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«Water Balance Methodology for indirect assessment and prediction of basin water yield under human-induced land use changes N. V. PENKOVA & I. A. ...»

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Numerous HWBMs runs for simulation of interannual soil moisture regime, showed that the semi-empirical models under development are highly sensitive and sufficiently rigorous. They enable the ecosystem (biogeocenosis, crop field) to be considered as an active component of the hydrometeorological system in an integrative manner, with generalization at a higher level of abstraction than the physical one, and giving the same status both to natural-climatic and anthropogenic (agrotechnology, irrigation, etc.) factors which are working in a feedback regime. The models may be recommended for incorporation into both the WBMs and into modern hydrological models of the distributed system type. Further differentiations are now being investigated to take account of combinations of a wider range of possible naturalclimatic and man-induced conditions for plant functioning, including hypothetical cases. The investigations are being fulfilled within the DSS-packages in order to incorporate additional models when they become available (including agricultural economics models which are equally important to improve land and water management in terms of a financial cost to the farmer and a cleaner environment).

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Bulavko, A. G. (1971) Water Balance of River Basins: Main Regularities, Methods for Computation and Problems Remarking. Hydrometeoizdat Publ. House, Leningrad, Russia (in Russian).

Budyko, M. I. (1971) Climate and Life. Hydrometeoizdat Publ. House, Leningrad, Russia (in Russian) Diekkruger, B., Kirkby, M. J. & Schroder, U. (eds.) (1999) Regionalization in Hydrology (Proc. Int. Conf. Brauschweig, Germany, 10–14 March, 1997). IAHS Publ. 254. IAHS Press, Wallingford, UK.

Dorenboth, J. & Pruitt, W. O. (1975) Guidelines for predicting crop water requirements. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 24. FAO UN, Rome, Italy.

Dyck, S. (1985) Overview on the present status of the concepts of water balance models. In: New Approaches in Water Balance Computations (ed. by A. van der Beken & A. Herrmann) (Proc. Workshop XYIIIth General Assembly of IUGG Hamburg, Germany, August, 1983). IAHS Publ. 148. IAHS Press, Wallingford, UK.

Eagleson, P. S. (1978) Climate, soil and vegetation. Water Resour. Res. 14(5), 705–776.

Kavvas, K. L. (ed.) (1989) New Directions for Surface Water Modelling (Proc. Symp. Third Sci. Assembly IAHS, Baltimore, Maryland, USA, May, 1989). IAHS Publ. 181. IAHS Press, Wallingford, UK.

Kalma, J. D. & Sivapalan, M. (eds.) (1995) Scale Issues in Hydrological Modelling: Advances in Hydrological Processes.

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Kharchenko, S. I. (1975) Hydrology of Irrigated Lands. Hydrometeoizdat Publ. House, Leningrad, Russia (in Russian).

N. V. Penkova & I. A. Shiklomanov 84

Kirkby, M. J., Baird, A. J., Diamond, S. M., Lockwood, J. G., McMahon, M. D., Mitchell, P. L., Shao, J., Sheehy, J. E., Thomes, J. B. & Woodward, F. L. (1996) The MADALUS slope catena model: a physically based process model for hydrology, ecology and land degradation interactions. In: Mediterranean Desertification and Land Use (ed. by J. B. Thomas & J. Brandt), 303–354. John Wiley, Chichester, UK.

Penkova, N. V. (1980) On calculation of evapotranspiration from different surfaces in the Middle Volga Basin. Trans. SHI 273, 62–75. Hydrometeoizdat Publ. House, Leningrad, Russia (in Russian) Penkova, N. V. (1984) Water balance computation for the Middle Volga Region river basins for calendar years. Trans. SHI 291, 86–94. Hydrometeoizdat Publ. House, Leningrad, Russia (in Russian) Penkova, N. V. & Kolpakova, N. N. (1997) Hydrological mapping in resolving of environment preservation and production tasks. In: Urgent Ecological Problems of Tatarstan Republic (ed. by M. Kh. Khasanov), 66–70. Inst.

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Penkova, N. V. & Shiklomanov, I. A. (1996) Macro-indicators and global water-use geography. In: Modern Geography and the Environment (Abs. All-Russian Sci. Conf., Kazan, Tatarstan, 19–21 September 1996), 18 (in Russian).

Penkova, N. V. & Shiklomanov, I. A. (1998) Methodological Principles for assessment and prediction of water use and water availability in the world. Water: a looming crisis? In: Proc. Int. Conf on World Water Resources at the Beginning of 21st Century (ed. by H. Zebidi) (UNESCO, Paris, 3–6 June 1998). IHP-Y Technical Documents in Hydrology 18, 25–36.

Rodda, H. J., Shankar, U. & Thorrold, B. (1996) Development of decision support tools for managing water quality in agricultural landscapes. NIWA Consultancy Report MA60202/1, Hamilton, New Zealand.

Shiklomanov, I. A. (ed.) (1986) Methodological Guidelines on Assessment of Man’s Impact on Large and Middle Rivers Runoff and it’s Characteristics Restoration. Hydrometeoizdat Publ. House, Leningrad, Russia (in Russian) Shiklomanov, I. A. (1989) The Influence of Economic Activities on River Runoff. Hydrometeoizdat Publ. House, Leningrad, Russia (in Russian).

Stewart, J. B. (1989) On the use of the Penman-Monteith equation for determining areal evapotranspiration. Estimation of Areal Evapotranspiration. In: Proc. Symp. Second IAHS Assembly (ed. by T. A. Black, D. L. Splittlehouse, M. D. Novak & D.T. Price) (Budapest, Hungary, July 1986), 3–12. IAHS Publ. 177. IAHS Press, Wallingford, UK.

Vinogradov, Yu. B. (1988) Mathematical Modelling of Runoff Forming Processes: Experiment of Critical Analysis.

Hydrometeoizdat Publ. House, Leningrad, Russia.

Voskresensky, K. P. (ed.) (1986) Methodological Recommendations on the Inventory of Man’s Impact on Small Rivers Runoff under Hydrological Computations for Water Projects. Hydrometeoizdat Publ. House, Leningrad, Russia.

Wood, E. F. (1995) Heterogeneity and scaling land-atmospheric water and energy fluxes in climate systems. In: Space and Time Scale Variability and Interdependencies in Hydrological Processes (ed. by R. A. Feddes). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

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