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«A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College In partial fulfillment of ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

DIALOGUES, DYSFUNCTIONAL TRANSITIONS, AND EMBODIED PLOT SCHEMAS:

(RE) CONSIDERING FORM IN CHOPIN’S SONATAS AND BALLADES

A Dissertation

Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the

Louisiana State University and

Agricultural and Mechanical College

In partial fulfillment of the

requirements for the degree of

Doctor of Philosophy

in

The School of Music

by

Jonathan Mitchell

B.M., Millsaps College, 2004 M.M., Louisiana State University, 2006 December 2012

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I am grateful for the numerous people that have contributed to this dissertation. I would like to first thank my committee members: to Dr. Inessa Bazayev, my advisor, for all of her gracious and helpful suggestions regarding analysis, writing, formatting, and design; to Dr. David Smyth, for inspiring my interest in Sonata Theory; to Dr. Blake Howe, for sharing his expertise; to Professor Michael Gurt for imparting his knowledge about the works of Chopin and for many insightful comments associated with this project; and Dr. Bruce Sharky, my Dean’s representative, for his willingness to serve.

I am grateful to all my friends who have aided me with their many helpful suggestions.

Particularly, I would like to thank Brandi Burton, Gregory Sims, and Lee Turner for serving as editors.

Furthermore, I thank my colleagues Dr. Lynn Raley, John Bishop, Adam Hudlow, Matt Steinbron, Jeff Yunek, Gregory Sims, and Zachary Hazelwood for their kind help with the mechanical aspects of preparing a large document. I am grateful for those who have supported me throughout this process: to Dr. Larry and Mrs. Kathy Mitchell, my parents, for their continuous encouragement; to Elizabeth Wallace, David, Stephen, and Nathan Mitchell, for their advice, my friends at All-Saint’s Anglican Church in Baton Rouge, for their friendship and support; to Mr. and Mrs. Carl C. Clement Jr., for their prayers; most of all to Vita Mitchell, my wife, to whom I dedicate this project, for her undying love and care.

ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS…………………………………………………………………………………ii LIST OF EXAMPLES….………………………………………………………………………………....iv GLOSSARY OF NEW TERMS…………………………………………………………………………..ix ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………………………………………..x

CHAPTER

1 LITERATURE REVIEW………………………………………………………………………………..1

1.1 Theoretical Apparatus: The Hepokoski/Darcy Model, TR Dysfunction, and Brower’s Schemas for Musical Plot……………...…………………………………………….….………………………...1

1.2 Chopin’s Ballades in Analysis: A Rich, Evolving Tradition…. ………………………………….11

1.3 The Most Recent Thinking on the Ballades…………………………………………………….….19 2 CHOPIN’S SONATAS: TYPES, SPACES, AND THE DE-ENERGIZING TR……………………. 32

2.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………..32

2.2 Chopin, TR, and RT….……………………………………………………………………….........41

2.3 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………………57

3 TR DYSFUNCTION: ENERGY-GAINING PARADIGMS IN CHOPIN’S SONATAS AND

BALLADES…………………….……………………………………………………………………….60

3.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………...60

3.2 General Premises about TR in Chopin’s Large Works…………………………………………….60

3.3 TR Paradigms in Chopin’s Ballades and Sonatas……………………………………………….....62 4 BALLADES 1, 2, AND 4: TELLING THE SAME STORY IN THREE DIFFERENT WAYS….….92

4.1 Hearing the Musical Narrative in Chopin’s Four Ballades: The Three-Phase Narrative Trajectory, Rotational Configuration, and Sonata Rhetoric…… ……………………………………………...92

4.2 TR Dysfunction in Ballades 1 and 4……………………………………………………………...109

4.3 Embodied Plots…………………………………………………………………………………...122

4.4 Ballade 2: The Tragedy of Rotational Synthesis………………………………………………...127

4.5 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………………..136 5 BALLADE 3: A NEW, MULTI-FACETED ANALYSIS…………………………………………....137

5.1 Previous Writings and the Need for a Multi-Faceted Approach…………………………………..137

5.2 A New Analysis of Ballade 3: Rotational Strategies, Sonata Dialogue, and TR Dysfunction…...142 6 CONCLUSION: FURTHER APPLICATION………………………………………………………..153





6.1 The Ecumenical Method and the Piano Music of Brahms………………………………………...153

6.2 Brahms’ Rhapsody Op. 79, No. 2.………………………………………………………………...153

6.3 Conclusion: Final Thoughts and Avenues for Further Study……………………………....…….156 BIBLIOGRAPHY………………………………………………………………………………………..160 VITA……………………………………………………………………………………………………..165

–  –  –

1.1: Hepokoski/Darcy’s Model of the Expositional Rotation and of the Entire Sonata Trajectory………3 1.2: Chart of the Exposition of Beethoven’s Piano Sonata, Op. 49, No 1……………………………...…6 1.3: Exposition of Beethoven’s Piano Sonata, Op. 49, No. 1……………………………………………..7 1.4: Brower’s Embodied Schemas for Musical Plot……………………………………………………...10 1.5: Three Critical Phases in the Reception of Chopin’s Ballades……………………………………….13 1.6: Schenker’s Middleground Graph of Ballade 1………………………………………………………13 1.7: Two Sides of the Debate: Chopin’s Ballades and Their Relationship to Sonata form……………..14 1.8: Abraham’s Formal Chart of Ballade 1……………………………………………………………….15 1.9: Six Features That Constitute Sonata Form, According to Griffel

1.10: Three-Stage Form in Ballade 1…………………………………………………………………….19 1.11: Rosen’s Chart for Ballade 1………………………………………………………………………...21 1.12: Rosen’s Characteristics of the Ballade Genre……………………………………………………....22 1.13: Klein’s Analyses of Ballades 1 and 4………………………………………………………………24 1.14: Berger’s Analysis of the Punctuation Form of Ballade 1…………………………………………..25 1.15: Berger’s Analysis of the Harmonic and Thematic Plans of Ballade 1……………………………..26 1.16: Suurpää’s Formal Analysis of Ballade 4…………………………………………………………...27 1.17: Suurpää’s Schenkerian Background/Structural Analysis of Ballade 4……………………………..28 1.18: Morgan’s Two Charts of Ballade 4…………………………………………………………………29 1.19: Mitchell’s Chart of Ballade 4……………………………………………………………………….30 2.1: Chopin’s Early and Mature Works in Sonata Form (first movement)……………………………….33 2.2: Chopin’s P-Spaces………………………………………………………………………….………..35 2.3: P-Spaces in Three Piano Sonatas…………………………………………………………………......36 2.4: Chopin’s S-Spaces…………………………………………………………………………………...38 2.5: MC Treatment in Chopin’s first movement Sonatas………………………………………………....39 2.6: MC Treatment in Chopin’s Two Piano Concerti…………………………………………………….39

–  –  –

2.8: Inter-Rotational Activity in Ballade 1 (Rotations 1 and 2)………………………………………….42 2.9: Inter-Rotational Activity in Ballade 1 (Rotations 2 and 3)………………………………………….43 2.10: Inter-Rotational Activity in Ballade 4………………………………………………………………44 2.11: Common Features of Chopin’s TRs………………………………………………………………..45 2.12: Sequence-Based TR in Piano Concerto No. 1, Solo 1(mm. 179-190)...…….…………………......46 2.13: Excerpted, Sequence-Based TR from Piano Trio, first movement (mm. 28-36)....……………......47 2.14: Chromatic Re-Interpretation in Piano Sonata No. 3, first movement (mm. 14-19)....……………..48 2.15: Chromatic Irritant in Piano Sonata No. 2 (mm. 92-105)..…………………………..………….…..49 2.16: New Key Prepared by Its Parallel Minor in Piano Sonata No. 3, first movement (mm. 31-36)...…50 2.17: Narrative Process in Piano Sonata No. 2, first movement…………………………...…..…………52 2.18: Suppressed/Failed TR in Piano Sonata No. 2, Rotation 1 (mm. 22-45)…..…………………….….53 2.19: TR2 in the Exposition of Piano Sonata No. 2, first movement (mm. 77-105)…..…………………54 2.20: MC Declensions at the End of Rotation 1, Piano Sonata No. 2 (mm. 99-105)...…………………..55 2.21: Dominant Preparation before Reprise of S, Piano Sonata No. 2, first movement (mm. 161-172)..57 2.22: Race Toward the Finish in Piano Sonata No. 2, first movement (mm. 218-241)………………….58 2.23: Overcoming-Blockage in Piano Sonata No. 2, first movement……………………………….……59 3.1: The Four TR Paradigms in Chopin’s Sonatas and Ballades…………………………….……….…..63 3.2: Unyielding Tonic TR in Exposition of Piano Trio, Op. 8 first movement (mm. 28-46)…...….…….64 3.3: Three TR Phases 1 in Ballade 1, Rotation 1…...…………………………………………………….67 3.4: Defective TR in the Recap of Piano Trio Op. 8, first movement (mm. 167-181)…...………………70 3.5: Suppressed TR in Piano Sonata No. 2, Exposition (mm. 25-56)…..………………….….……….....72 3.6: P-Space in Piano Sonata No. 3, first movement………………………………………………….….74 3.7: TR1.1 in the Exposition of Piano Sonata No. 3, first movement……………………………………..75 3.8: TR1.2 in the Exposition of Piano Sonata No. 3, first movement ……………………………………..77 3.9: Rotational Synthesis in Ballade 3…………………………………….………………………………79

–  –  –

3.11: Opening of the Cello Sonata, Op. 65, first movement………………………………………..…….84 3.12: Consequent of P in Cello Sonata, Op. 65, first movement…………………………………..….….85 3.13: TR Phase 1 in the Cello Sonata, Op. 65, first movement…………………………………………..86

3.14 TR Phase 2 in the Cello Sonata, Op. 65, first movement……………………….…………………...88 3.15: De-Energizing TR in the Cello sonata, Op. 65, first movement……………………………………90 4.1: The Three-Phase Narrative in Ballades 1, 2, and 4……………………………………………….....93 4.2: The Rotational/Narrative Process in Ballade 1………………………………………………………95 4.3: Rotation 1, Ballade 1…………………………………………………………………………….......96 4.4: P’s Expanded Consequent in Rotation 1, Ballade 1…………………………………………………98 4.5: Rotation 2, Ballade 1 (Foreground Chart)…………………………………………………………..99 4.6: P’s Transformation (Phase 1) in Rotation 2 of Ballade 1…………………………………………..101 4.7: S-Apotheosis in Rotation 2, Ballade 1……………………………………………………………....102

4.8 Excerpt of TR2 and TR3 and Onset of TMB1 in Ballade 1, Rotation 3.……………………………...103 4.9: Rotation 3 in Ballade 1……………………………………………………………………………..105



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