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«Item type text; Dissertation-Reproduction (electronic) Authors Munro, Natalie Dawn Publisher The University of Arizona. Rights Copyright © is held ...»

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238-240). Under ideal conditions, the MNE derived from each portion is expected to be equal. Underrepresented portions are assumed to be either missing from the assemblage or fragmented beyond recognition. The NISP and MNE data for the shaft, and articular ends of gazelle long bones, including the scapula, humerus, radius, ulna, femur, and tibia from Hilazon Tachtit and Hayonim Cave are presented in Table 4.8.

The results from the two sites are similar. Both show unequal representation of shaft, proximal and distal portions of gazelle long bones. MNEs derived from the proximal ulna and scapula (glenoid fossa) far outweigh those calculated from shafts and

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significantly higher quantities of distal ends. MNEs derived from the proximal and distal ends of the radius and femur are nearly equal, except in the case of the radii from Hilazon Tachtit. Finally, in no case was the MNE calculated from shafts the highest for an element (see Table 4.8). In general, the representation of long bone ends seems to be explained by differences in bone density (following Lyman 1984,1994: 235). Portions known to have low densities such as the proximal humerus are underrepresented by up to ten times in comparison to the opposite and denser end.

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Table 4.8: MNE counts of complete, proximal, shaft and distal limb portions of gazelle elements from Hayonim Cave (HAYC) and Hilazon Tachtit (HLZT).

NISP values are indicated in parentheses.

The results presented in Table 4.8 summarize the probable influence of densitymediated processes over postcranial attrition in the Natufian layers from both Hayonim Cave and Hilazon Tachtit. The strength of the influence of mineral density on skeletal representation is probed further using Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficient.

Proxy mineral density values (in g/cm^) for gazelle postcranial bones are taken from

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values from pronghom are preferred over those of sheep because antelope have long, gracile bones similar to gazelles, and, although they are somewhat larger in overall stature, density is expressed on a relative scale ranging from 0 to I. Lyman obtained his values by measuring structural density at a series of scan sites on each element. Scan sites were chosen to represent the range of variation in bone density within a single element and often correspond to unique markings or features (see Lyman 1994: 240-241 for illustrations of scan sites and a review). The coding system used in this study divides bones primarily into shaft, distal, and proximal regions that are not always directly comparable to Lyman's scan sites, but they are close. Instead the maximum rather than the average value of the density measures taken from each of the portions used here is adopted (see Table 4.9). For the tests that follow, additional elements with high density (astragalus and calcaneum) are added to the long bone sample to maximize the range of bone densities considered. Teeth are excluded from this analysis, since their mineral composition greatly exceeds any bone, and is thus much less affected by attritional processes than bone.

The relative representation of bone portions in the assemblage was determined by calculating each portion's survivorship in relation to the most common portion (following Lyman 1994: 239). This method assumes that the bone portion providing the highest MAU for any bone element in the assemblage represents the absolute number of that bone originally deposited in the assemblage. The percent survivorship of each bone portion is calculated by dividing its MNE first by the number of times the portion is

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element (% survivorship = [MNE of portion/# of that portion in a complete skeleton]/MNI, in other words MAU/MNI). The maximum MNE for gazelle in both assemblages (Hayonim Cave MNE = 80, Hilazon Tachtit MNE = 10) is derived from the distal himierus and is used as a baseline against which the survivorship of all other portions in the assemblage are measured (see Table 4.9).

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Table 4.9: Bone density and percentage survivorship values for shaft, proximal, and distal end portions of gazelle limb bones from Hayonim Cave and Hilazon Tachtit.

Bone density for gazelle is approximated using Lyman's (1984) density values for pronghom antelope {Antilocapra americana). The maximum rather than the average density value for the scan sites found on each portion are used here. Percent survivorship is calculated by dividing a portion's MNE by the maximum MNE. In this case MNEs were not standardized since all portions are represented in pairs in the skeleton.

The significance of the relationship between bone density and survivorship is

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density values are provided here, these measures are averaged from only a few individuals and do not account for the range of variation within a species caused by differences in age, nutrition, and other factors (Lyman 1994). However, among mature adults, mineral density gradients are similar among Artiodactyl and Perissodactyl species (Lam et al. 1999). Here, density values from one species are considered analogous for a different though structurally similar species. Spearman's correlation coefficient ranks and then compares the density and survivorship values. The scatter diagram in Figure 4.8 plots bone density against percent survivorship for the portions of gazelle long bones from Hayonim Cave (data in Table 4.9). The relationship is significant at the.05 level of probability (rj = 0.546, P.05, n = 17), but the correlation is not very strong. A second scatterplot (Figure 4.9) presents the same data but with the bone shafts removed. In this case the correlation between bone density and survivorship is stronger and significant at the.001 level of probability (rj = 0.759, P.001, n = 13). Both tests show that densitymediated attrition played a role in shaping the Hayonim Cave ungulate assemblages.





However, the question concerning the causes of the attrition remains unanswered.

Though none of the true bone eaters (e.g., hyenas) were a serious problem at the Natufian sites, the Natufians possessed sophisticated groundstone technology and may have kept dogs, both of which may preferentially destroy low density bone. The decomposition of bone by chemical dissolution following its deposition in the archaeological record is another possible source of density-mediated attrition but

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that dogs were not a major destructive agent in Natufian assemblages, though human activities, such as bone grinding, butchering, and trampling, may have been.

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Figure 4.8: Scatterplot of bone mineral density versus percent survivorship of shaft, proximal and distal end portions of gazelle limb bones from Hayonim Cave.

Bone density for gazelle is approximated using Lyman's (1984) density values for pronghom antelope {Antilocapra americana). r,= 0.546, P.001 (n = 17).

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Gazelle long bone shafts are well represented in the Hayonim Cave assemblage, but the relationship between structural density and bone survivorship is stronger when shafts are removed from analysis. Though in many cases, the cortical bone of shaft fragments is denser than one or both articular ends of the same element, there are several taphonomic processes that contribute to the fragmentation and destruction of long bone shafts, an important factor is bone processing by humans since shafts encase the energyrich marrow cavity. The fragmentation of long bone shafts and pattems of densitymediated attrition will be explored further in the discussion of game processing and butchering in Chapter 5.

The low intensity of damage on bone surfaces discussed earlier suggests that the Hayonim assemblage was not greatly biased by non-human processes of in situ decomposition. But can these factors be eliminated as causes of density-mediated attrition in the gazelle assemblage? Because in situ processes as defined by this study operate following disposal, they are not expected to discriminate between taxonomic categories.

If non-human causes of in situ decomposition are responsible for density-mediated attrition, the body part representation of taxa other than ungulates should be affected as well. To test this prediction, the relationship between bone density and survivorship is presented for the hares from Hayonim Cave. Though hares differ significantly from gazelles in body size, their skeletal density varies more within and between elements, particularly in the cranium which includes several regions of low density fenestrated bone

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Table 4.10: Bone density and percent survivorship values of the shaft, proximal and distal portions of hare limb bones from Hayonim Cave.

Bone density for hare is approximated using Pavao and Stahl's (1999) density values for California jackrabbit (Lepus californicus). Maximum density values are used for each portion. Percent survivorship is calculated by dividing the MAU of a portion by the maximum MNI.

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Bone density values for hare were adapted from Pavao and Stahl's (1999) measurements for the black-tailed jackrabbit (Lepus californiciis), which is closely related to the cape hare {Lepus capensis) of the Levant and similar in body size and locomotor structure. Density and percent survivorship values for the Hayonim hares are presented in Table 4.10. The correlation between survivorship and bone density is insignificant both when bone shafts are included (r^ = 0.393, n = 21; see Figure 4.11) and when they are not (r^ = 0.271, n = 15). If the shaft and distal end of the ulna are excluded from the analysis due to their inordinately low densities, the relation between bone density and survivorship diminishes even further (r^ = 0.198, n = 19). A comparison between the scatter plot for hare (Figure 4.10) and those for gazelle (Figures 4.9 and 4.10), emphasizes the difference in the relationship between bone density and survivorship for the two taxa. The survivorship of gazelle bone portions appear to have been strongly mediated by bone density, while the survival of hare bones not at all. A dichotomy in the relationship between bone survivorship and mineral density among taxa indicates that, though forces of density-mediated attrition were at work in the Hayonim assemblage, they are not strongly determined by chemical decomposition or other nonhuman in situ processes that are expected to affect taxa equally.

Conclusions for In Situ Bone Attrition In sum, low incidences and intensities of surface damage and good agreement between MNIs calculated from teeth and cranial bones from several mammalian species indicate that the faunal assemblages from Hayonim Cave and Hilazon Tachtit are

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correlate with the survivorship of gazelle body-parts, this is not true for another commonly represented mammal, hares. Some taxa (e.g., gazelle) were subjected to processes mediated more by bone density than others. All, however, were collected by humans, eliminating the possibility that the biases among species were caused by noncultural in situ processes of decomposition. It is likely that variation between taxa was caused primarily by their differential treatment by human consumers during activities such as body transport, butchering, bone processing, and trampling. This conclusion is

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This research on animal remains addresses broader questions about human site use intensity, taking archaeozoological data a step beyond traditional economic analyses.

It is first necessary to establish the function of prey species and their various body parts within the human economic and social system. This chapter reconstructs the passage of prey species through the Natufian cultural filter, from the time they were hunted to their deposition in the archaeological record.

Transport decisions, butchering, cooking, and the use of skeletal tissue for raw materials all potentially result in the fracture of and damage to archaeological bone.

Following disposal, humans may further modify bones by trampling them, moving fill, or by building fires close to trash. This discussion sequentially examines the transport, butchering, and consumption of key prey species as food and as sources of raw materials during the Natufian. The evidence from Chapter 4 points overwhelmingly to humans as both the bone-collectors and the major sources of attrition in both the Hayonim Cave and Hilazon Tachtit assemblages.

This chapter is divided into two sections. The first deals with the transport of prey body parts from the kill to the living site and the second with the butchery and consumption of animal carcasses once they reached Hayonim Cave and Hilazon Tachtit.

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Many animals transport food to gain important energetic advantages that can not be had at the kill or collection site. Food is most often transported to monopolize or protect it, to optimize reproduction by provisioning young, to share with other group members, or to gain a processing advantage through access to special equipment (Binford 1978, 1981; Brain 1981 Gifford-Gonzales 1993; Isaac 1983; O'Connell et al. 1988; Stiner 1993). Most models of prey transport are based on principles of cost/benefits. They assume that a predator's transport decisions are constrained by the weight of the prey, and the distance over which it must be transported (Binford 1978, 1981; Perkins and Daly 1968, and others). Secondary factors, such as the time of day, the number of human carriers, the season of capture, and other plans a hunter may have when prey is encountered also figure into the transport equation (Bartram et al. 1991; Bunn et al. 1988;



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