WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:     | 1 || 3 | 4 |   ...   | 24 |

«By Nathan B. Goodale A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY WASHINGTON STATE ...»

-- [ Page 2 ] --

Depth of Deposits to Site Size………………………………..151 Overall Trends in the Cross-correlation……………..……152 Regression Analysis: Population Growth through Time…………153 Population Growth Rates…………………………………………158 Simulating the Effects of Taphonomic Bias………….………163 Random Destruction……………………….……………..164

–  –  –

Summary………………………………………………………….174

8. CONVERGENCE IN THE NEOLITHIC: HUMAN POPULATION

GROWTH AT THE DAWN OF AGRICULTURE……………………...176 Evolution and the NDT…………………………………………...176 Why did Fertility Increase?

Why did Population Increase?

Convergence in the Neolithic……………………………………..181 Modeling Population Growth…………………………………….183 The NDT in the Pacific Northwest NA….……………………186 Concluding Remarks……………………………………………...188 REFERENCES CITED……………………………………………………………..190 APPENDIX A. POPULATION PROXY DATA…………………………………………..233

–  –  –

4.1. Total Fertility Rates of 57 Forager, Horticultural, and Agricultural groups. Data is after Bentley et al. (1998)……………………………………………………76

5.1. Cultural Chronology of the Near East Transition to Food Production………....82

6.1. Three steps (shifts) during a cross-correlation.………………………………...137

7.1. Results of the Pair-Wise Regression Analysis………………………………...155

–  –  –

3.1. Loess fits to the data, with λ = 1. The α parameter is indicated by the individual captions. Data from Bocquet-Appel 2002:640-641, Table 1………………….36

3.2. Loess fits to the data, with λ = 2. The α parameter is indicated by the individual captions. Data from Bocquet-Appel 2002:640-641, Table 1…………………37

3.3. Loess fits to randomly generated data, with λ = 1. The α parameter is indicated by the individual captions. Note how the best fit line behaves the smaller the window size and the size of the dataset dramatically influences how the line is drawn………………………………………………………………………….39

3.4. Loess fits to randomly generated data, with λ = 2. The α parameter is indicated by the individual captions. Note how the best fit line behaves the smaller the window size and the size of the dataset dramatically influences how the line is drawn and the line is less curved with smaller window sizes than when λ = 1..40

4.1. A theoretical model of natural occurrences, and behavioral actions converging to cause the NDT and the subsequent behavioral reactions and changes in socioeconomic systems………………………………………………………..49

4.2. Signatures of health in relationship to the transition of agriculture in the American Southwest where a = frequency of caries, b = porotic hyperostosis and c = cribra orbitalia. Redrawn from Bocquet-Appel et al. (2008)………..53

4.3. The exercise threshold model suggested by Morris et al. (2006)……………..69

–  –  –

storage technology. Note that peaks above and below the high diet stability line indicate seasonal use of different foods. After storage is in place, certain foods would have been available for a long-term basis providing much more stabilized diets…………………………………………………………………………..71

4.5. Total Fertility Rates (TFR) of 57 ethnographic groups subdivided by subsistence mode. Redrawn after Bentley et al. (1993a) with data from Appendix I and Boone (2002:16)……………………………………………………………..75

5.1. The Near East and the Southern Levant as the focus of this research………..81

5.2. Early Epipaleolithic sites with obtainable data for the paleodemographic model presented in Chapter Seven…………………………………………………..85

5.3. Middle Epipaleolithic sites with obtainable data for the paleodemographic model presented in Chapter Seven………………………………………………….87

5.4 Early and Late Natufian sites with obtainable data for the paleodemographic model presented in Chapter Seven…………………………………………..89

5.5. Pre-Pottery Neolithic A sites with the data available for demographic analysis presented in Chapter Seven………………………………………………...100

5.6. Artist reconstruction of the storage structure at Dhra’, Jordan. Drawing by Eric Carlson……………………………………………………………………..101

5.7. Artist reconstruction of the two phases of construction of one of the storage structures recovered at Dhra’, Jordan………………………………………...102

5.8. Carbonized wild wheat grain recovered within the storage structure at Dhra’.103

–  –  –

model…………………………………………………………………………108





5.10. Middle Pre-Pottery Neolithic B sites with obtainable data used in the paleodemographic model presented in Chapter Seven……………………….111

5.11. Late Pre-Pottery Neolithic sites with obtainable data for the paleodemographic model presented in Chapter Seven……………………………………………116

5.12. Pre-Pottery Neolithic C sites with obtainable data for the paleodemographic model presented in Chapter Seven……………………………………………118

6.1. A graphic illustration of the cross-correlation procedure where (A) represents the two functions for comparison, (B) represents the shift required to match up the two functions and (C) represents the cross-correlation where the peak is the best fit between the functions……………………………………………………...132

6.2. A typical target fingerprint…………………………………………………….134 6.3. (a) A fingerprint, digitized in strips. The blue trace shows the pixel density in a given strip; higher pixel density indicates a ridge at that point in the strip.

Sampling the fingerprint under different conditions can lead to changes; (b) shows the original strip and a shifted, noisy version…………………………135

6.4 A zero-padded template (blue) and a fully left-shifted, zero-padded target (gray) at three different shifts in the cross-correlation process……………………...136

6.5. The result of the cross-correlation of the two traces in Figure 6.3b. The large peak at a shift of+61 indicates that the target trace (gray) should be shifted 61

–  –  –

the right) to match up best…………………………………………………..137 7.1. 1/λ values for depth o deposits. RED = all data, GREEN = only pre-8650 data, BLUE = only pre-10,500 data……………………………………………….142 7.2. 1/λ values for site size. RED = all data, GREEN = only pre-8650 data, BLUE = only pre-10,500 data…………………………………………………………144 7.3. 1/λ values for number of sites occupied. RED = all data, GREEN = only predata, BLUE = only pre-10,500 data……………………………………144 7.4. 1/λ values for number of sites occupied. RED = all data, GREEN = only predata, BLUE = only pre-10,500 data……………………………………145

7.5. Linear regression of depth of deposits to time (calibrated BP). Regression line in RED reflects that of all data and regression line in BLUE reflects that of only

–  –  –

Regression line in RED reflects that of all data and regression line in BLUE reflects that of only data pre-8650. Data points in RED are those dating to postcal BP…………………………………………………………………..148

7.7. Linear regression of the frequency sites occupied to time (calibrated BP).

Regression line in RED reflects that of all data and regression line in BLUE reflects that of only data pre-8650. Data points in RED are those dating to postcal BP………………………………………………………………….149 <

–  –  –

reflects all data and regression line in BLUE reflects that of only data pre-8650.

Data points in RED are those dating to post-8650 cal BP…………………...150

7.9. Cross-correlation of depth of deposits versus frequency of occupied sites from

–  –  –

from 22,000 to 8,000 calibrated years ago……………………………………152

7.11. Cross-correlation of site size versus frequency of occupied sites from 22,000 to 8,000 calibrated years ago…………………………………………………….155

7.12. Cross-correlation of site size versus frequency of 14C dates from 22,000 to 8,000

–  –  –

22,000 to 8,000 calibrated years ago…………………………………………156

7.14. Cross-correlation of depth of deposits versus site size from 22,000 to 8,000 calibrated years ago…………………………………………………………..157

7.15. The overall trends in the data from 20,000 to 8650 cal BP of all the variables utilized in the population proxy model………………………………………159

7.16. Changing growth rates through the sequence. Note that the dashed line tracks the growth rates and the significant increase during times of population growth after the first well documented case of intensive food storage………………160

7.17. A typical exponential decay curve. In this case, the curve’s equation is

–  –  –

the interval……………………………………………………………………166

7.18. The board at different steps in the simulation. Black squares represent balloons left on the board. The simulation starts with 54 balloons on the board……....168

7.19. The board at different steps in the simulation. The simulation starts with 216 balloons on the board…………………………………………………………168

7.20. The board at different steps in the simulation. The simulation starts with the board fully covered: 504 balloons are on the board………………………….168

7.21. The total number of balloons left on the board, after a number of throws. The different subfigures show results for boards starting with 56, 226, and 504 balloons, respectively…………………………………………………………169

7.22. Balloon populations vs. time, with a cheating operator. Only the lowermost curve has no interference from the operator; all of the other curves have the operator adding balloons at some constant rate (in an archaeological sense the cheating operator would act as a nondestructive force)……………………...171 7.23. (a) the population growth rates presented earlier scaled to compare to the sneaky operator simulation. Note that the archaeological data takes the form most similar to the second line from the top indicating a fast sneaky operator or in our case, slow taphonomic destruction. This line also takes the form most similar to this line at the end of the sequence where there is minimal logistical growth. (b) Balloon populations vs. time, with a cheating operator, as simulated on the computer. The board started with 216 balloons. The lowermost curve has a

–  –  –

throw………………………………………………………………………….172

8.1. A theoretical model of converging natural occurrences and behavioral actions to produce the NDT and subsequent behavioral reactions in socioeconomic systems. Note the time periods where we see the first archaeological correlates……………………………………………………………………..182

8.2. A population proxy model for the Interior Northwest of North America in the Upper Columbia Tributaries. The graph is drawn from the data presented in Goodale 2001: Appendix A………………………………………………….188

–  –  –

WHEN DO HUMAN POPULATIONS GROW? CATALYSTS OF

DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE IN PREHISTORIC SOCIETIES

In North America, archaeology developed as a sub-discipline in the greater study of humans known as anthropology. Anthropologists and archaeologists in general are charged with the daunting task of understanding the evolution of human behavior and the distinct yet interrelated components of both our biology and social behavior. There are two primary goals associated with the responsibility of understanding our past. First, we must examine the attributes of our genetics that have evolved over the course of millions of years to produce our large brains and our behaviors. Second, we must attempt to understand our culture or the learned information that we gather, process, and transmit throughout our lifetime. Both components of our behavioral and biological evolution have a strong link to our interaction with each other and with our natural surroundings.

Through interacting with our social and natural environments, humans have negotiated several major adaptive transitions. Undoubtedly, the adaptation and perpetuation of such adaptive transitions significantly shaped the daily lives of individuals, their families and communities from the distant past through modern times. These significant transitions include 1) our behavioral evolution and migration out of Africa (Klein 2008), 2) the independent invention and transition to food production in several areas of the world including the Near East (11,000 BP), China (9,000 BP), Central Mexico (5000-4000 BP) and Eastern USA (4000-3000 BP) (Bar

–  –  –

and modernization, just to name a few. The focus of this study is the second of these significant transitions with specific attention to the interaction of human behavior and the fundamental elements associated with intensified food production in the Near East.



Pages:     | 1 || 3 | 4 |   ...   | 24 |


Similar works:

«DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE OF BRIDGES AND VEHICLES UNDER STRONG WIND A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in The Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering By Suren Chen B.S., Tongji University, 1994 M.S., Tongji University, 1997 May 2004 DEDICATION To my parents, my wife and my son ii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am indebted to Professor...»

«52 Chimera 26: Geographical Journal, University College Cork Suburbia: social and spatial trends that emerged in Celtic Tiger Ireland. Matthew Williams Department of Geography, University College Cork, Ireland. Long after the roar of the “Celtic Tiger” has become inaudible; its effects remain in the form of ghost estates, incomplete rural development and inadequate service provision across the Irish landscape. This paper will give a brief account of suburban housing development in Ireland...»

«December 2013 7 No. Recent Articles from the Tokyo Foundation Website www.tokyofoundation.org/en The Myth of China’s Leadership Financial Time Bomb Development Dispatches om Why Myanmar Matters Ghana: “We Are Not Here to Be Ensuring the Future of the Liberal Popular” International Order in East Asia From Promise to Japan’s Agriculture Reality: Kisumu Leadership and and the TPP Development Conference Structural Shift in Responses to AntiJapan-China Relations Semitism in PreWorld War II...»

«A prelude to agriculture: Game use and occupation intensity during the Natufian period in the southern Levant Item type text; Dissertation-Reproduction (electronic) Authors Munro, Natalie Dawn Publisher The University of Arizona. Rights Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited...»

«SAFETY DATA SHEET Section 1. Identification Ammonia, Anhydrous Product Name: Synonyms: Ammonia CAS REGISTRY NO: 7664-41-7 Supplier: Tanner Industries, Inc. 735 Davisville Road, Third Floor Southampton, PA 18966 Website: www.tannerind.com Telephone (General): 215-322-1238 Corporate Emergency Telephone Number: 800-643-6226 Emergency Telephone Number: Chemtrec: 800-424-9300 Recommended Use: Various Industrial / Agricultural Section 2. Hazard(s) Identification Hazard: Acute Toxicity, Corrosive,...»

«ANDREW G. VAUGHN Gustavus Adolphus College 800 West College Ave. St. Peter, MN 56082 507–933–7475 (O); 507–934–1225 (H) email: avaughn@gustavus.edu http://www.gac.edu/~avaughn POSITIONS HELD Associate Professor of Religion: Gustavus Adolphus College, St. Peter, MN. Appointment with continuous tenure in area of Hebrew Bible. 2002 – present. Chair, Department of Religion: Gustavus Adolphus College, St. Peter, MN. 2003 – present (on sabbatical 2004–5 academic year). Supply Preacher:...»

«Dorinne Dorfman Planning and Changing Vol. 35, No. 3&4, 2004, pp. 143–153 THE LUCKIEST LITTLE HIGH SCHOOL: THE POSSIBILITIES AND PANGS OF COMMUNITY DEMOCRACY Introduction The rapid transformation of a secondary school from a bureaucratically regimented institution to a student-centered learning environment advocating democratic practices merits review. During its third year of progressive reform, this gem was discovered among the ashes of high-stakes assessment and corporate infiltration in...»

«DIALOGUES, DYSFUNCTIONAL TRANSITIONS, AND EMBODIED PLOT SCHEMAS: (RE) CONSIDERING FORM IN CHOPIN’S SONATAS AND BALLADES A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in The School of Music by Jonathan Mitchell B.M., Millsaps College, 2004 M.M., Louisiana State University, 2006 December 2012 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am grateful for the numerous...»

«This work is used with the permission of Joelle G. Zeitouny. © 2007, Joelle G. Zeitouny. Wild Edible Plant Consumption and Age-Related Cataracts in a Rural Lebanese Elderly Population: A Case control Study By Joelle Zeitouny School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition McGill University Montreal, Quebec, Canada A thesis submitted to the Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Master of Science August 2007 © Joelle G. Zeitouny, 2007 i Abstract The...»

«The role of wild grasses in subsistence and sedentism: new evidence from the northern Fertile Crescent Manon Savard, Mark Nesbitt and Martin K. Jones Abstract Sedentism is usually regarded as a pre-condition for the development of crop husbandry in Southwest Asia and, consequently, sedentary pre-agrarian sites are an important focus of research on the origins of agriculture. It is often assumed that wild grasses were as important for huntergatherers as domesticated cereals were for early...»

«Kara Loo and Jennifer Young Eastridge@SchoolForAdventurers.com EASTRIDGE ACADEMY: SCHOOL FOR ADVENTURERS BY KARA LOO AND JENNIFER YOUNG Eastridge Academy: School for Adventurers Prologue Explain why you would be a strong candidate for attending Eastridge Academy, School for Adventurers, in 500 words or less. “Hey, Farmington. You stupid farmboy, what have you got there?” Fell Farmington gulped and quickly tried to hide the application for Eastridge Academy: School for Adventurers. But he...»

«HAIL, HAIL, HAIL ! THE SUMMERTIME HAZARD OF EASTERN COLORADO Nolan J. Doesken, Assistant State Climatologist (Colorado Climate publication, April 1994, Volume 17, Number 7, Special Feature Section) INTRODUCTION Hail ! the word itself sends feelings of frustration through Colorado farmers. Each year, millions of dollars of agricultural losses occur when hailstorms s weep across the Eastern Plains. Hundreds of Colorado wheat farmers can tell tales of disappointment about years when their crop had...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.