WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 22 | 23 || 25 | 26 |   ...   | 50 |

«Item type text; Electronic Dissertation Authors DeJong, David Henry Publisher The University of Arizona. Rights Copyright © is held by the author. ...»

-- [ Page 24 ] --

Despite additional land, the Pima continued to suffer from a shortage of water. In the summer of 1879, Indian Inspector William Hammond reported the Gila was dry and dusty. “[E]ven the increased Reservation will not prevent suffering because the laws of the Territory give the water to the oldest ditch. There is no water for the old Indian ditches.”387 Despite McDowell’s plea for justice, Pima water rights remained in jeopardy and Damoclean sword was raised over the heads of Arizona officials.

Congress, meanwhile, continued debating the removal of the Southwestern tribes.388 In December of 1878, Congressman James Throckmorton (D-TX) introduced an amendment to the Indian appropriation bill to prohibit the removal of any tribes from Arizona and New Mexico.389 The amendment passed by a vote of seventy-one to sixty and in February the bill became law.390 Three years later, President Chester A. Arthur added lands south and west of the Gila River to the Pima Reservation. The following year, he issued another executive order, doubling the size of the reservation from 180,000 to 360,000 acres. However well-intentioned, the government’s belated actions failed to address the longstanding concerns of the Pima. It was water more than land the Indians needed.391 387 “William Hammond to Ezra Hayt,” dated September 13, 1879, RG 75, M234, Roll 21.

388 The bill was attached to the 1880 Indian Appropriation Act and called for “Collecting and subsisting Apaches and other Indians of Arizona and New Mexico: For this amount, to subsist and properly care for the Apache and other Indians of Arizona and New Mexico who have been or may be collected on reservations in New Mexico and Arizona, $320,000.” See “House Debate on Removal of Southwest Indians,” December 19, 1878, Congressional Record (45th Congress, 3rd Session), pp. 311-325.

389 Ibid., p. 311. The Indian Service had removed a number of tribes to the Indian Territory without Congressional approval, i.e. the Modocs and Nez Perce in 1877. The Indian Service also sought the removal of the Sioux in 1877.

390 20 stat 313. The bill was enacted into law on February 17, 1879.

391 In January of 1886, Senator Bowen submitted a resolution to the full Senate urging the Committee on Indian Affairs to “inquire into the expediency of removing all the Indians in the United States to the Indian Territory.” No action was taken on the resolution.

Senate Miscellaneous Document 32, 49th Congress, 1st Session.

176 Federal land and resource policies after 1877 required non-Indian settlers to utilize the water of the Gila River or risk losing their land. In the following chapter, I consider the effects of these policies on the Pima and how they ushered in the years of starvation. Attempting to remain self-sufficient, the Pima resorted to cutting and selling mesquite for the purpose of providing for their families. While individual families still maintained fields and each village still operated irrigation ditches, there was no water with which to irrigate. Pima farmers continued to reject charity. While Upper Gila Valley diversions continued, the death knell of the Pima was the completion of the Florence Canal. The latter decades of the nineteenth century proved to be even more challenging to the Pima. Government neglect of their water rights grew more pronounced. The Pima

–  –  –

with many Pima families lacking even domestic water. As a result, half of the Indians moved off the reservation to work in order “that they might not hear their women and children cry for bread.” Indian Agent A. B. Ludlam reported in 1880 that for the first time the U.S. Government purchased wheat for “destitute Indians.”392 Sixty-seven year old Pima elder Chir-Purtke reflected on these difficulties, noting the Pima were unable “to irrigate all our fields. We were forced to abandon them little by little, until … we were left high and dry.”393 The Pima had “ample lands” but lacked water. Despite their understanding of agriculture and hydrology, the water crisis, Pima elder William Wallace murmured, was destroying “our pride as independent and self-supporting people.”394 The Pima dealt with a variety of challenges in the latter years of the nineteenth century, including dishonest agents, scandalous traders, and political feuds between federal employees and missionaries. Foremost among these challenges were trespassers “who refuse[d] the Indians the use of water.”395 Agent Claude Johnson opined that 392 “Letter from John Stout, Agent, to Commissioner of Indian Affairs Ezra Hayt, dated Pima Agency, August 15, 1878,” in Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1878 (Washington, DC: GPO, 1879), p. 3. “Ludlam to Hayt, dated Pima Agency, September 5, 1880,” in Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1880, p. 4.

393 Charles Southworth, “Statements By Pima Indians Regarding Irrigation on the Gila River Indian Reservation,” (hereafter Southworth interviews) A 0690 in the Arizona State Museum Library, Tucson, Arizona, June 1914, statement of Juan Manuel (Chirpurtke), p. 73.

394 “P. McCormick, United States Indian Inspector, to Cornelius Bliss, Secretary of the Interior, dated Sacaton, Arizona Territory, April 4, 1897,” p. 3, in Reports of Inspections, Roll 36. Southworth interviews, statement of William Wallace, p. 6. “Report of Elmer A. Howard to Commissioner J.D.C. Atkins,” in Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1887, p. 4.





395 For trespassers see “Gardner to Teller dated March 3, 1885,” 2, in Reports of Inspectors, Roll 35. For dishonest agents and scandalous traders see “William Junkin, United States Indian Inspector, to John Noble, Secretary of the Interior, dated Pima Agency, September 30, 1890,” p. 2 in Reports of Inspections, Roll 36. For a discussion of the friction between federal Indian agents and Presbyterian missionary Charles Cook see “Report of R. Pearsons on Pima Agency Investigation of Charges against Agent Wheeler, 178 “considering the vast surrender of national wealth made by these Indians … the best aid that can be given to [them] … is the extension of their irrigation facilities.”396 Johnson asked that an engineer evaluate the prospects for an irrigation system for the Pima.

–  –  –

(Source: “Gila River Priority Analysis, Water Distribution Chart # 3,” United States Indian Service, Irrigation, January 20, 1926) By the turn of the century, Agency Superintendent John B. Alexander echoed the concerns heard so often before. “The reservation contains good irrigable lands but lacks the chief essential—water.”397 One of the reasons for the lack of water was the construction of the Florence Canal in 1886, which diverted nearly all the remaining surface flow of the Gila River above the reservation (see map 11). Upper Valley users in Safford and Solomonville placed increasingly high demands on the waters of the river, as shown in table 2.398 dated Pima Agency, December 31, 1885,” in Reports of Inspections, Roll 35. Agent J.B. Alexander (1902-1911) was actually indicted and tried in the Territorial courts for defrauding the Pima and the United States. He was acquitted of all charges. See Annual Report of the Board of Directors of the Indian Rights Association, 1912 (Philadelphia: Office of the Indian Rights Association), pp. 21-23. See also Annual Report, 1911, pp. 12-18.

396 Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1888, pp. 4-5.

397 Survey of Conditions of the Indians in the United States, Part 17, Arizona (Washington, DC: GPO, 1931), p. 8236.

398 See, for example, Annual Report of the Board of Indian Commissioners, 1897 (Washington, DC: GPO, 1897), p. 11. “Walter Graves, United States Indian Inspector, to Ethan Allen Hitchcock, Secretary of the Interior, dated Pima Indian Reservation, Arizona, September 8, 1900,” in Reports of Inspections, Roll 35.

179 Inspector Robert Gardner informed Interior Secretary Henry Teller in 1886 the Florence Canal “should not be built [to] benefit a few speculators to the loss and detriment of four or five thousand Indians.”399 Teller then asked the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to evaluate the situation, with the USGS concluding “if the agriculture of the Indians now on the reservation is to have normal growth (the) greater part, and perhaps the whole of the waters of the Gila will be necessary therefore.” The federal agency admitted “the construction of a dam by the Florence Canal Company … will give the control substantially of all the water of the Gila River [to the canal company] and if the owners of the dam carry the water right also, they can deliver the water to the reservation or not, as best suits their plans.” If the waters of the Gila River were cut off, Pima lands “would become uninhabitable.”400

–  –  –

amount of water currently used by the Indians. Both the USGS and the U.S. Attorney 399 The canal, which was twenty-six feet wide at the bottom, “may lessen the quantity of water heretofore required by the Indians for their use; and in the event of such an happening the Indians would consider themselves sorely aggrieved and serious trouble might arise.” “Robert S. Gardner, United States Indian Inspector, to H.M. Teller, Secretary of the Interior, dated Pima and Maricopa Agency, September 2, 1886,” p. 1, in Reports of Inspections, Roll 35 and “Franklin Armstrong, United States Indian Inspector, to Lucius Q.C.

Lamar, Secretary of the Interior, dated Pima Agency, February 26, 1887,” 1, in Reports of Inspections, Roll 35.

400 Copy of Minutes of the Florence Canal Company Board of Directors, November First, A.D. 1887, in “Report of C.C. Duncan, United States Indian Inspector, to the Honorable Secretary of the Interior Michael H. Smith, dated Pima Agency, November 23, 1894,” Reports of Inspectors, Roll 36.

180 agreed to this but did not quantify the area farmed or the amount of water used. Without this data, it was impossible to determine Pima water rights. In the meantime, the USGS admitted the natural flow of the Gila was “all appropriated now by the white settlers above” the reservation.401 Interior Secretary Lucius Q.C. Lamar asked the U.S. Attorney General to “take such steps under the Federal or Territorial laws as might be necessary to protect the Indians in their rights.” The U.S. District Attorney for Arizona Territory, however, recommended litigation not be brought against the Florence Canal Company until data on acreage and water flow was quantified. Bureaucratic ineptitude delayed the question of data gathering until 1904, and it was another decade before data was actually gathered.

Rather than litigating Pima water rights, Superintendent Alexander recommended that the twenty to thirty thousand dollars to prosecute Pima rights was too steep to warrant the effort. Commissioner of Indian Affairs William Jones concurred and notified the Attorney General that the Indian Service would pursue no further legal action.402 A policy of malicious neglect followed. Since the reservation remained in communal ownership, the federal government was in no hurry to protect water rights for the tribe, desiring instead to allot land and appurtenant water rights in severalty. Without an adequate and assured supply of water to irrigate the land and make it productive, however, the reservation could not be allotted. The Indian Service furthermore operated under the theory that reservations—particularly non-treaty reservations such as the Pima

–  –  –

Reservation—would be dissolved within a few years as its lands were divided in severalty. At such point, American Indians would take their place in the American polity as citizens without any special right that may have been encumbered while in tribal status. In the meantime, more farmers in the upper valleys—encouraged to acquire public domain lands under the Desert Land Act and required to make them productive with the waters of the Gila River—diverted additional water, increasing their take of the river from 13.57% to 41.3% of the flow between 1878 and 1910. The Pima were on the brink of social and economic displacement, seeing their share of river water decline 62% between 1866 and 1910.403 Scores of Pima farms were abandoned. Others were “only partially cultivated, yielding scant and uncertain returns.”404 Pima farmer George Pablo bemoaned how some of the Pima “had to leave our farms and move up the river” where seepage water was available.405 To the north of the reservation, settlers in the Salt River Valley organized the Salt River Valley Water Storage Committee to resolve water rights conflicts, identify potential dam sites and lobby Congress.406 In 1901, the Maricopa County Board of Water Storage Commissioners was established to identify ways of floating county bonds to 403 “Graves to Hitchcock.” Graves wrote many of the non-Indian settlers in Florence had “abandoned their farms and have left the country…. Neither the Florence canal, nor the land owners, have any claims on the waters of the Gila River, that are not subordinate to those of the Pima Indians, and had there been any provisions in the General Statutes, or any method of legal procedure, whereby the rights of the Indians could have been established and protected at the proper time, the settlers under Florence canal, and also the settlers of the upper Gila valley, might have been prevented from diverting and appropriating these waters to the injury of the Indians, but in the absence of such legal provisions, and no steps having been taken at the proper time, and the settlers having been permitted without interference to establish homes, and create improvements of great valuation, and acquire vested rights, it is well-nigh impossible now to remedy the wrong, by undoing what has been done.” See also Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1904, 7. Commissioner William Jones devoted fourteen pages of his annual report to the discussion of Pima water abuses. “Gila River Priority Analysis, Water Distribution Chart # 3,” United States Indian Service, Irrigation, January 20, 1926, in the archive files of the San Carlos Irrigation Project (hereafter SCIP files), Coolidge, Arizona.

404 “Graves to Hitchcock, dated Pima Agency, Arizona, January 19, 1899,” p. 5, in Reports of Inspections, Roll 36.

405 Southworth interviews, statement of George Pablo, p. 29.



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 22 | 23 || 25 | 26 |   ...   | 50 |


Similar works:

«A STUDY OF CHILDREN’S MUSICAL PLAY AT THE LITTLE GYM A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Music Education In The School of Music by Alison Elaine Alexander B.A, Mercer University, 2003 B.M.E., Armstrong Atlantic State University, 2005 August 2012 To Connor and Brady, my inspirations! ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank my committee for their...»

«SAFER TO STEAL THAN SCORE: PRESS COVERAGE OF FINANCIAL AND SEXUAL SCANDALS, AND ELECTORAL OUTCOMES A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in The Manship School of Mass Communication by Chance York B.G.S., University of Kansas, 2008 M.S., Kansas State University, 2010 May 2014 ©Copyright 2014 Chance York All rights reserved ii...»

«Patient & Family Guide to Hospice Care Serving Colorado’s Front Range The Kingfisher, calm and at peace, nested upon water, quieter of restlessness. A Patient & Family Guide to Hospice Care To All, I just want you to know what an honor it is for Halcyon to be invited into your lives in such an intimate way. We are very much committed to living up to your expectations, wishes and desires. Halcyon is a clinician owned hospice. It’s vision is to provide patient centered care to people who...»

«Pak. J. Bot., 41(4): 1627-1635, 2009. DEVELOPMENT OF GENETIC LINKAGE MAP OF LEAF HAIRINESS IN GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM (COTTON) USING MOLECULAR MARKERS IFTIKHAR ALI1*, ABIDA KAUSAR1, MEHBOOB-UR-REHMAN3, YUSUF ZAFAR3, MUHAMMAD ASIF3, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF2, SANA RIAZ1, SARA ZAFAR1, ABDUL WAHID2, SOBIA MAQSOOD1, MUBASHIR NIAZ1 AND SYED QAISER ABBAS1 1 Department of Botany, GC University, Faisalabad, Pakistan 2 Department of Botany, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan 3 National Institute of...»

«SAFETY DATA SHEET Section 1. Identification Ammonia, Anhydrous Product Name: Synonyms: Ammonia CAS REGISTRY NO: 7664-41-7 Supplier: Tanner Industries, Inc. 735 Davisville Road, Third Floor Southampton, PA 18966 Website: www.tannerind.com Telephone (General): 215-322-1238 Corporate Emergency Telephone Number: 800-643-6226 Emergency Telephone Number: Chemtrec: 800-424-9300 Recommended Use: Various Industrial / Agricultural Section 2. Hazard(s) Identification Hazard: Acute Toxicity, Corrosive,...»

«RI Department of Environmental Management Local Agriculture and Seafood Act Grants Program 2016 GUIDELINES & INSTRUCTIONS The Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management, Division of Agriculture is accepting grant applications for the Local Agriculture and Seafood Act Grants Program. The goal of the program, which was established by the Local Agriculture and Seafood Act (LASA) of 2012, is to support the growth, development, and marketing of local food and seafood in Rhode Island. It is...»

«EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PURPLE PIGMENT FROM Chromobacterium violaceum GROWN IN AGRICULTURAL WASTES AKRAM NESHATI A Dissertation Submitted To The Faculty Of Science In Partial Fulfillment Of The Requirement For The Award Of The Degree In Masters of Science (Chemistry) Faculty of Science Universiti Teknologi Malaysia APRIL 2010 EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PURPLE PIGMENT FROM Chromobacterium violaceum GROWN IN AGRICULTURAL WASTES AKRAM NESHATI iii To my Beloved Mother and Father...»

«1 116173 NQF Level: US No: Assessment Guide Primary Agriculture Ev a lu a t e Ba s ic Ex t er n al An im al An atom y an d M o r p ho lo g y Assessor:.......................................... Workplace / Company:................................. Commodity:................... Date:................. The availability of this product is due to the financial support of the National...»

«Tsakiri, Ioannidis, Carty 1 LASER SCANNING ISSUES FOR THE GEOMETRICAL RECORDING OF A COMPLEX STATUE Maria TSAKIRI1, Charalambos IOANNIDIS1, Alistair CARTY2 1 School of Rural and Surveying Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Greece. 2 Archaeoptics Ltd, Glasgow, UK KEY WORDS: laser scanning, heritage applications, three-dimensional, close range, data capture ABSTRACT Recent advances in laser scanning technology allow for fast and efficient 3D documentation of cultural heritage...»

«ENVIRONMENTAL AND AGRONOMIC EVALUATION OF VALUE-ADDED NITROGEN FORTIFIED POULTRY LITTER AND BIOSOLIDS FERTILIZERS ENVIRONMENTAL AND AGRONOMIC EVALUATION OF VALUE-ADDED NITROGEN FORTIFIED POULTRY LITTER AND BIOSOLIDS FERTILIZERS A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences By Mark Stephen Reiter Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Bachelor of Science in Crop and Soil...»

«SOUT H ERN RURAL SOCIOLOGY, 24(2), 2009, pp. 169–191. Copyright © by the Southern Rural Sociological Association CREATING ALTERNATIVES: A PARTICIPANT OBSERVER’S REFLECTIONS ON THE EMERGING LOCAL FOOD SYSTEM IN KANSAS CITY* MARY HENDRICKSON UN IVERSIT Y OF M ISSOURI-COLUM BIA ABSTRACT The Missouri School has been known for its study of the structure of agriculture and food, and what affects structural arrangements have on farmers, communities, and environments. A lesser known aspect of the...»

«Case Study form the EETAP WG4 Draft Report: Representation and Who Decides in Energy Planning Case Study of Mae Moh Power Plant, Lampang The Mae Moh coalfired power plant is located in the mountains of the Mae Moh district in Lampang province, Northern Thailand. The fuel source of the power plant is a lignite coal mine occupying an area of 135 square kilometers, and is located near the plant itself. The plant consists of 13 generating units and has a capacity of 2,625 Megawatts, and is owned...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.