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«Weeds: Mike Moechnig, Darrell L. Deneke, Leon J. Wrage, Jill Alms, Dave Vos, and Mark Rosenberg Insects: Adrianna Szczepaniec and Buyung Hadi ...»

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BROMOXYNIL PRODUCTS (bromoxynil) Site of Action: 6 Bromoxynil is available in several products, examples include Buctril, Broclean, Moxy, Maestro, Brox and others. Refer to product label; adjust rate according to label for 2L or 4L ae products.

0.75-2 pt bromoxynil 2L or 0.38-1 pt bromoxynil 4L (0.18-0.5 lb ae) ($6.60-19.05) Contact herbicide. Excellent for sunflower and cocklebur. Pigweed is somewhat tolerant. Vevetleaf control is variable; plants must be under 3-4 inches. Gives topgrowth burn on Canada thistle. Not intended as a rescue treatment for large weeds. No soil residual.

Control is reduced if plants are under stress. Bromoxynil does not cause brittleness or lodging. No vapor drift. Some crop leaf burn is frequently noted. Symptoms disappear as new growth develops. Wet foliage and high temperature at time of spraying increase risk.

Bromoxynil alone is used at 1-2 pt of 2L or 0.5-1 pt of 4L per acre. Apply before weeds exceed the most susceptible stage;

cocklebur (8 inches), sunflower (6 inches), wild buckwheat (6 inches), and nightshade (6 inches). Less susceptible weeds like pigweed, velvetleaf, and wild mustard require the higher rates and must be treated before they reach 2-4 inches, depending on species. Good coverage is important. Suggested carrier is 5 gpa for air or 10 gpa with ground equipment. Spray additives or liquid fertilizer may cause excessive crop leaf burn.

PRE. May be applied before planting to emerged weeds. Rate is 1-1.5 pt 2L or 0.38-1 pt 4L per acre.

POST. Optimum stage is 4- to 8-leaf. Bromoxynil at 1 pt 2L per acre may be used from emergence to tassel. Rates of 1.5-2 pt 2L per acre can be used after corn reaches the 4-leaf stage.

LATE POST. Rescue application. For cocklebur up to 14 inches and sunflower up to 18 inches, use 1 pt 2L or 0.5 pt 4L per acre followed by a second application of the same rate 7-10 days later. For velvetleaf up to 14 inches, use 1.5-2 pt 2L or 0.25-1 pt 4L or a tank-mix of 1 pt 2L or 0.5 pt 4L + 1.2 lb ai atrazine followed by 1 pt 2L per acre 7-10 days later.


Several combination treatments are listed below. Other tank-mix combinations include: Accent, Beacon, and Stinger. Refer to other sections or product label. Refer to label for specific bromoxynil product for tank-mix and rate directions for that product. Bromoxynil rates in tank-mixes below are given for 2L product; adjust rate for 4L product.


Tank-mix 0.75-1.5 pt 2L or 0.38-0.75 pt 4L + 0.5-1.2 qt atrazine 4L. Low atrazine rate reduces carryover and may allow rotating to crops with intermediate tolerance; however, small grain is not recommended.

PRE and POST. Apply before planting to 12 inches. Maximum bromoxynil rate is 1 pt 2L or 0.5 pt 4L when applying prior to 4-leaf crop stage. Addition of spray additive or liquid fertilizer may cause excessive crop leaf burn.

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BROMOXYNIL + 2,4-D POST. Tank-mix 1-1.5 pt 2L or 0.5-0.75 pt 4L with 0.06-0.25 lb ae 2,4-D per acre. Apply from emergence to prior to tassel emergence.

Use drop nozzles if corn is over 8 inches. Maximum bromoxynil rate is 1 pt 2L or 0.5 pt 4L if applying before the 4-leaf stage; rate can be increased to 1.5 pt 2L or 0.75 pt 4L per acre at later stages.

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BROZINE (bromoxynil + atrazine) PRE or POST. Use premix at 1.5-3 pt per acre. Premix contains 1 lb bromoxynil + 2 lb ai atrazine per gallon. Apply as for tank-mix.

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Excellent control of 4- to 12-inch shattercane; good control of 4- to 8-inch quackgrass. Beacon also gives good to excellent control of cocklebur, black nightshade, kochia, pigweed, sunflower, lambsquarters, velvetleaf, and Russian thistle. The low rate controls cocklebur, ragweed, sunflower, and redroot pigweed. Use tank-mixes to improve control of other broadleaves. Annual grasses are not effectively controlled; however, there is fair activity for yellow foxtail. Most annual broadleaves should not exceed 4 inches;

lambsquarters should be less than 1.5 inches. Use COC and 28% N for velvetleaf. Labeled for field and silage corn.

Beacon is packaged in 1.52 oz water-soluble packets. Corn has acceptable tolerance; temporary yellowing or stunting may occur if crop is stressed. Some corn hybrids are sensitive. Beacon should not be used if Counter insecticide is applied any time during the season. Other organophosphate insecticides used at planting may cause temporary injury if Beacon is used. Do not apply foliar organophosphate insecticides within 10 days before or after Beacon application.

Field corn may be replanted after 14 days. Winter wheat may be planted after 3 months; alfalfa, soybeans, sorghum, dry beans, sunflower, and spring grain after 8 months; other crops require 18 months.

Effects on susceptible weeds develop slowly. Yellow and/or red coloration and death occur 7-30 days after treatment. Apply in minimum of 10 gpa water; increase to 20 gpa for heavy stands. Do not apply Beacon as a band directly over the row. Add NIS at 1 qt/100 gal or COC at 1-4 pt per acre. Liquid nitrogen fertilizer may be added at 1 gal per acre. Rainfall within 4 hours may reduce effectiveness.

Do not graze or feed forage from treated fields within 30 days of application.

POST. Apply when corn is 4-20 inches. Use as a directed spray or with drop nozzles if corn is 20 inches or up to 15 days before tassel. Corn less than 4 inches may be more susceptible to injury.

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POST. Use 5 oz NorthStar premix containing 7.5% primisulfuron (Beacon) + 43.9% dicamba (Banvel). The 5-oz rate provides equivalent of 0.5 oz Beacon + 4 oz Banvel 4L per acre. Use NIS at 1 qt/100 gal. NorthStar tank-mixes include Accent, atrazine, Resource, Banvel, Clarity, and Marksman.

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Tank-mixes for most situations are listed below. Beacon may also be tank-mixed with Marksman and Resource. Do not use crop oil or liquid fertilizer additives with the mixtures unless labeled. Refer to label restrictions or the section for each herbicide.

BEACON + ACCENT POST. Tank-mix 0.33 oz Accent 75DF with 0.38 oz Beacon per acre. Beacon + Accent controls escaped grasses and broadleaf weeds following a preemergence grass herbicide. Use additives as for Beacon alone.

BEACON + ATRAZINE POST. Tank-mix 2-3 pt atrazine 4L or 1.1-1.7 lb atrazine 90DF with 0.38 oz Beacon per acre. The Beacon + atrazine tank-mix should be applied following an earlier grass herbicide. Use additives as for Beacon alone.


POST. Tank-mix 0.25-0.5 pt dicamba 4L with 0.38 oz Beacon per acre or use 5 oz NorthStar premix containing 7.5% primisulfuron 32 www.iGrow.org (Beacon) + 43.9% dicamba (Banvel). The 5-oz rate provides equivalent of 0.5 oz Beacon + 4 oz Banvel 4L per acre. Use NIS at 1 qt/100 gal. NorthStar tank-mixes include Accent, atrazine, Resource, Banvel, Clarity, or Marksman.


POST. Tank-mix 0.5-1 pt bromoxynil 2L with 0.38 oz Beacon per acre. Use 0.25 lb ae bromoxynil for velvetleaf. NIS at 1 qt/100 gal suggested.


SPIRIT (prosulfuron + primisulfuron) Site of Action: 2+2 1 oz Spirit 57WG (0.009 lb prosulfuron + 0.027 lb primisulfuron) ($12.90) Controls several broadleaf weed species, such as waterhemp, wild buckwheat, buffalobur, common cocklebur, kochia, common lambsquarters, redroot pigweed, velvetleaf, and ragweed. May also suppress perennials such as Canada thistle, field bindweed, and quackgrass. Annual grasses are not controlled. Results are best when applied to small weeds. Apply to small-seeded broadleaf weed species when 1-4 inches tall or large-seeded species when less than 8-12 inches tall. Control may decline in drought conditions.

Crop tolerance is good under normal conditions. Do not apply to corn stressed from drought, cold weather, hail, flooding, compacted soil, insect damage, disease, nutrient deficiency, or other causes. Do not apply if Counter 15G or Counter CR was applied in-furrow at the time of planting or over the row at cultivation. Do not apply organophosphate insecticides within 10 days before or 7 days after applying Spirit.

Apply in a minimum of 10 gpa for ground applications or 3 gpa for aerial applications. Add NIS at 1-2 qt or COC at 1-4 pt/100 gal.

For improved velvetleaf control, add 28% N at 2-4 qt/A or AMS at 2-4 lb/A.

Corn may be planted 4 weeks after application. Crop rotations include wheat, barley, rye, triticale (3 months); sorghum, peas, forage grasses, proso millet (10 months); alfalfa, clover, lentils, sunflowers, canola, flax, soybeans, STS soybeans (18 months).

Rotate to corn, sorghum, wheat, barley, rye, oats, triticale, proso millet, or forage grasses the next year. Rotation periods may be longer in soils with pH 7.8.

POST. Apply to corn 4-24 inches tall. Use drop nozzles after corn exceeds 20 inches tall.

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Spirit may be tank-mixed with dicamba, Marksman, atrazine, 2,4-D, Beacon, Buctril, or Accent. Refer to the label for specific rates and recommendations.

Permit is a sulfonyl-urea herbicide that controls annual broadleaf weeds. Permit provides very good to excellent control of cocklebur, sunflower, pigweed, velvetleaf, and common ragweed. Labeling also includes non-ALS kochia, Venice mallow, and smartweed.

The higher rates control larger weeds and add yellow nutsedge and suppression of common milkweed. Control has been generally consistent in SDSU tests. There is no activity on annual grass.

Use the low rate for non-ALS kochia, pigweed, and Venice mallow up to 3 inches; cocklebur, common ragweed, and velvetleaf up to 9 inches, and sunflower to 12 inches. Control is more consistent if weeds are treated at early stages. Crop tolerance has been satisfactory.

Use NIS at 1-2 qt or COC at 1 gal per 100 gal per acre. Addition of 28% N at 4 gal/100 gal is allowed if required by a tank-mix partner. Minimum carrier is 10 gpa for ground or 3 gpa for air.

Treated fields may be rotated the next season to milo, field corn, winter or spring wheat, or soybeans. Allow 9 months for soybeans or alfalfa or 2 months for small grain or millet. Do not graze or harvest forage for 30 days after application.

PRE. Apply 1.33-2 oz Permit per acre as a soil application. Plant only IR hybrids.

POST. Apply 0.67-1.33 oz Permit per acre from spike through layby stage.

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Tank-mixes for most situations are listed below. Refer to label restrictions or the section for each herbicide.


POST. Add 0.25-0.5 pt dicamba 4L with 0.67 oz Permit per acre. Apply from emergence to 36 inch. Use NIS.


POST. Add 0.5-1 pt bromoxynil 2L or 0.25-0.5 pt 4L with 0.67 oz Permit per acre. Add 0.75-1.5 lb ai atrazine or add 1-2.5 pt Buctril/ Atrazine premix. Add NIS.

PERMIT + ATRAZINE or MARKSMAN POST. Improves broadleaf spectrum and adds residual. Use 0.75-1.5 lb ai atrazine with 0.67-1.33 oz Permit per acre. Marksman at 2-3.5 pt per acre provides dicamba with atrazine in the premix. Apply up to 12-inch crop.

PERMIT + ACCENT or BEACON POST. Add 0.67 oz Accent or 0.76 oz Beacon with 0.67 oz Permit per acre. Apply when crop is 4-20 inches. Dicamba may be added. Use NIS.

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POST. Use 4-8 oz Yukon premix per acre. Yukon contains 12.5% halosulfuron (Permit) plus 55% dicamba. Yukon can be tankmixed with atrazine, Accent, or Beacon. Minimum carrier is 10 gpa for ground or 5 gpa for air.

PRIORITY (halosulfuron + carfentrazone) POST. Apply 1 oz wt/A which is equivalent to 0.5 fl oz Aim + 0.67 oz wt Permit. Apply after emergence but prior to the 8-leaf collar corn growth stage and when weeds are less than 4 inches tall. Add NIS at 0.25% v/v or 2 pt per 100 gallons spray solution. May also add AMS (2-4 lb/A) or UAN (28% N at 2-4 qt per 100 gallons spray solution). COC may be used if required by the tank-mix partner. Minimum carrier volume is 10 gpa for ground applications or 3 gpa for aerial applications.

Provides control of cocklebur, sunflower, kochia, pigweed, and smartweed. Fits where carryover from other herbicides must be avoided. Leaf yellowing may be noted in cool weather. Usually used in tank-mix with other herbicides. Do not use additives unless specified.

BURNDOWN or PPS. Apply up to 30 days prior to planting or preemergence. Use TriCor 4F 3-8 fl oz per acre with 2,4-D LV ester (0.25-1 lb ai per acre), Gramoxone Extra (24-48 fl oz per acre), or glyphosate product (0.5-1 lb ae per acre). TriCor is usually tankmixed with other grass and broadleaf herbicides. Do not apply on coarse texture soils with less than 1% organic matter (O.M.) or soils with a pH greater than 7.0. Do not apply more than 6 oz/A on soils with less than 2% O.M. Corn seed should be planted at least 1.5 in deep.

POST. Apply 2.4-3 fl oz per acre may be tank-mixed with herbicides including 2,4-D (0.12-0.25 lb ae), dicamba 4L (0.5-1 pt), Marksman (1.5-2 pt), Basagran (1 pt) per acre. Bromoxynil (1-1.5 pt) may be tank-mixed as a rescue treatment using drop nozzles.

May also be tank-mixed with the following broadleaf herbicides: Banvel, 2,4-D, Atrazine, Basagran, Buctril, Buctril + Atrazine, Pursuit (IMI corn only), and Resource. Apply after crop emergence to just prior to tasseling. Refer to label of tank-mix partner for specific directions and restrictions.

Stinger is especially effective where Canada thistle is a major part of the weed problem. Lower rate provides seasonal suppression;

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