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«BY ROICK CHIKATI (R035991L) SUPERVISOR: Dr. A Senzanje An undergraduate Research project submitted in partial fulfilment of requirements of the ...»

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Uses of water Key-uses 1=livestock 2=domestic use 3= brick making 4= reeds 5= small garden use

4.5. Assessing how the water can be abstracted for use by rural people.

The methods which people suggested differed due to sex, age, and sometimes religion and tradition. These are shown in figure 4.5. Most of female respondents indicated that the most appreciable way of abstracting water was the use of buckets. However male respondents indicated the use of donkey drawn wagons to carry water. However all respondents indicated that the method which was not labor intensive was the use of chisel powered engine to abstract water from silt of silted up small dams. Others preferred the use of open canals to abstract water while other preferred boreholes and the use of tipping buckets.

–  –  –

5.1 Conclusion and recommendations Conclusion Water from silt of silted up small dams can go a long way in improving rural livelihood from the Research it was found that the water from silt wells are multi-purpose, and have uses varying from water consumption water productivity and water economic value figures. The following was established, brick making, reeds cypress spp, livestock watering irrigation, domestic use and other smaller issues. The volume of water was found to be 15 336 m3 which is approximately more than 40% 0f 30 000 m3 of silt. The different volume of water that is consumed by livestock small garden irrigation, domestic and brick making varied significantly. The general trend in volume of water utilized was that livestock consumes the bulk of water followed by domestic and small gardens programs.

From the research again it was found that the moisture content of the silt differs with the position of silt samples in the dam.

Research also showed that most people who abstract this water from silt wells mostly use buckets to abstract the water. However this method is such laborious that people believe that the use of diesel powered water pump. This can be at least sustainable since there is not electrical anyway near the dam. It was further discovered that small dams in the Limpopo river basin are more susceptible to degradation by pollution than large dams and many have lost their environmental and socio-economic benefits as a result of unsustainable development around them.

It must again be known that the amount of water in the silt of these small dams greatly depends with time of the year and the weather at any particular day. In this Research the weather was assumed to be normal.

27 Recommendations The greatest threat in the storing capacity and multi purpose of small dams siltation on smaller dams as some of them dry pup late during the season. This force the small dams not to store water from season to season (Manzungu, 2002). Frequent soil erosion in should be carried out and measures taken to curb soil erosion in the catchment’s. This may be done through more interaction between the community and Organizations such as AREX and DNR. There is also a need for further research in the quantification of water in silt of silted up small dams and establishing how this water can be sustainable be utilized by rural people. Discharge at steady abstraction must not be more than 0,54m3/min which is the maximum recharge of the silt wells. Water abstraction is mainly being done using buckets for irrigation and domestic and brick making which is laborious as a result of water from silt wells is not fully utilized usage of technology such as diesel powered engines, boreholes and sometimes open councils will see more people benefiting from the small dams and more water being put into productive use. However for these to be of benefit they need proper repair, maintenance and frequent evaluation.

–  –  –

Appendix 1

1. Respondents details Name…………………….Sex…………………….Age……………………..

How long has he/she been living in the area?

Distance from household to dam………….km

2. What were the major reasons for building the dam? Give a brief history of how these have changed over the years?

……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………

3. What do they use the water from silt water for? (Give a rating of its importance in terms rural livelihoods i.e. cash generations, food medicine and aesthetic value by assigning a figure 0 to 5, 0 being the least important and 5 being the most important in that order)……………………………………………………………………………………..

………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

4. What has the impact of the water from the silt of silted up small dam has, in your life, socially, economically, environmentally.etc very critical, moderate, little (tick the appropriate and explain)………………………………………………………





………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

5. What problem do your encounter in using the water from the silt of silted up small dam?. E.g. its competition, water quality etc ……………………………………….

……………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………

6. How often do you use water from the silt wells of the small dam?

Everyday………………………………………………………………………… Seasonally…………………………………………………………………………..

Other(specify)…………………………………………………………………………

7. When do you use water from the silt wells (time of the year, ie month) ………………………………………………………………………………

–  –  –

9.How many buckets of water do you use for the following on dairly basis from the silt wells for the period specified in (6).

Drinking…………………………………………………………………………………… Bathing…………………………………………………………………………………….

Washing…………………………………………………………………………………….

Cleaning…………………………………………………………………………………… Other………………………………………………………………………………………

10. What other sources of water do you use besides the water from silt wells of silted up small dams?

…………………………………………………………………

11. What problems do you encounter in using water from the dam for domestic use?

.

12 CROP

–  –  –

13. What is the method of water abstraction (tick where appropriate?.

………………………………………………………………………………… Buckets…………………………………………………………………………… Donkey drawn containers………………………………………………………...

Diesel engine ……………………………………………………………………… Borehole………………………………………………………………………… Open canal…………………………………………………………………….

14. What is the method of water application / irrigation (tick where appropriate).

Furrow……………………………………………………………………………….

Surface irrigation……………………………………………………………………..

Buckets ……………………………………………………………… Sprinkler irrigation…………………………………………………………………..

Other (specify)……………………………………………………………….

15. What do you think is the best way of abstracting water?.(if any) tick appropriate ( give them ratings from 0 to 5)……………………………….

………………………………………………………………………………… 30 …………………………………………………………………………………

16. What problems do you encounter in using the water from the silt wells ? (if any)…………………………………………………………………………………..

……………………………………………………………………………………….

……………………………………………………………………………………….

17. What livestock have access to the water from silt wells (tick the appropriate)?.

……………………………………………………………………………………….

……………………………………………………………………………………….

–  –  –

19. How many bricks do you mould using water from these silt wells?

………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………

20.What method do you use to abstract water for brick molding (tick where appropriate)?

Buckets…………………………………………………………………………………… Diesel powered engine…………………………………………………………………… Open ditch canal……………………………………………………………………….

Borehole ………………………………………………………………………………….

Donkey drawn cats……………………………………………………………………..

Others(specify)………………………………………………………………………….

–  –  –

Chavula,G,(2000), The potential of Using Community Based Small Earth Dams for Irrigation Development, The world commission On Dams, www.dams.org/kbase Ellis-Jones, J., Zvarevashe,V. Tamirepi, M, (1999) CARE Zimbabwe, Small Dam Rehabilitation Project Program Of Activities for 1999/00 Silsoe Research Institute, UK HR Wallingford (2004), Guidelines for Predicting and Minimizing Sedimentation in Small Dams, HR Wallingford.

Kabell, T, (1986). Assessment Of Design Flood Hydrographs. Te Zimbabwe Engineer vol.24l, Keller.A (Undated). Water scarcity and the role of storage in development.

http:www.iwmi.cigiar.org/pub039/R039.htm.

Lumbroso, D. Handbook for the assessment of Catchment Water Demand and Use,HR Wallingford, UK. Pp10 Manzungu, E. (ed), (2002), The processes and Dynamics of Catchment Management in Zimbabwe. Proceedings of a Workshop Held at Monomotapa Hotel, Harare, Zimbabwe, 24 June 2002, Save Africa Trust PUBLICATIONS, Harare.

Moyo S., (1995), The Land Question In Zimbabwe. Saps Books, Harare, Zimbabwe.

333pp Nelson, K.D., (1985), Design and Construction of Small Earth Dams, Inkata Press Proprietary Limited. Melbourne.

Ogbeide H.E,. E. Uyigue, S. Oshodin (2003) Socio-economic and Environmental Performance of Dams. A case study of Ojirimi Dam Nigeria www.ruverfestval.com.au/2003/files/symposium/OGBEIDE,%20H.doc Rose grant, M., W., Cai, X., Cline, S.,A.,(2002), World Water and Food 2025 Dealing With Scarcity. International Food Policy Research Institute. Washington, D.C.

Senzanje, A., Chimbari, M.(2002), Inventory of Small Dams in Zimbabwe, IWMI, Colombo, Sri Lanka.

Sugunan, V.V., (1997), Fisheries Management of Small Water Bodies in Seven Countries in African and Asia. F.A.O. Fisheries Circulars –C993 http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/W7560E/W7560E02.htm

–  –  –

Zirebwa, J., Twomlow, S, (1999) Historical Profiles of Selected Small Dams in Communal Areas Of Masvingo Province,Silsoe Research Institute,UK Zvarevashe, V and J. Ellis-Jones, (eds), (2000), The role of Small Dams in the Improvement of Rural Livelihoods in Semi-Arid Areas. CARE Stakeholder Workshop Masvingo, Zimbabwe, Masvingo, IDG/00/18

34

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