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«A Dissertation Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy Approved November 2014 by the Graduate ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

Migration and Livelihood Transitions

of Rural Farming Households

by

Seung Yong Han

A Dissertation Presented in Partial Fulfillment

of the Requirements for the Degree

Doctor of Philosophy

Approved November 2014 by the

Graduate Supervisory Committee:

Scott T. Yabiku, Chair

Jennifer E. Glick

Victor Agadjanian

ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY

December 2014

© 2014 Seung Yong Han

All Rights Reserved

ABSTRACT

The main purpose of this dissertation is to examine the effects of migration and household capitals on agricultural and energy transitions in the setting of rapidly changing socioeconomic and environmental conditions of Chitwan, Nepal. The environmental aspects of agricultural and energy transitions are also discussed to weave the changes in the livelihoods of rural households into the discourse of sustainable development, especially in the context of underdeveloped countries. The data used for the analysis is the Chitwan Valley Family Study which has been collected since 1996 at the individual and household level with the focuses on agriculture and family. The results from first difference model and multilevel logistic regression model using discrete-time event history approach deliver a couple of important messages for the future plans for local and national development. Most of all, migration plays an important role in the livelihoods of rural households in Chitwan. It might not have a direct impact, but the findings indicate that social and financial remittances from migration interact with how a household utilizes their current capitals under a given context for the future. Particularly, available labor in a household, prior investment in agriculture, exposure to modern life style, and what other people do, all these factors moderate the association between migration and the transitions. The implications of these results on sustainable development for the future of Chitwan and Nepal in the coming years are discussed afterwards.

i

DEDICATION

As I finish school, I dedicate this dissertation to my father, Kyu-Hyun Han, and my mother, Jung-Hee Kim, who have given me unconditional support and love throughout my life no matter what.

남들이 잘 다니지 않는 평탄하지 않은 길을 쉬어가며 비틀비틀 한걸음씩 더디게 나아가는 아들에게, 방향이 틀리지 않았으니 천천히 나아가라고 끊임없이 밀어 주시는 부모님께 이 논문을 드립니다.

ii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I came to this school flying across a desert as a complete stranger from a foreign country six years ago, and it is about time to leave the nest and fly. Life is strange in a way that it can be planned but unpredictable at the same time. As I step towards the harsh but sometimes heartwarming real world, I realize that we cannot live without the support and help from others. Hence, I would really like to thank the committee chair and my academic advisor, Dr. Scott T. Yabiku, and my committee members, Dr. Jennifer E.

Glick and Dr. Victor Agadjanian for offering their expert guidance, support, and encouragement during the entire process of getting a Ph. D. degree in sociology.

I especially want to thank Dr. Scott T. Yabiku for his priceless support when I was going through the roughest patch of my life in the middle of the program. I would not have made it this far without his generosity and patience. I also want to thank him for giving me years of great academic opportunities despite my challenges as a scholar.

Those opportunities were the ones that were not easy to find elsewhere and obviously have changed my view of the world as a sociologist and a human being.

Lastly, from the bottom of my heart, I want to thank my colleagues who welcomed a foreign stranger to their lives and became much more than colleagues. And I send my bless to all those people who I have come across until today.

–  –  –

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF FIGURES

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

2 BACKGROUND

Internal Migration of Nepal

International Migration of Nepal

Remittance from Migrants

3 THEORETICAL CONSIDERATION AND HYPOTHESIS

Theoretical Consideration

Changes in Agricultural Activities as a Response to Migration.

Environmental Consequences of the Changes in Agricultural Activities..... 30 Changes in the Modes of Production as a Response to Migration................ 31

–  –  –

Energy Transition as a Response to Migration.

Environmental Consequences of Energy Transition.

Hypotheses

Decision Making on Agricultural Transition

Moderating Factors – Household Capitals

Decision Making on Energy Transition

Moderating Factors - Household Capitals

–  –  –

Further Considerations for Migration

4 DATA, RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

Data

Research Design and Methods

The Changes in Agricultural Activities

–  –  –

5 ANALYSIS RESULTS

Descriptive Statistics

Changes in Agricultural Activities





Size of Farming Land

Size of Land for Rent

Number of Poultry

Chemical Fertilizer

Changes in the Modes of Production

Transition from Farming to Non-Farming

Transition to the First Salary Employment

Transition to the First Business outside the Home

Changes in the Main Energy Source

6 CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION

Findings in the Changes in the Agricultural Activities

Findings in the Changes in the Modes of Production

Findings in the Changes in the Main Energy Source

–  –  –

Implications on Livelihood, Development, and Environment

Suggestions for Future Research

REFERENCES

–  –  –

1. Framework of Livelihood Analysis

2. Descriptive Statistics of the Variables at the Household Level in the Period between 1996 and 2001

3. Descriptive Statistics of the Variables at the Household Level in the Period between 2001 and 2006

4. Descriptive Statistics of the Variables at the Individual Level

5. Descriptive Statistics of the Variables at the Neighborhood Level

6. Descriptive Statistics of the Dependent Variables of Agricultural Activities in 2001 and 2006

7A. Farming Land, First Difference Model Results

7B. Farming Land, Interactions, First Difference Model Results

8A. Land for Rent, First Difference Model Results

8B. Land for Rent, Interactions, First Difference Model Results

9A. Number of Poultry, First Difference Model Results

9B. Number of Poultry, Interactions, First Difference Model Results

10A. Chemical Fertilizer, First Difference Model Results

10B. Chemical Fertilizer, Interactions, First Difference Model Results

11A. Transition out of Farming at the Household Level, Multilevel Event History Model Results

11B. Transition out of Farming at the Household Level, Interactions, Multilevel Event History Model Results

–  –  –

12A. Transition to the First Salary Employment at the Individual Level, Logistic Model Results

12B. Transition to the First Salary Employment, Interactions, Logistic Model Results

13A. Transition to the First Business Outside the Home at the Individual Level, Logistic Model Results

13B. Transition to the First Business Outside the Home at the Individual Level, Interactions, Logistic Model Results

14. Number of Households Using Traditional and Modern Energy Sources in Chitwan, Nepal

15A. Energy Transition from Traditional Energy Sources to Modern Ones, Event History Model Results

15B. Energy Transition from Traditional Energy Sources to Modern Energy Sources, Interactions, Event History Model Results

15-1A. Energy Transition from Traditional Energy Sources to Electricity, Event History Model Results

15-1B. Energy Transition from Traditional Energy Sources to Electricity, Interactions, Event History Model Results

15-2A. Energy Transition from Traditional Energy Sources to Gas, Event History Model Results

15-2B. Energy Transition from Traditional Energy Sources to Gas, Interactions, Event History Model Results

–  –  –

15-3A. Energy Transition from Traditional Energy Sources to Kerosene, Event History Model Results

15-3B. Energy Transition from Traditional Energy Sources to Kerosene, Interactions, Event History Model Results

16A. Energy Transition from Modern Energy Sources to Traditional Ones, Event History Model Results

16B. Energy Transition from Modern Energy Sources to Traditional Energy Sources, Interactions, Event History Model Results

–  –  –

1. Conceptual Model

2. Timeline of Variables Used for the Analysis

3. Interaction between Migration and Number of Household Members of Young Age, Size of Farming Land

4. Interaction between Migration and Number of Household Members of Working Age, Size of Farming Land

5. Interaction between Migration and Education of the Youngest Household Member, Size of Farming Land

6. Interaction between Migration and Bari Land, Size of Farming Land.................. 132

7. Interaction between Migration and Khet Land, Size of Farming Land................. 133

8. Interaction between Migration and Agricultural Equipment, Size of Farming Land

9. Interaction between Migration and Livestock, Size of Farming Land

10. Interaction between Migration and Number of Household Members of Working Age, Size of Land for Rent

11. Interaction between Migration and Livestock, Size of Land for Rent................. 137

12. Interaction between Migration and Khet Land, Number of Poultry

13. Interaction between Migration and Agricultural Equipment, Number of Poultry 139

14. Interaction between Migration and Livestock, Number of Poultry

15. Interaction between Migration and Proportion of Households Raising Poultry in the Same Neighborhood, Number of Poultry

–  –  –

16. Interaction between Migration and Number of Old Household Members, Chemical Fertilizer

17. Interaction between Migration and Poultry, Chemical Fertilizer

18. Interaction between Migration and Proportion of Households Using Chemical Fertilizer in the Same Neighborhood, Chemical Fertilizer

19. Interaction between Migration and Housing Quality, Transition out of Farming 173

20. Interaction between Migration and Proportion of Individuals Having a Salary Job in the Same Neighborhood, Transition to the First Salary Employment....... 174

21. Interaction between International Migration and Number of Household Members of Working Age, Transition to the First Business Outside the Home........... 175

22. Energy Transition between 1996 and 2001, Number of Households.................. 208

23. Energy Transition between 2001 and 2006, Number of Households.................. 209

24. Interaction between Migration and consumer Items on Energy Transition from Traditional Energy Sources to Modern Energy Sources

25. Interaction between Migration and Livestock on Energy Transition from Traditional Energy Sources to Modern Energy Sources

26. Interaction between Migration and Household Size of Working Age on Energy Transition from Traditional Energy Sources to Electricity

27. Interaction between Migration and Consumer Items on Energy Transition from Traditional Energy Sources to Electricity

28. Interaction between Migration and Education of the Oldest Household Member on Energy Transition from Traditional Energy Sources to Gas

–  –  –

29. Interaction between Migration and Poultry on Energy Transition from Traditional Energy Sources to Kerosene

30. Interaction between Migration and Education of the Youngest Household Member on Energy Transition from Modern Energy Sources to Traditional Energy Sources

–  –  –

The purpose of this dissertation is to assess the effects of migration and capitals at the household level on agricultural and energy transitions in the context of the socioeconomically changing agricultural region, Chitwan, Nepal, over ten years since

2006. The main motivation for this dissertation is on the growing concern over long-term environmental impacts of livelihood transitions in the setting of developing countries with poverty. Accordingly, the focus of this dissertation is on household-level human activities that would potentially influence the surrounding environment in the long term.

The main goals are to understand; 1) how migration and household capitals diversify the ways of living among rural farming households under rapid socioeconomic transformation (agricultural transition) and 2) how migration and household capitals affect rural households to alter the main energy source (energy transition).

Under the developing context, rural farming households seek additional options for their livelihoods other than farming in order to alleviate poverty and to improve living standards. All the efforts of agricultural households to shift away from agricultural modes of production is defined as agricultural transition. Many households have been going through this transition at a rapid rate given the speed of economic development and diffusion of ideas in recent decades at the global level. It certainly brought positive results, such as economic development, but also brought negative results. One of the most concerning results is its impacts on environment in the short and long term: rapid and gradual environmental degradation, resource depletion, and conflicts between interests of different groups on development (Foresight 2011; Hugo 2008; Pretty and Ward 2001).

–  –  –



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