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«A Dissertation Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy Approved November 2014 by the Graduate ...»

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than an international migration to India does (Thieme and Wyss 2005). In addition, the expected income from the migration to other countries is substantially higher than the one from India. According to the 2004 report by the Central Bureau of Statistics of Nepal, the average remittance from urban and rural Nepal was 13,689 NRs (about $137) while the one from other countries excluding India, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and UAE was 134,971 NRs (about $1,350). The average remittance from India was similar to the one from domestic migration in Nepal, but it was still a little bit higher by about 5,000 NRs (about $57). The following countries had much higher numbers: 80,830 NRs (about $808) from Malaysia, 79,249 NRs (about $793) from Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and UAE. The study of Wagle (2012) confirms that the size of remittances from migrants to India is significantly lower than the one from migrants in other countries while the remittances from the Middle East and East Asia is not significantly different from the one from other countries. Considering this significant gap in the amount of remittances from successful migration, how long was the migration, what type of work he or she did in the destination, and the amount of remittance sent to the remaining family, would be very important information to study the impact of migration on livelihood transitions in Chitwan.

Second, industrial-level poultry farming, which is also called commercial poultry farming, is worth to be explored further due to its impact on the development of the region and environment. Poultry farming on a large scale in Chitwan started in around 1995, and it is mainly due to the increasing demand in meat consumption especially in major cities with an increasing size of population (Bohra-Misha 2013; Bhatta, Ishida, Taniguchi, and Sharma 2008). So it seems that industrial-level poultry farming is an

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include those households that transitioned to large-scale poultry farming. It is important to explore since it has environmental impacts as discussed before. In general, poultry farming has various impacts on the surrounding environment, especially on land and water, mainly due to its requirement for a large size of land, the treatment of a large amount of poultry waste, and excessive use of natural resources. It also might increases the socioeconomic gap between households since it requires a substantial amount of resources, especially financially, to start. Therefore, I think that it would have significant impacts on wealth distribution of the region, which is one of the central parts of the discussion on economic development.

Third, it would be interesting to examine what energy a household uses on what activities in addition the amount of each energy source used. The energy transition in this dissertation fully used the data available, but still the variables on energy use are dichotomous (use or no use) and it is only for the purpose of cooking. Cooking is an important daily activity, so it is worth to be explored, but there are many other purposes, such as heating or lighting, that might show us different aspects of energy use. In case fuel wood is used for cooking and electricity is used for lighting, for example, the use of fuel wood is only captured in the data, and there is a high chance that how we picture the current energy transition in Chitwan would be biased. Further, additional information about how much and how frequently each energy source is used for a certain purpose would contribute to better understandings of energy transition. For example, if a household has reduced the amount of fuel wood used for cooking, but increased the use of electricity or gas for the same purpose over time, and we can track it, it would allow us

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detailed information on energy use would allow us to overcome the limitations of the data used for this dissertation, the Chitwan Valley Family Study. It would also contribute to the better estimates for future energy demand, which is a growing concern at the global level, and make the discourse of energy transition more colorful than before by allowing room for cultural uses of energy at the household level.

Fourth, it would be interesting to examine the gender aspect of household labor in the setting of patriarchal societies, like Nepal. The analysis results indicate that available labor in a household is one of the most important resources for the livelihood diversification strategies of rural households. Considering that females are usually responsible for domestic work including agricultural activities and housework in Nepal, how many females of young or working age are present in a household would be an important factor deciding if a household is likely to move out of agriculture or stay in what they have been doing. In detail, those households with higher number of females of young or working age during the migration of males would be less likely to transition out of farming while those households with less number of females of young or working age would be more likely to move out of farming. In this dissertation, I did not explore household labor by gender due to a statistical concern over small variations in household size variables after the variables are re-grouped by gender. Further, to examine the gender aspect of household labor more in detail, I think it is necessary to examine migration by gender to incorporate the loss of female labor through migration as well. Due to these reasons, I leave the topic for future study. Any research on this topic would contribute to

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