FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 20 | 21 || 23 | 24 |   ...   | 38 |

«Item type text; Dissertation-Reproduction (electronic) Authors Munro, Natalie Dawn Publisher The University of Arizona. Rights Copyright © is held ...»

-- [ Page 22 ] --

1998). The Ramat Yissakhar population provides an excellent example of high population growth. It occupies an agricultural landscape with an unnaturally rich distribution of food and water available year round due to agricultural activity.

Permanent food and water sources have increased both the survivorship and fertility of the Ramat Yissakhar gazelle population (Ayal and Baharav 1983; Baharav 1988), and thus its reproductive parameters represent the upper range of gazelle productivity. In contrast, the Ramat Qedesh population lives under more seasonal conditions and has a significantly lower rate of annual increase, if it grows at all. It is representative of a low growth situation, and thus well suited for application to the LGM. The following presents the parameters chosen for the gazelle simulations based on information available

–  –  –

Age at First Reproduction in Gazelles Female gazelles reach reproductive maturity during either their first or second year of life (between 6 and 18 months of age; Ayal and Baharav 1983; Baharav 1983a, 1983b; Shy et al. 1998). Gestation lasts for 6 months, and does bear their first fawn by the age of one or two years. The Ramat Yissakhar females become reproductively active at 6 months (Ayal and Baharav 1983; Baharav 1983b) and produce their first fawn at 12 months of age, while those from Ramat Qedesh often do not become pregnant until they reach 18 months of age. The discrepancy between the two populations is caused largely by differential access to permanent water sources. Other populations also report pregnancy in 6 month old does, though a relatively high percentage of these pregnancies were unsuccessful (e.g., 30%; Shy et al. 1998). Variation in the reproductive success of one year old gazelles is incorporated within the number of offspring variable, and an age of one year is adopted as the age of first reproduction in both the LGM and HGM Number of Gazelle Fawns Per Female Per Year Gazelle pregnancies most often lead to the birth of a single fawn (Ayal and Baharav 1983; Baharav 1983b). Twin births have never been observed in mountain gazelles, though they make up between 2.5 and 8.2% of live births in G. Siibgiittorosa Zhaowen et al. 1998), a closely related species. The gazelle birthing season is limited by the availability of standing water (Baharav 1983b). In well-watered locations, breeding is known to occur throughout the year, but peaks during the wettest months (Nowak 1991).

In mountain gazelle parturition is most often limited to a single discrete period in the late

–  –  –

The second birth season most likely represents a last attempt at reproduction by does who did not conceive in the spring. If water is abundant, does may produce more than one fawn per year. Under unusually favorable conditions (i.e., access to abundant standing water), mountain gazelle abandon rigid birthing seasons and increase productivity.

High productivity has been observed in mountain gazelles inhabiting the wellwatered regions of Ramat Yissakhar where recruitment reaches as many as 1.4 fawns per adult female each year (Ayal and Baharav 1983). Conversely, in neighboring regions, annual production is often less than a single fawn per female, depending on the proportion of failed pregnancies and access to water during the critical season. The lowest recorded birth rates in the studies examined here were 0.42 fawns per female per year in populations living in highly seasonal environments, however these rates were recorded in years when populations were in decline and may not be typical (Marraha 1996; Baharav 1983b).

While access to water clearly influences gazelle productivity, predicting the availability of standing water in the past is problematic. Artificial landscapes created by intensive agriculture inflate gazelle productivity in some cases by providing year round access to food and water. The lowering of the water table in recent years may have also reduced the availability of water to levels below those typical of the past. It is thus difficult to assess whether the reproductive rates of either of the two well-studied gazelle populations from Israel provide accurate representations of populations in the past. The

–  –  –

potential gazelle productivity, circumventing the problem of trying to create precise reconstructions of the past.

In the simulation, the minimum and maximum number of fawns produced per female per year are set at 0.7 and 1 fawn per female per year for the LGM, and at 1 to 1.4 fawns per female per year for the HGM. The number of fawns selected for the LGM is higher than some of the figures available for recent gazelle populations, because these populations were in decline. Using them for the simulations, thus creates an unviable population. The higher rate of 0.7 to 1 fawn per female per year is thus chosen as the minimum number of fawns required to maintain a stable population in accordance with the other LGM parameters.

Age of Onset of Adult Mortality The age of onset of adult mortality was derived in consideration of three points.

First, gazelle reach close to full body size by one year of age, although their bones continue to fuse until approximately 18 months of age (Davis 1980a). Second, gazelle reach reproductive maturity between 6 and 18 months of age. Finally, based on years of field observations, Baharav (1983b) estimates that gazelles are subject to adult mortality by the time they reach 1 year of age. The age of onset of adult mortality is thus set at 1 year for both models.

Mortality Mortality data for both juvenile and adult gazelles are seldom found in studies of

–  –  –

19831, 1983b, see also Ayal and Baharav 1983) provide high quality mortality data on the mountain gazelles from Ramat Yissakhar and Ramat Qedesh.

Juvenile Mortality The juvenile mortality rates for gazelles living under well-watered conditions at Ramat Yissakhar is 0.32 and is rounded down to 0.30 for use in the HGM. The juvenile mortality rate was much higher for the gazelle population surviving on natural resources at Ramat Qedesh (0.47) and is also rounded down slightly to 0.45 for use in the LGM model.

Adult Mortality The adult mortality values from the Ramat Yissakhar and Ramat Qedesh populations are recorded as 0.20 and 0.25 per annum respectively. In this case, the more productive Ramat Yissakhar population has a higher rate of adult mortality than the Ramat Qedesh population. This is the natural outcome of Ramat Yisshakhar's low rate of juvenile mortality. Because the simulations aim to model the extremes of population growth the lower rate (0.20) is used in the HGM simulation, but must also be used in the LGM simulation, since the higher mortality rate (0.25) outweighs annual fertility, and the population will not be viable in the long run.

Maximum Life Span Gazelles exceeding the age of 12 years of age have rarely been reported in the wild. Jones (1982) reports a G. dorcas that survived to the age of 17 in captivity.

–  –  –

extraordinary circumstances. Thus an maximum age of 12 years will be used for both the HGM and LGM models.

Results of the Gazelle Simulations: Age Structures and Hunting Pressure The gazelle population parameters were used to create stable LGM and HGM populations. Hunting was applied to these populations in gradual increments and the proportion of juveniles was recorded after each population stabilized. Juveniles are defined as individuals 18 months of age or younger to correspond to the oldest age for ftision of long bones, which are used to age Natufian gazelles in this study (see Chapter 8). The proportion of juveniles in the HGM and LGM populations subjected to incremental intensities of hunting pressure are plotted in Figures 6.6 and 6.7.

Three important observations can be made from these graphs. First the proportion of juveniles in the population increases gradually with hunting intensity in both the HGM and LGM populations (see Chapter 8). Second, the steepness of the graph slopes, representing the proportion of juvenile remains in the population, is greater for the HGM than it is for the LGM, since the HGM population is subjected to higher culls (up to 15% in comparison to 6% for the LGM). Third, and most importantly the models provide empirical estimates of the potential effects of hunting pressure on the living structures of viable gazelle populations. When no hunting is added to the simulations, the proportion of juvenile gazelles in both the HGM and LGM populations is about 30% (28% for the LGM and 31% for the HGM). This is the similar to the average proportion of juveniles

–  –  –

Figure 6.7: Proportion of juvenile gazelles (18 months or less) in the LGM gazelle population when subjected to increasing increments of hunting pressure.

Implications of the Gazelle Simulations for Monitoring Human Hunting Intensity The preceding simulations have defined the range of potential sustainable impact human hunters can exert on the living structures of gazelle populations. Because the

–  –  –

teeth collected by prehistoric hunters, the simulated ratios of juveniles to adults can be used as proxy measures of past human hunting pressure. Other factors ~ such as seasonality and hunting strategies ~ also influence the age structures of prey death assemblages. Defining the range of potential influence of each factor provides, however, a starting point for separating their role in assemblage formation. The simulations show that hunting pressure alone may inflate the proportion of juveniles in a stable gazelle population from approximately 30% to as high as 50% or perhaps even 60% in the case of heavily hunted high growth populations. Hunting at higher rates will crash the population, since like tortoises, gazelle populations have low rates of turnover. Finally, defining the living structure of prey populations means that hunted assemblages with percentages of juveniles outside of this range were most likely created by selective human hunting for specific age groups. The results of the gazelle simulations will be applied to

–  –  –

Questions of human demography — such as population pressure and sedentism— are difficult to test, yet they are of central interest in current Natufian research. This chapter presents a new method (following Stiner et al. 2000) for discerning finer-grained information about the intensity of site occupation. Tracking the proportions of small prey (tortoise, partridges, and hares) provides considerable resolution for detecting relative differences in the intensity of site use fi-om one place to the next and across two Natufian phases. Moreover, the abundance of small game relative to ungulate remains reveals the degree of pressure exerted by human populations on their environment at a regional scale (see Chapter 1).

–  –  –

To facilitate comparison between sites and time periods, assemblages are first grouped into three broad prey categories; ungulates, carnivores, and small game.

Although carnivores and predatory birds may not be "prey" senso stricto they were caught and used by humans. The small game fraction includes a variety of reptiles, birds, and small mammal species weighing no more than two kilograms. Only prey types

–  –  –

representation, fragmentation, and other taphonomic criteria, are included in this comparison (see Chapter 4).

Next, the small game index is applied (see Chapter 1). The small game fraction of each Natufian assemblage is subdivided into small mammals, birds, and reptiles based on arguments presented earlier in Chapter 4. Microfauna, including most rodents, small passerine birds, and the majority of small reptiles and amphibians have been shown to be intrusive, and thus are not included in the analysis. Specimens classified into general taxonomic groups such as small, medium, and large mammal are also excluded, because they could belong to any of two or more prey groups.

To address variation in hunting intensity across time and space in the Natufian, broad taxonomic and small game comparisons are presented. A summary of the Paleolithic faunal sequence at Hayonim Cave and Meged Rockshelter (Stiner et al. 1999,

2000) places the Natufian fauna in chronological and ecological perspective. The subdivision of the Natufian fauna from Hayonim Cave into five phase, allows the study of changes in the intensity of site occupation within the Natufian at this site. Finally, comparison of an expanded sample of Natufian sites including Hayonim Terrace, el-Wad Cave, and Hilazon Tachtit, with the Natufian of Hayonim Cave enables examination of regional trends within the Natufian period. This kind of temporal and regional framework is the foundation for discussing human demography at the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary. It also allows for more precise reconstruction of the

–  –  –

humans and their resources may have contributed to the onset of an agricultural revolution.

The large Natufian faunal sample from Hayonim Cave (NISP = 19,000) is subdivided to address questions posed on three different time scales. First, the Natufian fauna are treated as a single assemblage in order to bring out differences between the Natufian and preceding cultural adaptations, and allow examination of long-term change at Hayonim Cave beginning in the Middle Paleolithic (Stiner et al. 1999, 2000).

Although the Natufian layer is broken into more temporally refined units in subsequent analyses, the major differences that distinguish this assemblage from earlier Paleolithic layers are sustained. More fine-grained variation within the Natufian period at Hayonim Cave is discernible, however, when the assemblage is divided into a series of five consecutive phases (as defined by Bar-Yosef and Belfer-Cohen n.d.; Belfer-Cohen 1988;

and see Chapter 3). To strengthen the reliability of the Natufian analysis, fauna from problematic contexts and taxa were removed from the database, reducing the NISP count to 15,000 (see Chapter 3 for discussion of potentially mixed contexts, and Appendix I).

Finally, for inter-site analysis of the Natufian, the five phases from Hayonim Cave are collapsed into Early and Late Natufian categories. The Early Natufian is comprised of Phases I-III at Hayonim Cave, and the Late Natufian is equivalent to Phases IV and V (cf Bar-Yosef and Belfer-Cohen n.d.; Belfer-Cohen 1988).

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 20 | 21 || 23 | 24 |   ...   | 38 |

Similar works:

«International Journal of Plant Production 1(1), March 2007 ISSN 1735-6814 GUASNR This is a refereed journal and all articles are professionally screened and reviewed. www.ijpp.info Tea yield and soil properties as affected by slope position and aspect in Lahijan area, Iran F. Khormalia,*, Sh. Ayoubia, F. Kananro Foomania, A. Fatemib, Kh. Hemmatic a Department of Soil Science, cDepartment of Horticulture, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran. b Tea...»

«Kara Loo and Jennifer Young Eastridge@SchoolForAdventurers.com EASTRIDGE ACADEMY: SCHOOL FOR ADVENTURERS BY KARA LOO AND JENNIFER YOUNG Eastridge Academy: School for Adventurers Prologue Explain why you would be a strong candidate for attending Eastridge Academy, School for Adventurers, in 500 words or less. “Hey, Farmington. You stupid farmboy, what have you got there?” Fell Farmington gulped and quickly tried to hide the application for Eastridge Academy: School for Adventurers. But he...»

«SAFETY DATA SHEET Section 1. Identification Ammonia, Anhydrous Product Name: Synonyms: Ammonia CAS REGISTRY NO: 7664-41-7 Supplier: Tanner Industries, Inc. 735 Davisville Road, Third Floor Southampton, PA 18966 Website: www.tannerind.com Telephone (General): 215-322-1238 Corporate Emergency Telephone Number: 800-643-6226 Emergency Telephone Number: Chemtrec: 800-424-9300 Recommended Use: Various Industrial / Agricultural Section 2. Hazard(s) Identification Hazard: Acute Toxicity, Corrosive,...»

«SOUT H ERN RURAL SOCIOLOGY, 24(2), 2009, pp. 169–191. Copyright © by the Southern Rural Sociological Association CREATING ALTERNATIVES: A PARTICIPANT OBSERVER’S REFLECTIONS ON THE EMERGING LOCAL FOOD SYSTEM IN KANSAS CITY* MARY HENDRICKSON UN IVERSIT Y OF M ISSOURI-COLUM BIA ABSTRACT The Missouri School has been known for its study of the structure of agriculture and food, and what affects structural arrangements have on farmers, communities, and environments. A lesser known aspect of the...»

«A STUDY OF CHILDREN’S MUSICAL PLAY AT THE LITTLE GYM A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Music Education In The School of Music by Alison Elaine Alexander B.A, Mercer University, 2003 B.M.E., Armstrong Atlantic State University, 2005 August 2012 To Connor and Brady, my inspirations! ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank my committee for their...»

«EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PURPLE PIGMENT FROM Chromobacterium violaceum GROWN IN AGRICULTURAL WASTES AKRAM NESHATI A Dissertation Submitted To The Faculty Of Science In Partial Fulfillment Of The Requirement For The Award Of The Degree In Masters of Science (Chemistry) Faculty of Science Universiti Teknologi Malaysia APRIL 2010 EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PURPLE PIGMENT FROM Chromobacterium violaceum GROWN IN AGRICULTURAL WASTES AKRAM NESHATI iii To my Beloved Mother and Father...»

«Milk Fat Globule Stability Lipolysis with Special Reference to Automatic Milking Systems Lars Wiking Faculty of Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences Department of Food Science Uppsala Doctoral thesis Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Uppsala 2005 Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae 2005: 49 ISSN 1652-6880 ISBN 91-576-7048-X © 2005 Lars Wiking, Uppsala Tryck: SLU Service/Repro, Uppsala 2 Abstract Wiking, L. 2005. Milk Fat Globule Stability Lipolysis with Special Reference...»

«Research in ISSN : P-2409-0603, E-2409-9325 AGRICULTURE, LIVESTOCK and FISHERIES An Open Access Peer Reviewed Journal      Open Access Res. Agric. Livest. Fish. Research Article Vol. 2, No. 1, April 2015: 125-133 FISHERS ACCESS TO THE COMMON PROPERTY WATERBODIES IN THE NORTHERN REGION OF BANGLADESH Md. Amzad Hossain1*, Mousumi Das1, Md. Shahanoor Alam2 and Md. Enamul Haque3 1 Department of Aquaculture, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU), Gazipur-1706,...»

«FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (FAQs): MINNESOTA’S STAFF DEVELOPMENT STATUTES Minnesota Statutes, sections 122A.60 and 122A.61 Created September 2001 Updated July 2002, March 2006, February 2008, November 2010, August 2013 In response to many interpretation and implementation questions about Minnesota’s staff development statutes, the organizations listed below have jointly developed this set of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs). The statutes discussed in this set of FAQs can be found at Minn....»

«SAFER TO STEAL THAN SCORE: PRESS COVERAGE OF FINANCIAL AND SEXUAL SCANDALS, AND ELECTORAL OUTCOMES A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in The Manship School of Mass Communication by Chance York B.G.S., University of Kansas, 2008 M.S., Kansas State University, 2010 May 2014 ©Copyright 2014 Chance York All rights reserved ii...»

«Rural Sociology 78(1), 2013, pp. 1–28 DOI: 10.1111/j.1549-0831.2012.00095.x Copyright © 2012, by the Rural Sociological Society A More Perfect Commodity: Bottled Water, Global Accumulation, and Local Contestation Daniel Jaffee Department of Sociology *Washington State University Soren Newman School of the Environment Washington State University Abstract Bottled water sits at the intersection of debates regarding the social and environmental effects of the commodification of nature and the...»

«As. J. Food Ag-Ind. 2012, 5(02), 96-103 Asian Journal of Food and Agro-Industry ISSN 1906-3040 Available online at www.ajofai.info Research Article Effect of vacuum cooling on physico-chemical properties of organic coriander Apichart Sirinanuwat1, Danai Boonyakiat 2,3 and Pichaya Boonprasom 1,3* 1 Division of Food Engineering, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 50200 2 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 50200 3...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.