FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 10 | 11 || 13 | 14 |   ...   | 38 |

«Item type text; Dissertation-Reproduction (electronic) Authors Munro, Natalie Dawn Publisher The University of Arizona. Rights Copyright © is held ...»

-- [ Page 12 ] --

Table 4J: Frequencies of damage on small game assemblages recovered from Natufian deposits at Hayonim Cave, n/a (not applicable) is used in cases of small sample size or when information collected from the assemblage was incomplete. Numbers outside of parentheses are NISP values. Those inside parentheses represent the percentage of the assemblage expressing each damage type. Percentage of adults was calculated for ageable specimens only.

–  –  –

Table 4.4: Frequencies of damage on small game species recovered from Namfian deposits at Hayonim Cave, n/a (not applicable) is used in cases of small sample size or when information was unavailable.

Numbers outside of parentheses are NISP values. Those inside parentheses are the percent of the assemblage expressing each damage type. Percentage of adults was calculated for ageable specimens only.

The squirrel/hedgehog sample is eliminated from this analysis since sample sizes were inadequate (NISP = 3). Since there were no modified tortoise shells at Hilazon Tachtit, the tool mark values for the tortoise category refer to percussion marks only.

marks, intense fragmentation and fairly complete body part representation. The diurnal raptors also show high frequencies of burning and occasional tool marks, but their body

–  –  –

Hayonim Cave), in particular the terminal claws. The bones of raptors are also largely complete, but this is due primarily to the high frequencies of foot bones, which are small, compact, and less likely to fracture. Finally, bones of lizards, squirrels and hedgehogs are burned in lower frequencies, have lower rates of fragmentation, and lack secure indications of human inflicted damage, though some may have been eaten by humans.

Discussion of the Collectors of Small Game Assemblages Though several agencies potentially contributed to the collection of the faunal remains from Hayonim Cave and Hilazon Tachtit, the conditions at the two sites point more to some collectors than others. To begin, there is clear evidence that humans occupied both sites in the Natufian period and brought meat there for consumption. The natural architecture of the caves prevented large raptors from roosting or nesting inside of them; the ledges and crevices in both caves are too small to have supported large eagle or vulture nests. The current ceiling morphology was not significantly different during the Natufian period at Hayonim Cave, as indicated by the lack of roof fall in succeeding layers, but at Hilazon Tachtit the Natufian layer may rest partially on top of roof collapse (Grosman n.d.).

Owls, however, are a different story, since they seek out dark crevices inside caves to roost and bear young, and they do not build elaborate nests. The bam owl in particular, has a long history of residence at Hayonim Cave (Tchemov 1993a; Pichon 1991). It's bones have been recovered from several archaeological levels, and individuals continue to inhabit the cave today, contributing microfauna to the sediments even during

–  –  –

Finally, it is likely that any collector responsible for a substantial portion of the fauna at either of the two caves will contribute some of its own remains to the site. The sizes of the bone accumulations at both sites are substantial and required repeated foraging trips over many years to amass. It is expected that over the course of accumulation a proportion of the predators or their young would have died at the site and thus some of the collectors' bones will be mixed in with the archaeological layers. At Hayonim Cave and Hilazon Tachtit, the bones of several predators were recovered (Table 4.5). It is likely that any non-human predator responsible for a portion of the Natufian faunas is included in this list. Though this evidence is largely circumstantial, it does help to narrow the range of potential collectors. It is the damage on the bones, however, that provides the most reliable evidence for the identity of the bone collectors.

–  –  –

Tortoises, Hares and Partridges. The body part representation and the damage sustained by tortoises, hares, and partridges (Tables 4.3 and 4.4) closely matches the predictions laid out in Table 4.2 for human predation, particularly at Hayonim Cave. The tortoises of Hayonim Cave show especially clear evidence of human processing activity, with 6.5% of the assemblage providing definite signs of modification, particularly on carapace fragments. Most tortoise body parts except for the most fi-agile and minute elements (e.g., vertebrae, cranial fragments, mandibles and phalanges) are well represented, and the assemblage was burned at a rate of 14.3%. Evidence for raptor or carnivore activity was recorded on only 4 tortoise shell fragments (l%). Two cases of puncturing and two of corrosion, polish and pitting possibly caused by digestion were observed in the Hayonim assemblage, though no evidence of this was found on tortoises from Hilazon Tachtit.

Tool marks on hare bones (NISP = 3 at Hayonim Cave, NISP = 0 at Hilazon Tachtit) provide clear evidence for human use, but not surprisingly, are quite rare. Hares are also represented by a complete spectrum of body parts at both sites, though some elements (e.g., limb bones) are somewhat better represented than others (see Tables 5.6 and 5.7 and Figure 5.4 for details). At Hayonim Cave, burning provides the best evidence for the processing of hares by humans. The hare assemblage displays inflated frequencies of burning (27.1%), often at high intensities (52.6% of burned bones are at least partially calcined), in comparison to all other prey taxa. The frequency of burned hare bones greatly exceeds that of any other species at Hayonim Cave, and falls well

–  –  –

resulted from human actions, either through cooking and/or habitual deposition in or near hearth areas (the unusual proportions of burning on hare bones will be discussed further in Chapter 5). Evidence for the activity of non-human predators on hare bones is limited to two punctures and two cases of corrosion, polishing and pitting, most probably caused by the digestive acids of camivores or predatory birds.

Figure 4.4: Distal partridge tibiotarsi from Hayonim Cave.

These specimens were not cut, but were broken naturally, though they closely resemble beads cut from the distal end of the tibiotarsus shaft found at the site and cut from the distal end of the tibiotarsus shaft.

The Hayonim partridges also bear clear indications of human use. Cut marks are slightly more abundant on partridge bones than on any other small game category, but still constitute less than one percentage of the sample (NISP = 7). In many instances (NISP = 40), the distal tibiotarsi have been cut just above the condyle, apparently to take advantage of the natural foramen in the articular end (see Figure 4.4). The trimmed ends were then fashioned into beads, such as the bracelet composed of 20 distal tibiotarsi recovered from the wrist of Homo 25 in Grave VIII/IX (Belfer-Cohen 1988; Pichon 1983). Interestingly, while a full range of partridge body parts are represented at

–  –  –

unmodified. The potential secondary function of this element may have governed the zeal with which it was collected and curated by human foragers.

The partridge remains are burned at a frequency of 16.8%, exceeding the percentage of burning on some other taxa collected by humans, such as gazelle and tortoise, but not hare. Two puncture marks and 13 examples of digestive polish (1% of assemblage) were also identified on partridge bones. Though the punctures may provide evidence for carnivore activity, there are no signs of digestive damage other than these few instances of polish. But polish may occur on bone as a result of several processes that involve repeated rubbing of a bone against a surface, either by wear from use, or abrasion by fine sediments following deposition. When "polish" results fi-om gastric acids, other evidence for corrosion is expected to co-occur, including pitting and the thinning of compact bone, but is not the case here.

The partridge bones from Hilazon Tachtit are more problematic, particularly because of the smaller size of the sample (partridge NISP = 43). Even if partridges were collected by humans, they did not compose a significant portion of the diet.

Approximately equal numbers (NISP = 50) of swifl {Apus sp.) elements were recovered from Hilazon Tachtit. Swifts spend most of their adult life in flight, but nest and feed in steep cliff environments such as those around Hilazon Tachtit. Swifts are still abundant in the area today as well as along other cliffs of the Mediterranean rim. Swifl bones occur throughout the bumed deposits lying above the Natufian layer in Hilazon Tachtit, which accumulated at a time when humans were not living in the cave. Swift bones are

–  –  –

1984), apparently because there are no suitable nest sites nearby. At Hilazon there is a mixed layer between the burned dung layer and the Natufian cultural layer. Some artifacts and bones migrated between the layers forming a transition zone which becomes clearly Natufian only by a depth of approximately 2.95 m (Grosman n.d.). Because the division of the layers was initially unclear, sieving and data collection began at a depth of approximately 2.30 m.


–  –  –

Figure 4.S: Proportion of swift (Apus sp.

) versus partridge {Alectoris chukar) remains from Hilazon Tachtit by arbitrary level. Sample sizes for the two species are similar (swift NISP = 50, partridge NISP = 43).

It is possible to compare the representation of swifts and partridges recovered from the burned deposits, the transition zone, and the Natufian layer. Figure 4.5 shows a clear reversal in the relative frequencies of swifts and partridges, with swift dominated assemblages in the bumed layers and transition zone to the partridge-rich Natufian layer.

–  –  –

activity in the Natufian layer. A small percentage of elements may have migrated into the Natufian layer from above, but the abrupt change in avian species composition indicates that the taxa preferred by humans are not the same as those that were naturally attracted to the site when humans were not present or rarely present.

In addition to frequent evidence for human modification on tortoise, partridge and hare bones from Hayonim Cave and Hilazon Tachtit, each of these species are also much more abundant in the Natufian layer of Hayonim Cave. The evidence for human collection and use of these three prey types is widespread and clear, while evidence for collection by raptors and carnivores is virtually absent. It is therefore with certainty that I conclude that these three species were collected and consumed nearly if not exclusively by humans.

Diurnal Raptors (Falconiformes). The remains of raptors from Hayonim Cave and Hilazon Tachtit meet many of the same criteria that identify partridges, hares and tortoises as animals collected by humans. Raptor bones are burned at high frequencies (18.4%) comparable to or greater than the burning rates for human-collected gazelles and tortoises. A few Falconiforme elements also bear cut marks (NISP = 2 at Hayonim Cave), directly attesting to use in rare cases. Falconiforme body part representation, however, is strongly biased in favor of toe elements. While NISP is used in Figure 4.6 to illustrate the overrepresentation of all toe elements, it should be kept in mind that, if anything, the use of NISP de-emphasizes the dominance of toe elements, since Falconiforme toes in the assemblage are nearly always complete whereas limb bones are

–  –  –

Figure 4.6: The representation of Falconiforme elements from Hayonim Cave (a) and Hilazon Tachtit (b).

collected by humans, but implicates humans as the most likely collector. No other predator is expected to transport lower limb and especially toe bones of Falconiformes to

–  –  –

with any meat. The toes of Falconiformes are frequently overrepresented in Levantine Paleolithic sites (Kuhn et al. n.d.; Pichon 1984; Rabinovich 1997; Tchemov 1993a), and were often used as ornaments or talismans. There is no clear evidence (i.e., modification) for the ornamental use of raptor toes in the Natufian sites examined here, but the unusual body part profile is most likely the product of human selectivity. Carnivores can be dismissed as collectors, as gnawing on Falconiforme bones is limited to only two punctures, and natural deaths can be ruled out due to incomplete body part representation and the high fragmentation of elements other than small compact toes. It is therefore concluded that the majority of the Falconiforme assemblage was collected by humans, though their fiinction was significantly different than that of tortoises, partridges, or hares (see Chapter 5).

Lizards, Hedgehogs and Squirrels. The collectors of lizards, squirrels and hedgehogs are less easily determined. Although 13.6% of lizard bones and 8.0% of squirrels and hedgehog remains from Hayonim Cave are burned, these rates are somewhat lower than for other small animal species from the site. Though, these percentages may seem high compared to many faunal assemblages, all taxa at Hayonim Cave, including intrusive micro fauna, is bumed at fairly high frequencies as a result of secondary burning events within the cave (see Chapter 5). These percentages are thus low in comparison to more unequivocal food species at Hayonim Cave. Though some burning is likely to have occurred as a result of secondary processes, the results can not be fully dismissed. Unfortunately, no other damage categories show clear evidence for

–  –  –

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 10 | 11 || 13 | 14 |   ...   | 38 |

Similar works:

«The Sword of Damocles: Pima Agriculture, Water Use and Water Rights, 1848-1921 Item type text; Electronic Dissertation Authors DeJong, David Henry Publisher The University of Arizona. Rights Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author....»

«Patient & Family Guide to Hospice Care Serving Colorado’s Front Range The Kingfisher, calm and at peace, nested upon water, quieter of restlessness. A Patient & Family Guide to Hospice Care To All, I just want you to know what an honor it is for Halcyon to be invited into your lives in such an intimate way. We are very much committed to living up to your expectations, wishes and desires. Halcyon is a clinician owned hospice. It’s vision is to provide patient centered care to people who...»

«Assessing the Alliance for Green Revolution in Africa August 2009 Report Contributions: Sam Moyo, Walter Chambati, Tendai Murisa and Amade Sucá TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION 2. THE CONTEXT: DECLINING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY 3. OVERVIEW OF THE AGRA PROJECT 3.1 Background 3.2 Principles and policies: defining the problem and interventions 3.3 Programmes and their implementation 3.4 The actors and partnerships involved 3.4.1 AGRA Leadership 3.4.2 Implementation partnerships 3.4.3 AGRA and...»

«THE LATENT LANDSCAPE A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Fine Arts in The School of Art by May Ann Babcock B.F.A., University of Connecticut, 2008 May, 2011 TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES ABSTRACT THE LATENT LANDSCAPE BIBLIOGRAPHY VITA 
 LIST OF FIGURES 1. May Ann Babcock, Cinclaire Study 1, Handmade Paper, Monotype, Paper Cast...»

«52 Chimera 26: Geographical Journal, University College Cork Suburbia: social and spatial trends that emerged in Celtic Tiger Ireland. Matthew Williams Department of Geography, University College Cork, Ireland. Long after the roar of the “Celtic Tiger” has become inaudible; its effects remain in the form of ghost estates, incomplete rural development and inadequate service provision across the Irish landscape. This paper will give a brief account of suburban housing development in Ireland...»

«ENVIRONMENTAL AND AGRONOMIC EVALUATION OF VALUE-ADDED NITROGEN FORTIFIED POULTRY LITTER AND BIOSOLIDS FERTILIZERS ENVIRONMENTAL AND AGRONOMIC EVALUATION OF VALUE-ADDED NITROGEN FORTIFIED POULTRY LITTER AND BIOSOLIDS FERTILIZERS A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences By Mark Stephen Reiter Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Bachelor of Science in Crop and Soil...»

«International Journal of Plant Production 1(1), March 2007 ISSN 1735-6814 GUASNR This is a refereed journal and all articles are professionally screened and reviewed. www.ijpp.info Tea yield and soil properties as affected by slope position and aspect in Lahijan area, Iran F. Khormalia,*, Sh. Ayoubia, F. Kananro Foomania, A. Fatemib, Kh. Hemmatic a Department of Soil Science, cDepartment of Horticulture, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran. b Tea...»

«Tsakiri, Ioannidis, Carty 1 LASER SCANNING ISSUES FOR THE GEOMETRICAL RECORDING OF A COMPLEX STATUE Maria TSAKIRI1, Charalambos IOANNIDIS1, Alistair CARTY2 1 School of Rural and Surveying Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Greece. 2 Archaeoptics Ltd, Glasgow, UK KEY WORDS: laser scanning, heritage applications, three-dimensional, close range, data capture ABSTRACT Recent advances in laser scanning technology allow for fast and efficient 3D documentation of cultural heritage...»

«RI Department of Environmental Management Local Agriculture and Seafood Act Grants Program 2016 GUIDELINES & INSTRUCTIONS The Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management, Division of Agriculture is accepting grant applications for the Local Agriculture and Seafood Act Grants Program. The goal of the program, which was established by the Local Agriculture and Seafood Act (LASA) of 2012, is to support the growth, development, and marketing of local food and seafood in Rhode Island. It is...»

«A GREAT KOREAN MUSIC PIONEER MIN-CHONG PARK: A PERFORMANCE GUIDE OF HIS SELECTED VIOLIN WORKS A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Doctor of Musical Arts in The School of Music by Sin Myung Min B.A., Kookmin University, 2006 M.M., Temple University, 2009 December 2014 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express my deep appreciation to the members of my...»

«2013 South Dakota Crop Protection Guide Corn Weed Control (text) Weeds: Mike Moechnig, Darrell L. Deneke, Leon J. Wrage, Jill Alms, Dave Vos, and Mark Rosenberg Insects: Adrianna Szczepaniec and Buyung Hadi Diseases: Kay Ruden “This document represents only a portion of the 2013 Corn Crop Protection Guide. The complete guide is available at iGrow.org. Information in this publicationis based on SDSU and other research and observations and provides a summary of label recommendations. It is not...»

«SOUT H ERN RURAL SOCIOLOGY, 24(2), 2009, pp. 169–191. Copyright © by the Southern Rural Sociological Association CREATING ALTERNATIVES: A PARTICIPANT OBSERVER’S REFLECTIONS ON THE EMERGING LOCAL FOOD SYSTEM IN KANSAS CITY* MARY HENDRICKSON UN IVERSIT Y OF M ISSOURI-COLUM BIA ABSTRACT The Missouri School has been known for its study of the structure of agriculture and food, and what affects structural arrangements have on farmers, communities, and environments. A lesser known aspect of the...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.