«Dispute or Residing Together in Harmony? Bean Cultivation and Theft in Rural Ethiopia Tesfanesh Zekiwos Gichamo Uppsala 2011 EX0681 Master Thesis 30 ...»
Faculty of Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences
Department of Urban and Rural Development
Rural Development and Natural Resource Management
Dispute or Residing Together in
Bean Cultivation and Theft in Rural
Tesfanesh Zekiwos Gichamo
EX0681 Master Thesis 30 hp
Dispute or Residing Together in
Bean Cultivation and Theft in Rural
Tesfanesh Zekiwos Gichamo
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Department of Urban and Rural Development Rural Development and Natural Resource Management Keywords: conflict, Faba beans, institutions, livelihood, theft, villagization Thesis no X EX0681 Master Thesis in Rural Development and Natural Resource Management, 30 hp, Master E, Uppsala 2011 © Tesfanesh Zekiwos Gichamo Supervisor: Dr. Linley, Chiwona-Karltun, Department of Urban and Rural Development, SLU Assistant Supervisor: Dr Erik Karltun, Department of Forest Soils, SLU Assistant Supervisor: Dr Mulugeta Lemenih, Wondo Genet College of Forestry, Hawassa University, Ethiopia Assistant Supervisor: Mr Motuma Tolera, Wondo Genet College of Forestry, Hawassa University, Ethiopia Examiner: Örjan Bartholdson, Department of Urban and Rural Development firstname.lastname@example.org http://epsilon.slu.se Glory to the almighty God, the creator, provider and sustainer of every life!
First of all, I would like to thank the farmers in the Beseku-Ilala peasant association, Arsi Negelle district, who willingly sacrificed their precious time for interviews and focus group discussions. Special thanks go to Mr Alliye Hussen, my field assistant, for his tireless help during my fieldwork. I would like to express my sincere gratitude and appreciation to the local supervisors, Dr Mulugeta Lemenih and Mr Motuma Tolera, for their support and advice during my fieldwork in Ethiopia.
My deepest thanks go to Dr Linley Chiwona-Karltun for her close supervision, advice, critical comments and encouragement throughout the research work. It is a great privilege to be her student. Thank you for trusting and allowing me to work with you. I would also like to thank you for the financial support for the fieldwork.
I am furthermore indebted to Dr Erik Karltun for his valuable comments and help.
I would like to extend my thanks to my classmates. We had wonderful times together throughout the two years of study. Kassa and Yosef, you deserve my thanks for being with me during the hard times. My thanks also go to the Eyob family, who treated me as their family member during my stay in Uppsala. Azab, you deserve special thanks. Thank you for your support and help. Specific thanks go to Dr Fikre; thank you so much for your support while you were in Uppsala. Dr Tarekegn; you also deserve my thanks for your valuable advice.
Last but not least, I am grateful to the Salem church members in Uppsala; thank you for your encouragement.
My love and respect to my family who are always by my side; I love you all.
i Previous studies in Beseku Ilala peasant association, South Central Ethiopia, have disclosed decreasing soil fertility in the area, a consequence of non-existent crop rotation practices, where a nitrogen-fixing legume, the faba bean (Vicia faba) is of particular interest. Widespread theft has resulted in the abandoning of bean cultivation. In order to solve this problem, the communities agreed to formulate bylaws, utilizing an existing local institution (Iddir) for the implementation. The people belonging to Iddir help members who mourn the death of a family member or a close relative. The aims of these by-laws were to punish the thieves and to urge and support farmers to start growing beans again. Most farmers had subsequently resumed bean cultivation, but in some areas farmers had refrained from growing the bean again.
The present study examined the factors affecting the adoption of bean reintroduction in Beseku Ilala peasant association. A cross sectional survey was conducted by means of purposive and snowball sampling. The techniques utilized were individual interviews, key informant interviews and focus group discussions, using open-ended and closed questionnaires. The results revealed that the main factors influencing the adoption of bean cultivation were villagization or community re-location, fear of conflict, small land holdings, population growth, migration, and lack of women participating in decision-making. In addition, unemployment, poverty, and delinquent behaviours were also revealed to be contributing factors, as drivers of bean theft. The results suggest that youth employment and gender participation, particularly in key decision-making processes, are crucial to institute in order to accomplish reduced poverty.
Keywords: Conflict, Faba Bean, Institutions, Livelihood, Theft, Villagization
Table of contents
List of Tables
List of Figures
1.1 The Role of Faba Bean
1.2 Rationale and Problem Statement
1.3 Objectives of the Study
1.3.1 Overall Aim of the Study
1.3.2 Specific Objectives
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Significance of the Study
1.6 Structure of the Thesis
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Agriculture and Food Security in Ethiopia
2.1.2 Food Security
2.2 Crop and livestock production
2.3 Local Institutions in Ethiopia
2.4 Theft and Dispute in Agriculture
3. MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.2 Study Area
3.3.1 Transect Walk
3.3.2 In-depth Interviews
3.3.3 Key Informant Interviews
3.3.4 Likert Scale Questionnaire
3.3.5 Focus Group Discussions
3.3 Data Analysis
3.4 Validity of findings
3.5 Ethical Consideration
4.1 Social Characteristics of Sampled Households
4.2 Villagers‟ Attitudes and Perceptions towards Bean Theft
4.3 Drivers of Bean Theft
4.4 Women and Bean theft
4.5 Factors Affecting Adoption of Bean Reintroduction
4.5.2 Fear of Conflict
4.5.3 Land holding, Population and Migration
5.1 Tolerated Theft
5.2 Drivers of Bean Theft
5.3 Women, Bean Theft and Bean Adoption
5.4 Factors Affecting Adoption of Bean Reintroduction
5.4.2 Conflict and Harmony
iii 5.4.3 Land holding, Population and Migration
Appendix I: Interview Guide for Individual Interviews
Appendix II: Interview guide for Key informants
Appendix III: Interview guide (Focus group discussion)
Appendix Iv: Interview guide (Focus group discussion where there is bean reintroduction)
iv Table 4.1 Number of interviews conducted in the study area
Demographic composition of sampled household by age and sex........ 26 Table 4.3 The Likert scale results showing the perceptions towards theft by the respondents
Table 4.4 Factors affecting Adoption of Bean reintroduction
Figure.1.2 Effect of theft on household livelihoods in Beseku Ilala peasant association
Figure 3.1 Map of Africa showing Ethiopia
Figure 3.2 Map of Ethiopia showing Arsi Negelle district (Wereda) and Beseku Ilala Peasant Association
Figure 3.3 Forested land which is converted into cropland.
Beseku Ilala Peasant Association February, 2009.
Figure 3.4 Showing individual interview, left interpreter, centre author, right interviewee.
Figure 3.5 Showing Men‟s focus group discussions, February 2009.
Beseku Ilala peasant association
Figure 3.6 Scheme of Data collection methods, which were used in the study.
..... 24 v Faba bean (Vicia faba L) is known as fava bean, broad bean, field bean, horse bean and bell bean (Duc et al., 2008). While the exact geographical origin of the Faba bean is unknown, central Asia and Mediterranean regions and South America were reported as the possible centres of diversity (Muehlauer and Tullu 1997).
According to Muehlauer and Tullu (1997) and Duc et al (2008), the Faba bean has been categorized among the oldest domesticated food legumes. It is vital for human consumption in Ethiopia and other regions such as the Middle East, the Mediterranean region and China. The Faba bean is also used as animal feed in industrialized areas such as Europe and Southern United States (Duc et al., 2008;
Muehlauer and Tullu 1997). In Asia China, in Europe UK, France, Spain, Portugal and Greece, in Africa Ethiopia and Egypt and in Oceania, Australia, are the main produces of Faba bean in the world. China, however, is the world‟s largest producer of the Faba bean followed by Ethiopia and Egypt (Duc et al., 2008).
Among many pulse-crops in Ethiopia, the Faba bean is very important. It is one of the major food legumes grown in the Ethiopian highlands and is an important staple in the diet of Ethiopian people (CIAT 2008). According to Ethiopian Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MoARD) 2003 report, the Faba bean is essential for domestic consumption as well as export for foreign exchange.
Between the years 1998 - 2000 on average, Ethiopia exported 88 tonnes of Faba bean each year. Compared to export, a large amount of produced Faba bean was used for domestic consumption. The report indicated that government has been trying to increase total productivity to increase the amount of export while continuing to satisfy domestic consumption. Quality and size of the Faba bean were the determinant factors for competitiveness in international market. Ethiopia were exporting Faba bean mainly to Djibouti, Yemen and Israel (MOARD 2003).
The Faba bean has high protein content (Duc et al., 2008, Muehlauer and Tullu 1997). In Ethiopia, improved Faba bean contains 25-28% protein (MOARD 2003).
In addition to protein, the Faba bean contains energy, fat, carbohydrate and fibre (Pulse Australia Limited 2009). Other nutrients which can be found in the Faba bean are iron, magnesium, potassium, zinc, copper, selenium and various vitamins (Holden 2009). Moreover, the Faba bean contains a chemical called Levodopa 1 which is used for controlling the symptoms of Parkinson‟ Disease (a brain disease that affects body movement) (Rabey et al 1992; Holden 2009). However, different factors such as the area where it grows, type of the soil, the amount of rain fall and other factors could affect the amount of Levodopa in the Faba bean (Holden 2009).
As the Faba bean has high nutritional value, it is considered to be a suitable substitute for meat and milk (Muehlauer and Tullu 1997).
In Ethiopia people with an Orthodox religious background have a strong culture with regards to diet which is prepared by pulse crops. Especially during fasting time, food is prepared by pulses such as chick peas, split peas, Faba beans and lentils (CIAT 2008). Compared to peas, the price of Faba bean is more affordable (Duc et al., 2008).
The use of the Faba bean is not only limited for human and animal consumption, it is categorized among grain legumes that are effective in nitrogen fixation (Lindemann and Glover 2003, Matthews and Marcellos 2003) to replace nitrogen fertilizer. The Faba bean is considered to be „one of the best nitrogen fixers‟ (Amanuel et al 2000) and it has been shown by Amanuel et al (2000) and Matthews and Marcellos (2003) that incorporating leguminous crops in crop rotation is useful to increase soil fertility and to decrease fertilizer expenditure.
Additionally, Matthews and Marcellos (2003) stated that including the Faba Bean in crop rotation will increase the amount and quality of the cereals which will be cultivated in subsequent harvest. Moreover, crop rotation that incorporates the Faba bean will decrease soil-borne disease and wheat pests (Matthews and Marcellos 2003).
Out of total world fertilizer consumption, Sub-Saharan Africa accounts only one percent (USDA 2005). In most low income countries including Ethiopia, the use of chemical fertilizer is very low due to limited foreign exchange and unavailable input for production of chemical fertilizer (USDA 2005, MoARD 2010). Like other low income countries, Ethiopian farmers are dependent on fertilizer that is imported from abroad. However, imported fertilizer is expensive and is sometimes unavailable in the market for small scale rural farmers (Howard J et al 1995, Fufa and Hassan 2006, Amanuel 2000).
2 In Ethiopia, due to less availability of foreign exchange, government and private companies are not able to import enough fertilizer to the market to meet the demand (Howard et al 1995). As a result, it is improbable to see poor farmers to apply optimum amount of nitrogen fertilizer which is recommended for cereal production.
Using the Faba bean in crop rotation or intercropping could be other alternative sources of nitrogen fertilizer regarding these economic and social problems (Agegnehu et al 2006). The study by Agegnehu et al (2006) shows that the intercropping of cereals and Faba bean gives high yield compared to sole cropping.
The primary focus of this paper, however, is the adoption of Faba bean cultivation and its challenges in Beseku Ilala peasant association, South Central Ethiopia.
Ongoing studies 1 in the study area focusing on soil fertility management have shown that soil fertility was decreasing. This was due to the lack of nitrogen fixing legumes in the crop rotation practices in the area (Lemenih 2004; Karltun et al 2008).