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«Juanwen Yuan Thesis committee Thesis supervisor Prof. dr. A. Niehof Professor of Sociology of Consumers and Households Wageningen University Thesis ...»

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Which members of your household have knowledge of the following activities on the farm?

Activity Person(s) with more knowledge (write as many codes as apply) 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. Home 29. Other Rice Maize Rapeseed Potato garden crops cash crops Land preparation Raising seedlings Application of manure, pesticide Transplanting Planting Watering Weeding Other daily management Harvesting Post-harvesting Marketing Sources of agricultural information Others (specify)

–  –  –

2.2 Farm equipment and household and tangible Assets Does your household own any of the following items? Ask the retail price of the 41.

good or the current market value of the good as it is.

–  –  –

If yes, go to next, how much in total is owed by others to your household?


–  –  –

Of all the groups to which members of your household belong; which two are the 70.

most important to your household?

Group 1 ________________________________________________

Group 2 ________________________________________________

How many times in the past 12 months did anyone in this household participate in 71.

this group’s activities, e.g. by attending meetings or doing group work?


Group 2____________________________________

–  –  –

Does the group help your household get access to any of the following services?


Services Group 1 1= Yes 2 = No Group 2 1 = Yes 2 = No Education or training Credit or savings Agricultural input or technology Water supply Irrigation Labour saving Recreation Health services Others (specify)

–  –  –

4.2 Road Can the car/tractor reach your house directly? 1=yes 2=no 92.

In which year was the recent road built?


4.3 Fuel ( Energy source)

–  –  –

4.5. Rural industry How far is the nearest rural industry and what is it?


Did you and other household members work for the rural industry (within 101.

township) in the past year? 1= Yes 2=No

–  –  –


1.1 Household Livelihood Activities In the last 12 months (between now and the same month last year), which types of work or activity did the members of your household perform, in order to meet the above named livelihood objectives? Who worked at each activity?

–  –  –

age age age Age age age age Age Migration (outside province) Migration (outside county) Seasonal migration Local circulation (within county) Local circulation (within township) Attending technology training (within village) Attending technology training (outside village) Getting extension information from government and village leader Attending extension study group activities Others (specify)

–  –  –

a. Possess contracted land Contracted paddy field quota Contracted upland quota Contracted forest land b. Access to public land Forest land Wasteland/grassland c. Access to land management Cultivate rice Cultivate maize Cultivate rapeseed Cultivate potato Cultivate home garden Cultivate other cash trees Cultivate wasteland/grassland Others (specify)

–  –  –

Annex 2 Additional questionnaire for migrated households Date of interview________ Village__________ Questionnaire number__ Name of interviewer____________ Name of respondent_____________

Male_________ Female____________ Age_____ Married year_______ Household formulation year______________

Household type________ 2= female-headed (based on hukou registration) 1= male-headed 1= male-headed 2=female-headed (based on actual manager) Name of spouse___________ Name of household head__________ Household size_____

–  –  –

3. What is the most difficulty you feel when you work outside?

1=can not find a job 2=bad living situation 3=hard work 4=lower education 5= children’s education 6= others (specify)

–  –  –

12. What is the migration income compared with your agriculture income annually?

1= similar 2=2-5 times 3=5-10 times

13. Why you have more opportunities to migrate outside compared with your parents?

1= higher education 2= good opportunity 3= lower profit from agriculture 4= technical skills 5= other (specify)

–  –  –

• Agricultural technology extension activities in the past five years in the township

• Government projects in the past five years

• Agricultural subsidy policies (taxes-free, rice production subsidy, equipment, biogas, rural industry, community organization etc.)

• Agricultural technology extension policy

• Migration-supporting policies, land policies, women support policies

2. Key informant interview For township officials

• What activities do you involve in the last five years?

• What changes happen in the township?

• What happened to your work in the past five years?

For extension worker

• What extension activities do you have in the last five years?

• What activities do you have besides technology extension work?

• How do you provide technologies to local farmers?

• What problems did you meet in the process?

• Do you think extension work has changed since increasing migration? If yes, how?

• What suggestions do you have for the extension work?

For aged person and village leader (male and female)

• Marriage, household division and formation

• Collective production system (workpoint system, gender, livelihood)

• Land allocation regulations (land quality and quantity) for HRS

• Current livelihood (land use, technology extension) and gender issues (e.g.

access to, decision-making)

• Village’s heterogeneous status and wealth status

• Migration

3. Case study (including life stories)

• Marriage, household division and formation

• Livelihood (land use, technology extension) in different life stages

• Gender issues (e.g. access to, decision-making) in the household and in different life stages

• Migration and migration impact

–  –  –

Since the introduction of the Household Responsibility System (HRS) in 1978, Chinese rural households have experienced many changes. The HRS allows farming households to organize their own agricultural production on contracted lands, enabling them to work more efficiently and get more benefits compared to during the collective era. Since the market liberation, the number of enterprises that can absorb the surplus labour has increased, and many men migrate to earn cash. This entails changes in gender roles in the rural areas, leading to feminization of agriculture and women becoming de facto household heads. Household landholding, land use and livelihoods are changing and social stratification is becoming more pronounced. As a consequence, farming households’ needs for agricultural extension are increasingly diverse and can no longer be accommodated by traditional top-down extension. The changes since the implementation of the HRS provide the opportunity to study the interrelationships of household, gender, livelihood and social change in rural China.

This research aimed to identify the changes in the farming household, gender roles, and rural livelihoods since the implementation of the Household Responsibility System (HRS) in 1978, to understand the heterogeneous household land use practices in the context of diversified livelihood portfolios, and to provide policy recommendations for agricultural technology extension. This research

aimed to answer the following research questions:

1. What are the changes in farming households after the HRS, in terms of household structure, composition, size, sources of income and livelihood (including land use), and gender roles?

2. What are the changes in the household, gender roles, livelihood, and land use strategies and their impacts on rural society?

3. How can agricultural extension policies better accommodate the increasing heterogeneity of farming households, particularly regarding household land use?

This research was conducted in the municipality of Kaizuo, located in the southern part of the province of Guizhou, China. The municipality has 37 villages. The field work was done from August 2007 to October 2008. The researcher could also use earlier working experience in the same area. The study used a life course approach and the livelihood framework. The main research methods were cohort analysis, key informant interviews, household survey, focus group discussions (FGDs), case study and participant observation. Secondary data collection was used to describe the research area. The major findings of this research are summarized below.

Before 1978, many rural households had food shortage problems. They only worked on the collective land and had no decision-making power about land use. Food distribution was organized according to labour contribution (work points) to the collective production. About half of the households had to borrow food from the collective. The households were rather similar in terms of physical, financial, social and environmental resources. People’s education level was low


and most marriages were arranged. The houses were small and poorly built.

People helped each other in many activities, e.g. house construction, in return for food. There were few products in the market and there was only one cooperative shop in the municipality that sold daily necessities. Coupons were required if you wanted to buy goods there, but these were allocated to each person according to a certain ratio and their number was very limited. There were no tap water and there were only dirt roads. Most households used firewood for fuel and did not have electricity. The main income came from agricultural production and few skilled villagers, all men, did sideline activities for the collective. Skilled persons were entitled to more food. Agricultural extension was top-down, through village leaders and extension workers. Men and women did not get equal work points, since men were involved in activities that earned more points, such as ploughing and skilled work.

Since the implementation of the HRS, the household size has become smaller and the younger people are better educated. Young couples started to go out to earn cash, leaving their children with the grandparents. Income sources have become more diversified. Migration is very common for the younger people and off-farm circulation is common among middle-aged persons. Only aged persons now depend on land only. Villagers run small shops and a small mine factory, work in the transportation business or trade, sell wild vegetables and medicinal herbs. Most of the money made is not from agriculture. More money comes from animal husbandry, migration and off-farm work. People have extra food to sell because of higher yields from the land and fewer mouths at home. Traders come to buy non-timber forest products, resources that are valuable for women, aged persons, and children. Land is rented to others to cultivate because migration causes labour shortage. More cash crops are cultivated.

Women and men are now more equal ideologically. Younger wives are active in agricultural production and have to do many activities in the field themselves or get help from the parents-in-law. Women prefer to cultivate more diversified crops. Men are more interested in cultivating staple food or cash crops and they prefer to get money from non-agricultural sources. It is common that who does the job, makes the decisions relating to it. The home garden is the women’s domain. Aged couples usually work together, according to a rigid division of labour that is not found among young couples anymore. Newly married couples spend more time on child care and less on agriculture. The daughter-in-law is now more powerful than the mother-in-law and can make her own decisions, even if the older woman works harder.

In economic terms, most households are medium-level households.

Households that rely only on their land and agriculture are not rich. For rich households the land is not so important anymore, although they hold on to it. For such households agriculture production is a sideline activity. Most medium-level households diversify land use and cultivate more cash crops. Poorest households are not good at land management and only cultivate a limited number of crops.

Only few households that have little land want to give up the land to earn money by migration. Most people, however, want to come back to farming some day, when they are too old for migration. The households of late 1980s and 1990s cohorts have the most difficult time because they have to pay for the children’s higher education. The situation is easier for the households of the 2000s cohort,

246 Summary

whose children are younger, and who prefer to work outside to earn cash for the children’s upbringing and future. Some households do not migrate and are engaged in intensive cultivation, trading, or transportation. For them, cash crops are important. The households of the 1970s and early 1980s cohorts are usually involved in circulation. They can use the money they earn from this, and what their children send them, for inputs in agricultural production. They can employ labourers to work for them in the busy season and are eager to increase their knowledge about land management. They prefer to cultivate more diversified food for own consumption. But they have a heavy burden, taking care of grandchildren and their children’s land.

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