WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 17 | 18 || 20 |

«A Dissertation Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy Approved November 2014 by the Graduate ...»

-- [ Page 19 ] --

than an international migration to India does (Thieme and Wyss 2005). In addition, the expected income from the migration to other countries is substantially higher than the one from India. According to the 2004 report by the Central Bureau of Statistics of Nepal, the average remittance from urban and rural Nepal was 13,689 NRs (about $137) while the one from other countries excluding India, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and UAE was 134,971 NRs (about $1,350). The average remittance from India was similar to the one from domestic migration in Nepal, but it was still a little bit higher by about 5,000 NRs (about $57). The following countries had much higher numbers: 80,830 NRs (about $808) from Malaysia, 79,249 NRs (about $793) from Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and UAE. The study of Wagle (2012) confirms that the size of remittances from migrants to India is significantly lower than the one from migrants in other countries while the remittances from the Middle East and East Asia is not significantly different from the one from other countries. Considering this significant gap in the amount of remittances from successful migration, how long was the migration, what type of work he or she did in the destination, and the amount of remittance sent to the remaining family, would be very important information to study the impact of migration on livelihood transitions in Chitwan.

Second, industrial-level poultry farming, which is also called commercial poultry farming, is worth to be explored further due to its impact on the development of the region and environment. Poultry farming on a large scale in Chitwan started in around 1995, and it is mainly due to the increasing demand in meat consumption especially in major cities with an increasing size of population (Bohra-Misha 2013; Bhatta, Ishida, Taniguchi, and Sharma 2008). So it seems that industrial-level poultry farming is an

–  –  –

include those households that transitioned to large-scale poultry farming. It is important to explore since it has environmental impacts as discussed before. In general, poultry farming has various impacts on the surrounding environment, especially on land and water, mainly due to its requirement for a large size of land, the treatment of a large amount of poultry waste, and excessive use of natural resources. It also might increases the socioeconomic gap between households since it requires a substantial amount of resources, especially financially, to start. Therefore, I think that it would have significant impacts on wealth distribution of the region, which is one of the central parts of the discussion on economic development.

Third, it would be interesting to examine what energy a household uses on what activities in addition the amount of each energy source used. The energy transition in this dissertation fully used the data available, but still the variables on energy use are dichotomous (use or no use) and it is only for the purpose of cooking. Cooking is an important daily activity, so it is worth to be explored, but there are many other purposes, such as heating or lighting, that might show us different aspects of energy use. In case fuel wood is used for cooking and electricity is used for lighting, for example, the use of fuel wood is only captured in the data, and there is a high chance that how we picture the current energy transition in Chitwan would be biased. Further, additional information about how much and how frequently each energy source is used for a certain purpose would contribute to better understandings of energy transition. For example, if a household has reduced the amount of fuel wood used for cooking, but increased the use of electricity or gas for the same purpose over time, and we can track it, it would allow us

–  –  –

detailed information on energy use would allow us to overcome the limitations of the data used for this dissertation, the Chitwan Valley Family Study. It would also contribute to the better estimates for future energy demand, which is a growing concern at the global level, and make the discourse of energy transition more colorful than before by allowing room for cultural uses of energy at the household level.

Fourth, it would be interesting to examine the gender aspect of household labor in the setting of patriarchal societies, like Nepal. The analysis results indicate that available labor in a household is one of the most important resources for the livelihood diversification strategies of rural households. Considering that females are usually responsible for domestic work including agricultural activities and housework in Nepal, how many females of young or working age are present in a household would be an important factor deciding if a household is likely to move out of agriculture or stay in what they have been doing. In detail, those households with higher number of females of young or working age during the migration of males would be less likely to transition out of farming while those households with less number of females of young or working age would be more likely to move out of farming. In this dissertation, I did not explore household labor by gender due to a statistical concern over small variations in household size variables after the variables are re-grouped by gender. Further, to examine the gender aspect of household labor more in detail, I think it is necessary to examine migration by gender to incorporate the loss of female labor through migration as well. Due to these reasons, I leave the topic for future study. Any research on this topic would contribute to

–  –  –





Acheson, James. 2000. “Clearcutting Maine: Implications for the Theory of Common Property Resources.” Human Ecology 28 (2): 145-169.

Airola, Jim. 2007. “Use of Remittance Income in Mexico.” International Migration Review 41 (4): 850-859.

Axinn, William G., Arnold Thornton, Jennifer S. Barber, Susan A. Murphy, Dirgha Ghimire, Thomas Fricke, Stephen Matthews, Dharma Dangol, Lisa Pearce, Ann Biddlecom, Sundar Shrehtha, and Duglas Massey. 2011. Chitwan Valley [Nepal] Family Study: Changing Social Contexts and Family Formation. ICPSR04538-v7.

Ann Arbor, MI. Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor]. http://dx.doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR04538.v7.

Axinn, William. G. and Scott. T. Yabiku. 2001. “Social Change, the Social Organization

of Families, and Fertility Limitation.” American Journal of Sociology 106 (5):

1219-1261.

Barber, Jennifer S., Susan A. Murphy, William G. Axinn, and Jerry Maples. 2000.

“Discrete-Time Multilevel Hazard Analysis.” Sociological Methodology 30 (1):

201-235.

Bates, Diane. C. 2002. “Environmental Refugees? Classifying Human Migrations Caused by Environmental Change.” Population and Environment 23 (5): 465-477.

Berka, C., H. Schreier and K. Hall. 2001. “Linking Water Quality with Agricultural Intensification in a Rural Watershed.” Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 127): 389Beyene, A. D. 2008. “Determinants of Off-Farm Participation Decision of Farm Households in Ethiopia.” Agrekon 47 (1): 140-161.

Bhandari, Prem. 2004. “Relative Deprivation and Migration in an Agricultural Setting of Nepal.” Population and Environment 25 (5): 475-499.

Bhatta, Kiran Prasad, Akira Ishida, Kenji Taniguchi, and Raksha Sharme. 2008.

“Profitability and Sustainability of the Emerging Poultry Business in Developing Countries: A Case of a Poultry Grower of Nepal.” Japanese Journal of Food, Agricultural and Resource Economics 59 (1): 89-100.

–  –  –

Bilsborrow, Richard E. and Pamela F. DeLargy. 1990. “Land Use, Migration, and Natural Resource Deterioration: The Experience of Guatemala and the Sudan.” Population and Development Review 16 (supplement): 125-147.

Bohra-Mishra, Pratikshya. 2013. “Labour Migration and Investments by Remaining Households in Rural Nepal.” Journal of Population Research 30 (2): 171-192.

Bongaarts, John and Susan C. Watkins. 1996. “Social Interactions and Contemporary Fertility Transitions.” Population and Development Review 22 (4): 639-82.

Boserup, Ester. 1965. The Conditions of Agricultural Growth: the Economics of Agrarian change under Population Pressure. London: George Allen & Unwin.

Boucher, Dug, Pipa Elias, Lael Goodman, Calen May-Tobin, Kranti Mulik, and Sarah Roquemore. 2012. “Grade A Choice? Solutions for Deforestation-Free Meat.” Cambridge, MA: Union of Concerned Scientists.

http://www.ucsusa.org/global_warming/solutions/stop-deforestation/solutions-fordeforestation-free-meat.html#.VEfVDvnF-So.

Carr, David L., Anna C. Lopez, and Richard E. Bilsborrow. 2009. “The Population, Agriculture, and Environment Nexus in Latin America: Country-Level Evidence from the Latter Half of the Twentieth Century.” Population and Environment 30 (6): 222-246.

Casterline, John B. 2001. Introduction to Diffusion processes and fertility transition, Edited by John Casterline. Washington DC: National Academy Press.

Central Bureau of Statistics. 2012. National Population and Housing Census 2011 (National Report). Kathmandu, Nepal.

Central Bureau of Statistics. 2004. Nepal Living Standards Survey: Volume 2.

Kathmandu, Nepal.

Central Bureau of Statistics. 2003. Population Monograph of Nepal. Kathmandu, Nepal.

–  –  –

Conway, Dennis and Jeffrey H. Cohen. 1998. “Consequences of Migration and Remittances for Mexican Transnational Communities.” Economic Geography 74(1): 26-44.

Dabir, Mansureh, Iman Daroudi, and Mehdi Darvish Khazri. 2013. “Impact of Migration in Economic and Social of Rural Environments.” International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences 7 (5): 288-298.

Davis, Jason and David Lopez-Carr. 2014. “Migration, Remittances and Smallholder Decision-Making: Implications for Land Use and Livelihood Change in Central America.” Land Use Policy 36: 319-329.

Davis, Kingsley. 1955. “Malthus and the Theory of Population.” The Language of Social Research 111: 345-366.

Davis, Kingsley. 1963. “The Theory of Change and Response in Modern Demographic History.” Population Index 29 (4): 345-66.

Demeny, Paul. 1990. “Tradeoffs between Human Numbers and Material Standards of Living.” Population and Development Review 16 (supplement): 408-421.

Dun, Olivia and François Gemenne. 2008. “Defining ‘Environmental Migration’.” Forced Migration Review 31: 10-11.

Dustmann, Christian and Oliver Kirchkamp. 2002. “The Optimal Migration Duration and

Activity Choice after Re-Migration.” Journal of Development Economics 67 (2):

351-372.

Ekholm, Tommi, Volker Krey, Shonali Pachauri, and Keywan Riahi. 2010.

“Determinants of Household Energy Consumption in India.” Energy Policy 38:

5696-5707.

Ellis, Frank. 2000. Rural Livelihoods and Diversity in Developing Countries. New York:

Oxford University Press.

–  –  –

Farsi, Mehdi, Massimo Filippini, and Shonali Pachauri. 2007. “Fuel Choices in Urban Indian Households.” Environment and Development Economics 12: 757-774.

Foresight. 2011. Migration and Global Environmental Change: Final Project Report.

London: the Government Office for Science.

Gale, H. Frederick. 2003. “Age-Specific Patterns of Exit and Entry in U.S. Farming, 1978-1997.” Review of Agricultural Economics 25 (1): 168-186.

Gibson, Clark C. and Tomas Koontz. 1998. “When “Community” is Not Enough:

Institutions and Values in Community-Based Forest Management in Southern Indiana.” Human Ecology 26 (4): 621-647.

Gray, Clark L. 2009. “Environment, Land, and Rural Out-Migration in the Southern Ecuadorian Andes.” World Development 37 (2): 457-468.

Greiner, Clemens and Patrick Sakdapolrak. 2013. “Rural-Urban Migration, Agrarian Change, and the Environment in Kenya: A Critical Review of the Literature.” Population and Environment 34 (4): 524-553.

de Haan, Arjan. 1999. “Livelihoods and Poverty: The Role of Migration: A Critical Review of the Migration Literature.” Journal of Development Studies 36 (2): 1-47.

de Haas, Hein. 2010. “Migration and Development: A Theoretical Perspective.” International Migration Review 44 (1): 227-264.

Hazell, Peter. B. R. 2009. “Chapter 68: An Assessment of the Impact of Agricultural Research in South Asia since the Green Revolution.” In Handbook of Agricultural economics: Farm Policies and Regional Development, edited by Prabhu Pingali and Robert Evenson, 3469-3530. Burlington: Elsevier Science.

Heering, Liesbeth, Rob van der Erf and Leo van Wissen. 2004. “The Role of Family Networks and Migration Culture in the Continuation of Moroccan Emigration: A Gender Perspective.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 30 (2): 323-337.

–  –  –

Hiemstra-van der Horst, Greg, and Alice J. Hovorka. 2008. “Reassessing the “Energy Ladder”: Household Energy Use in Maun, Botswana.” Energy Policy 36: 3333Hosier, Richard H. and Jeffrey Dowd. 1987. “Household Fuel Choice in Zimbabwe.” Resources and Energy 9: 347-361.

Hugo, Graeme. 2008. Migration, Development, and Environment. Geneva: International Organization for Migration.

http://www.iom.int/jahia/webdav/site/myjahiasite/shared/shared/mainsite/publishe d_docs/serial_publications/MRS35_updated.pdf.

Hussein, Karim and John Nelson. 1998. Sustainable Livelihoods and Livelihood Diversification. IDS Working Paper 69, Brighton: IDS.

IEA (International Energy Agency). 2013. Redrawing the Energy-Climate Map. World Energy Outlook Special Report.

http://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/weo-special-reportredrawing-the-energy-climate-map.html.

Institute for Environmental Security. 2004. “Eco-Insurance: Risk Management of The 21st Century.” Edited by Lovink, J. Steven, Mathis Wackernagel, and Steven H.

Goldfinger. http://www.envirosecurity.org/conference/working/eco-insurance.pdf.

Jennissen, Roel. 2007. “Causality Chains in the International Migration Systems Approach.” Population Research and Policy Review 26: 411-436.

ODI (Overseas Development Institute). 2014. “Gambling on a Better Future: Is International Labour Migration Worth It?” Briefing Paper 6, London: Secure Livelihoods Research Consortium.



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 17 | 18 || 20 |


Similar works:

«Digital soil map of Cyprus (1:25,000) AGWATER Options for sustainable agricultural production and water use in Cyprus under global change Scientific Report 6 Deliverable D15, D16 Zomenia Zomeni1, Corrado Camera2, Adriana Bruggeman2, Andreas Zissimos1, Irene Christoforou1, Jay Noller3 1 Geological Survey Department of Cyprus 2 Energy, Environment and Water Research Center, The Cyprus Institute 3 Department of Crop and Soil Science, Oregon State University Nicosia, 15 November 2014 Table of...»

«Assessing the Alliance for Green Revolution in Africa August 2009 Report Contributions: Sam Moyo, Walter Chambati, Tendai Murisa and Amade Sucá TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION 2. THE CONTEXT: DECLINING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY 3. OVERVIEW OF THE AGRA PROJECT 3.1 Background 3.2 Principles and policies: defining the problem and interventions 3.3 Programmes and their implementation 3.4 The actors and partnerships involved 3.4.1 AGRA Leadership 3.4.2 Implementation partnerships 3.4.3 AGRA and...»

«52 Chimera 26: Geographical Journal, University College Cork Suburbia: social and spatial trends that emerged in Celtic Tiger Ireland. Matthew Williams Department of Geography, University College Cork, Ireland. Long after the roar of the “Celtic Tiger” has become inaudible; its effects remain in the form of ghost estates, incomplete rural development and inadequate service provision across the Irish landscape. This paper will give a brief account of suburban housing development in Ireland...»

«The Sword of Damocles: Pima Agriculture, Water Use and Water Rights, 1848-1921 Item type text; Electronic Dissertation Authors DeJong, David Henry Publisher The University of Arizona. Rights Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author....»

«Patient & Family Guide to Hospice Care Serving Colorado’s Front Range The Kingfisher, calm and at peace, nested upon water, quieter of restlessness. A Patient & Family Guide to Hospice Care To All, I just want you to know what an honor it is for Halcyon to be invited into your lives in such an intimate way. We are very much committed to living up to your expectations, wishes and desires. Halcyon is a clinician owned hospice. It’s vision is to provide patient centered care to people who...»

«This work is used with the permission of Joelle G. Zeitouny. © 2007, Joelle G. Zeitouny. Wild Edible Plant Consumption and Age-Related Cataracts in a Rural Lebanese Elderly Population: A Case control Study By Joelle Zeitouny School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition McGill University Montreal, Quebec, Canada A thesis submitted to the Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Master of Science August 2007 © Joelle G. Zeitouny, 2007 i Abstract The...»

«FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (FAQs): MINNESOTA’S STAFF DEVELOPMENT STATUTES Minnesota Statutes, sections 122A.60 and 122A.61 Created September 2001 Updated July 2002, March 2006, February 2008, November 2010, August 2013 In response to many interpretation and implementation questions about Minnesota’s staff development statutes, the organizations listed below have jointly developed this set of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs). The statutes discussed in this set of FAQs can be found at Minn....»

«1 116173 NQF Level: US No: Assessment Guide Primary Agriculture Ev a lu a t e Ba s ic Ex t er n al An im al An atom y an d M o r p ho lo g y Assessor:.......................................... Workplace / Company:................................. Commodity:................... Date:................. The availability of this product is due to the financial support of the National...»

«SAFER TO STEAL THAN SCORE: PRESS COVERAGE OF FINANCIAL AND SEXUAL SCANDALS, AND ELECTORAL OUTCOMES A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in The Manship School of Mass Communication by Chance York B.G.S., University of Kansas, 2008 M.S., Kansas State University, 2010 May 2014 ©Copyright 2014 Chance York All rights reserved ii...»

«Tsakiri, Ioannidis, Carty 1 LASER SCANNING ISSUES FOR THE GEOMETRICAL RECORDING OF A COMPLEX STATUE Maria TSAKIRI1, Charalambos IOANNIDIS1, Alistair CARTY2 1 School of Rural and Surveying Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Greece. 2 Archaeoptics Ltd, Glasgow, UK KEY WORDS: laser scanning, heritage applications, three-dimensional, close range, data capture ABSTRACT Recent advances in laser scanning technology allow for fast and efficient 3D documentation of cultural heritage...»

«SOMALIA 2015 HUMAN RIGHTS REPORT EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Federal Government of Somalia, formed in 2012, was led by President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud. Clan elders nominated the members of the House of the People of the Federal Parliament in 2012. Parliament elected Hassan Sheikh Mohamud as president later that year. Former Transitional Federal Government (TFG) president and presidential candidate Sheikh Sharif described the presidential vote as fair and conceded defeat. The regional governments of...»

«EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PURPLE PIGMENT FROM Chromobacterium violaceum GROWN IN AGRICULTURAL WASTES AKRAM NESHATI A Dissertation Submitted To The Faculty Of Science In Partial Fulfillment Of The Requirement For The Award Of The Degree In Masters of Science (Chemistry) Faculty of Science Universiti Teknologi Malaysia APRIL 2010 EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PURPLE PIGMENT FROM Chromobacterium violaceum GROWN IN AGRICULTURAL WASTES AKRAM NESHATI iii To my Beloved Mother and Father...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.