the Pima and “ascertain their wants and wishes.” This assumed added importance when political conditions in the Pima villages grew strained when the promised agricultural implements and tools did not arrive and new traders and emigrants to the villages introduced vices, such as ardent spirits. Post Master

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When Walker called on the villages in the summer of 1859, he requested a diplomatic audience with Antonio Azul and the sub chiefs, seeking to ascertain the cause of their dissatisfaction. Walker discovered unfulfilled promises and the lack of agricultural implements were high on the list of disappointments. While receiving some

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