FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 12 | 13 || 15 | 16 |   ...   | 38 |

«Item type text; Dissertation-Reproduction (electronic) Authors Munro, Natalie Dawn Publisher The University of Arizona. Rights Copyright © is held ...»

-- [ Page 14 ] --

238-240). Under ideal conditions, the MNE derived from each portion is expected to be equal. Underrepresented portions are assumed to be either missing from the assemblage or fragmented beyond recognition. The NISP and MNE data for the shaft, and articular ends of gazelle long bones, including the scapula, humerus, radius, ulna, femur, and tibia from Hilazon Tachtit and Hayonim Cave are presented in Table 4.8.

The results from the two sites are similar. Both show unequal representation of shaft, proximal and distal portions of gazelle long bones. MNEs derived from the proximal ulna and scapula (glenoid fossa) far outweigh those calculated from shafts and

–  –  –

significantly higher quantities of distal ends. MNEs derived from the proximal and distal ends of the radius and femur are nearly equal, except in the case of the radii from Hilazon Tachtit. Finally, in no case was the MNE calculated from shafts the highest for an element (see Table 4.8). In general, the representation of long bone ends seems to be explained by differences in bone density (following Lyman 1984,1994: 235). Portions known to have low densities such as the proximal humerus are underrepresented by up to ten times in comparison to the opposite and denser end.

–  –  –

Table 4.8: MNE counts of complete, proximal, shaft and distal limb portions of gazelle elements from Hayonim Cave (HAYC) and Hilazon Tachtit (HLZT).

NISP values are indicated in parentheses.

The results presented in Table 4.8 summarize the probable influence of densitymediated processes over postcranial attrition in the Natufian layers from both Hayonim Cave and Hilazon Tachtit. The strength of the influence of mineral density on skeletal representation is probed further using Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficient.

Proxy mineral density values (in g/cm^) for gazelle postcranial bones are taken from

–  –  –

values from pronghom are preferred over those of sheep because antelope have long, gracile bones similar to gazelles, and, although they are somewhat larger in overall stature, density is expressed on a relative scale ranging from 0 to I. Lyman obtained his values by measuring structural density at a series of scan sites on each element. Scan sites were chosen to represent the range of variation in bone density within a single element and often correspond to unique markings or features (see Lyman 1994: 240-241 for illustrations of scan sites and a review). The coding system used in this study divides bones primarily into shaft, distal, and proximal regions that are not always directly comparable to Lyman's scan sites, but they are close. Instead the maximum rather than the average value of the density measures taken from each of the portions used here is adopted (see Table 4.9). For the tests that follow, additional elements with high density (astragalus and calcaneum) are added to the long bone sample to maximize the range of bone densities considered. Teeth are excluded from this analysis, since their mineral composition greatly exceeds any bone, and is thus much less affected by attritional processes than bone.

The relative representation of bone portions in the assemblage was determined by calculating each portion's survivorship in relation to the most common portion (following Lyman 1994: 239). This method assumes that the bone portion providing the highest MAU for any bone element in the assemblage represents the absolute number of that bone originally deposited in the assemblage. The percent survivorship of each bone portion is calculated by dividing its MNE first by the number of times the portion is

–  –  –

element (% survivorship = [MNE of portion/# of that portion in a complete skeleton]/MNI, in other words MAU/MNI). The maximum MNE for gazelle in both assemblages (Hayonim Cave MNE = 80, Hilazon Tachtit MNE = 10) is derived from the distal himierus and is used as a baseline against which the survivorship of all other portions in the assemblage are measured (see Table 4.9).

–  –  –

Table 4.9: Bone density and percentage survivorship values for shaft, proximal, and distal end portions of gazelle limb bones from Hayonim Cave and Hilazon Tachtit.

Bone density for gazelle is approximated using Lyman's (1984) density values for pronghom antelope {Antilocapra americana). The maximum rather than the average density value for the scan sites found on each portion are used here. Percent survivorship is calculated by dividing a portion's MNE by the maximum MNE. In this case MNEs were not standardized since all portions are represented in pairs in the skeleton.

The significance of the relationship between bone density and survivorship is

–  –  –

density values are provided here, these measures are averaged from only a few individuals and do not account for the range of variation within a species caused by differences in age, nutrition, and other factors (Lyman 1994). However, among mature adults, mineral density gradients are similar among Artiodactyl and Perissodactyl species (Lam et al. 1999). Here, density values from one species are considered analogous for a different though structurally similar species. Spearman's correlation coefficient ranks and then compares the density and survivorship values. The scatter diagram in Figure 4.8 plots bone density against percent survivorship for the portions of gazelle long bones from Hayonim Cave (data in Table 4.9). The relationship is significant at the.05 level of probability (rj = 0.546, P.05, n = 17), but the correlation is not very strong. A second scatterplot (Figure 4.9) presents the same data but with the bone shafts removed. In this case the correlation between bone density and survivorship is stronger and significant at the.001 level of probability (rj = 0.759, P.001, n = 13). Both tests show that densitymediated attrition played a role in shaping the Hayonim Cave ungulate assemblages.

However, the question concerning the causes of the attrition remains unanswered.

Though none of the true bone eaters (e.g., hyenas) were a serious problem at the Natufian sites, the Natufians possessed sophisticated groundstone technology and may have kept dogs, both of which may preferentially destroy low density bone. The decomposition of bone by chemical dissolution following its deposition in the archaeological record is another possible source of density-mediated attrition but

–  –  –

that dogs were not a major destructive agent in Natufian assemblages, though human activities, such as bone grinding, butchering, and trampling, may have been.

–  –  –

Figure 4.8: Scatterplot of bone mineral density versus percent survivorship of shaft, proximal and distal end portions of gazelle limb bones from Hayonim Cave.

Bone density for gazelle is approximated using Lyman's (1984) density values for pronghom antelope {Antilocapra americana). r,= 0.546, P.001 (n = 17).

–  –  –

Gazelle long bone shafts are well represented in the Hayonim Cave assemblage, but the relationship between structural density and bone survivorship is stronger when shafts are removed from analysis. Though in many cases, the cortical bone of shaft fragments is denser than one or both articular ends of the same element, there are several taphonomic processes that contribute to the fragmentation and destruction of long bone shafts, an important factor is bone processing by humans since shafts encase the energyrich marrow cavity. The fragmentation of long bone shafts and pattems of densitymediated attrition will be explored further in the discussion of game processing and butchering in Chapter 5.

The low intensity of damage on bone surfaces discussed earlier suggests that the Hayonim assemblage was not greatly biased by non-human processes of in situ decomposition. But can these factors be eliminated as causes of density-mediated attrition in the gazelle assemblage? Because in situ processes as defined by this study operate following disposal, they are not expected to discriminate between taxonomic categories.

If non-human causes of in situ decomposition are responsible for density-mediated attrition, the body part representation of taxa other than ungulates should be affected as well. To test this prediction, the relationship between bone density and survivorship is presented for the hares from Hayonim Cave. Though hares differ significantly from gazelles in body size, their skeletal density varies more within and between elements, particularly in the cranium which includes several regions of low density fenestrated bone

–  –  –

Table 4.10: Bone density and percent survivorship values of the shaft, proximal and distal portions of hare limb bones from Hayonim Cave.

Bone density for hare is approximated using Pavao and Stahl's (1999) density values for California jackrabbit (Lepus californicus). Maximum density values are used for each portion. Percent survivorship is calculated by dividing the MAU of a portion by the maximum MNI.

–  –  –

Bone density values for hare were adapted from Pavao and Stahl's (1999) measurements for the black-tailed jackrabbit (Lepus californiciis), which is closely related to the cape hare {Lepus capensis) of the Levant and similar in body size and locomotor structure. Density and percent survivorship values for the Hayonim hares are presented in Table 4.10. The correlation between survivorship and bone density is insignificant both when bone shafts are included (r^ = 0.393, n = 21; see Figure 4.11) and when they are not (r^ = 0.271, n = 15). If the shaft and distal end of the ulna are excluded from the analysis due to their inordinately low densities, the relation between bone density and survivorship diminishes even further (r^ = 0.198, n = 19). A comparison between the scatter plot for hare (Figure 4.10) and those for gazelle (Figures 4.9 and 4.10), emphasizes the difference in the relationship between bone density and survivorship for the two taxa. The survivorship of gazelle bone portions appear to have been strongly mediated by bone density, while the survival of hare bones not at all. A dichotomy in the relationship between bone survivorship and mineral density among taxa indicates that, though forces of density-mediated attrition were at work in the Hayonim assemblage, they are not strongly determined by chemical decomposition or other nonhuman in situ processes that are expected to affect taxa equally.

Conclusions for In Situ Bone Attrition In sum, low incidences and intensities of surface damage and good agreement between MNIs calculated from teeth and cranial bones from several mammalian species indicate that the faunal assemblages from Hayonim Cave and Hilazon Tachtit are

–  –  –

correlate with the survivorship of gazelle body-parts, this is not true for another commonly represented mammal, hares. Some taxa (e.g., gazelle) were subjected to processes mediated more by bone density than others. All, however, were collected by humans, eliminating the possibility that the biases among species were caused by noncultural in situ processes of decomposition. It is likely that variation between taxa was caused primarily by their differential treatment by human consumers during activities such as body transport, butchering, bone processing, and trampling. This conclusion is

–  –  –

This research on animal remains addresses broader questions about human site use intensity, taking archaeozoological data a step beyond traditional economic analyses.

It is first necessary to establish the function of prey species and their various body parts within the human economic and social system. This chapter reconstructs the passage of prey species through the Natufian cultural filter, from the time they were hunted to their deposition in the archaeological record.

Transport decisions, butchering, cooking, and the use of skeletal tissue for raw materials all potentially result in the fracture of and damage to archaeological bone.

Following disposal, humans may further modify bones by trampling them, moving fill, or by building fires close to trash. This discussion sequentially examines the transport, butchering, and consumption of key prey species as food and as sources of raw materials during the Natufian. The evidence from Chapter 4 points overwhelmingly to humans as both the bone-collectors and the major sources of attrition in both the Hayonim Cave and Hilazon Tachtit assemblages.

This chapter is divided into two sections. The first deals with the transport of prey body parts from the kill to the living site and the second with the butchery and consumption of animal carcasses once they reached Hayonim Cave and Hilazon Tachtit.

–  –  –

Many animals transport food to gain important energetic advantages that can not be had at the kill or collection site. Food is most often transported to monopolize or protect it, to optimize reproduction by provisioning young, to share with other group members, or to gain a processing advantage through access to special equipment (Binford 1978, 1981; Brain 1981 Gifford-Gonzales 1993; Isaac 1983; O'Connell et al. 1988; Stiner 1993). Most models of prey transport are based on principles of cost/benefits. They assume that a predator's transport decisions are constrained by the weight of the prey, and the distance over which it must be transported (Binford 1978, 1981; Perkins and Daly 1968, and others). Secondary factors, such as the time of day, the number of human carriers, the season of capture, and other plans a hunter may have when prey is encountered also figure into the transport equation (Bartram et al. 1991; Bunn et al. 1988;

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 12 | 13 || 15 | 16 |   ...   | 38 |

Similar works:

«International Journal of Plant Production 1(1), March 2007 ISSN 1735-6814 GUASNR This is a refereed journal and all articles are professionally screened and reviewed. www.ijpp.info Tea yield and soil properties as affected by slope position and aspect in Lahijan area, Iran F. Khormalia,*, Sh. Ayoubia, F. Kananro Foomania, A. Fatemib, Kh. Hemmatic a Department of Soil Science, cDepartment of Horticulture, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran. b Tea...»

«A STUDY OF CHILDREN’S MUSICAL PLAY AT THE LITTLE GYM A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Music Education In The School of Music by Alison Elaine Alexander B.A, Mercer University, 2003 B.M.E., Armstrong Atlantic State University, 2005 August 2012 To Connor and Brady, my inspirations! ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank my committee for their...»

«Tsakiri, Ioannidis, Carty 1 LASER SCANNING ISSUES FOR THE GEOMETRICAL RECORDING OF A COMPLEX STATUE Maria TSAKIRI1, Charalambos IOANNIDIS1, Alistair CARTY2 1 School of Rural and Surveying Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Greece. 2 Archaeoptics Ltd, Glasgow, UK KEY WORDS: laser scanning, heritage applications, three-dimensional, close range, data capture ABSTRACT Recent advances in laser scanning technology allow for fast and efficient 3D documentation of cultural heritage...»


«THE LATENT LANDSCAPE A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Fine Arts in The School of Art by May Ann Babcock B.F.A., University of Connecticut, 2008 May, 2011 TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES ABSTRACT THE LATENT LANDSCAPE BIBLIOGRAPHY VITA 
 LIST OF FIGURES 1. May Ann Babcock, Cinclaire Study 1, Handmade Paper, Monotype, Paper Cast...»

«As. J. Food Ag-Ind. 2012, 5(02), 96-103 Asian Journal of Food and Agro-Industry ISSN 1906-3040 Available online at www.ajofai.info Research Article Effect of vacuum cooling on physico-chemical properties of organic coriander Apichart Sirinanuwat1, Danai Boonyakiat 2,3 and Pichaya Boonprasom 1,3* 1 Division of Food Engineering, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 50200 2 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 50200 3...»

«SAFETY DATA SHEET Section 1. Identification Ammonia, Anhydrous Product Name: Synonyms: Ammonia CAS REGISTRY NO: 7664-41-7 Supplier: Tanner Industries, Inc. 735 Davisville Road, Third Floor Southampton, PA 18966 Website: www.tannerind.com Telephone (General): 215-322-1238 Corporate Emergency Telephone Number: 800-643-6226 Emergency Telephone Number: Chemtrec: 800-424-9300 Recommended Use: Various Industrial / Agricultural Section 2. Hazard(s) Identification Hazard: Acute Toxicity, Corrosive,...»

«Case Study form the EETAP WG4 Draft Report: Representation and Who Decides in Energy Planning Case Study of Mae Moh Power Plant, Lampang The Mae Moh coalfired power plant is located in the mountains of the Mae Moh district in Lampang province, Northern Thailand. The fuel source of the power plant is a lignite coal mine occupying an area of 135 square kilometers, and is located near the plant itself. The plant consists of 13 generating units and has a capacity of 2,625 Megawatts, and is owned...»

«Rural Sociology 78(1), 2013, pp. 1–28 DOI: 10.1111/j.1549-0831.2012.00095.x Copyright © 2012, by the Rural Sociological Society A More Perfect Commodity: Bottled Water, Global Accumulation, and Local Contestation Daniel Jaffee Department of Sociology *Washington State University Soren Newman School of the Environment Washington State University Abstract Bottled water sits at the intersection of debates regarding the social and environmental effects of the commodification of nature and the...»

«Digital soil map of Cyprus (1:25,000) AGWATER Options for sustainable agricultural production and water use in Cyprus under global change Scientific Report 6 Deliverable D15, D16 Zomenia Zomeni1, Corrado Camera2, Adriana Bruggeman2, Andreas Zissimos1, Irene Christoforou1, Jay Noller3 1 Geological Survey Department of Cyprus 2 Energy, Environment and Water Research Center, The Cyprus Institute 3 Department of Crop and Soil Science, Oregon State University Nicosia, 15 November 2014 Table of...»

«HAIL, HAIL, HAIL ! THE SUMMERTIME HAZARD OF EASTERN COLORADO Nolan J. Doesken, Assistant State Climatologist (Colorado Climate publication, April 1994, Volume 17, Number 7, Special Feature Section) INTRODUCTION Hail ! the word itself sends feelings of frustration through Colorado farmers. Each year, millions of dollars of agricultural losses occur when hailstorms s weep across the Eastern Plains. Hundreds of Colorado wheat farmers can tell tales of disappointment about years when their crop had...»

«A GREAT KOREAN MUSIC PIONEER MIN-CHONG PARK: A PERFORMANCE GUIDE OF HIS SELECTED VIOLIN WORKS A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Doctor of Musical Arts in The School of Music by Sin Myung Min B.A., Kookmin University, 2006 M.M., Temple University, 2009 December 2014 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express my deep appreciation to the members of my...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.