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To whom do you sell your products?

What kind of agreement do you have with your clients (collecting points, dairies, processors, etc.)?.

Written contract / oral / other. Under what conditions?

How is the payment system (frequency, in cash or in species)?.

What do you do with the calostrum and the milk that is rejected by your clients?

IV. RELATIONSHIP WITH OTHER ACTORS IN THE AREA:

Do you have any relationship with other farmers in the area (association, cooperatives, etc.)? What type of relationship do you have? And what are the benefits?

The presence of a big dairy like “Gloria” in the valley has had any impact on the way you produce milk at farm level (due to possible changes in prices, rejection of milk, etc.)? If is YES, it was positive or negative and why?

What is your opinion about PRONAA project? The PRONAA project in the valley has had any impact on the way you produce milk at farm level (due to possible changes in prices, rejection of milk, etc.)? If is YES, it was positive or negative and why?

V. RELATIONSHIP WITH PROCESSORS:

Which are the criteria used to select the processors?

Do you receive any service as an incentive from the processors?

Do you receive an incentive for produce milk during the dry season?

What strategies do you apply to keep your processor loyalty? Which?

–  –  –

What means milk quality for you?

In a scale from 0 to 10 (where 10 = very important) how important is for you to produce a good quality milk?

Are there some specific controls of milk quality in your farm?. If is YES, which ones?

Do you analyze (in terms of quality) the milk produced after the milking process?. YES or NO. If is YES how often do you check it?

Acidity Density Fat content Protein content Other The processors do any sort of control/measurement of milk quality at farm level?

From your point of view, in a scale from 0 to 10 (where 10 = very important) how important is for the processors that you keep an adequate milk quality?

Do you receive an incentive (input supplies, credit, advices, training, payment regularity, etc.) or an extra payment according to the milk quality you produce?. YES or NO. If is NO would you be interested on it?

VII. AIDS OR SERVICES RECEIVED:

Do you receive (or have received) any aid or service from the government or a NGO?. If is YES how?

and when?

Do you have access to credit?. If is NO for what reason?

VIII. OVERVIEW AND PERSPECTIVES:

What are the main constraints you have to face?

What is your priority in terms of production?. Do you have plans to increase the number of cows and / or diversify your livestock?

What perspectives do you have in the future of your farm?

ANNEX 2: Questionnaire for dairy processors

–  –  –

I. PRODUCTION:

With how many suppliers (farmers) do you work?:

How many kilograms of milk do you collect per day (in average)?:

What types of dairy products do you produce?

II. MARKET:

To whom do you sell your products?

What kind of agreement do you have with your customers?. Written contract / oral / other. Under what conditions?

How is the payment system with your costumers?

III. RELATIONSHIP WITH OTHER ACTORS IN THE AREA:

Do you have a relationship with other dairies and cheese factories in the area? What type of relationship do you have?

The presence of a big dairy like “Gloria” in the valley has had any impact on your production? If is YES, it was positive or negative and why?

The PRONAA project in the valley has had any impact on your production? If is YES, it was positive or negative and why?

IV. RELATIONSHIP WITH FARMERS:

How much is your average purchase price of milk per kilogram?. Is it affected due to a seasonality variation?

How do you do the milk collection? How many times per day?

Do you have a written contract or a verbal agreement with the farmers?. Under what conditions?

How is the payment system with the farmers?

Do you apply some strategies to keep your farmers loyal? Which?

 Get incentives to farmers, i.e. special payments or bonuses during the offseason?

 Do you provide non-market services to farmers?: training, access to credit, input supplies, etc.

 Other………………………………………………………..……………………………

V. QUALITY:

In a scale from 0 to 10 (where 10 = very important) how important is for you to ensure the good quality of your products?

What are the reasons for why do you think it is important to check milk quality and dairy products quality through the processing chain?.

How is the control of milk quality during the processing chain in your dairy plant?.

Do you have any “specification” in terms of quality when you collect the milk?. YES or NO. If is YES how often do you check it?.

Acidity Density Fat content Protein content Other Do you have any “specification” in terms of quality when the milk arrives to the plant gate?. YES or NO. If is YES how often do you check it?.





Acidity Density Fat content Protein content Other What happens if a farmer does not achieve the required quality?

Do you do any sort of control/measurement of milk quality at farm level?

From your point of view, in a scale from 0 to 10 (where 10 = very important) how important is for your suppliers (farmers) to keep an adequate milk quality?

Do you give a bonus or an extra payment to the farmers according to the quality of their milk?. YES or NO. If is NO would you be interested in adopt this measure to ensure an adequate supply of milk quality?.

From your point of view, in a scale from 0 to 10 (where 10 = very important) how important is the good quality of your products for your costumers?

Do you label your products? If is YES do you provide any information related to milk quality to your customers?

Do you think your customers would be willing to pay an extra for a product which ensures is based with a good milk quality?. If is YES how much?.

IX. OVERVIEW AND PERSPECTIVES:

What are the main constraints you have to face?

What is your priority in terms of production?. Do you have plans to increase your capacity and / or diversify your production?

What are your market positioning strategies? Are you looking for selling in Lima, what could be the possible constraints?

What perspectives do you have in the future of your business?

ANNEX 3: List of management and milking practices

–  –  –

VARIABLE OPTIONS

I. - General productivity characteristics

1. Predominant dairy breed: Holstein / Brown Swiss / Crossbreeds/ Other breeds

2. Total number of cows: 5 cows / 6 – 10 cows / 11 – 19 cows / 20 cows

3. Milking cows at the time of the evaluation: 5 cows / 6 – 10 cows / 11 – 19 cows / 20 cows

4. Milk produced per day per farm: 10 lts. / 11 – 25 lts. / 26 – 50 lts. / 51 – 99 lts. / 100 liters

5. Length of lactation: 8 months / 8–10 months / 8-12 months / 12 months II.- Infrastructure and equipment management

6. Gather the cows in a waiting yard before milking: Yes / No

7. Floor of the waiting yard: Soil / gravel / Concrete

8. Clean waiting yard: Never / At least once a day / Less than once a day

9. Floor of the animal housing: Soil / gravel / Concrete

10. Clean animal housing: Never / At least once a day / Less than once a day

11. Floor material of the milking parlour: Soil / Concrete / Wood

12. Roof material of the milking parlour: Tin / Other (e.g. wood, tiles) / None

13. Location of the milk churns: Outside / In milking parlour / House

14. Milk-cooling system: Milk is not cooled /Tank in water / Cooling tank / Preservatives

15. Frequency of milk collection: Once a day or less / Twice a day

16. Cleanliness of the equipment before milking: Poor / Fair / Good / Very Good

17. Cleanliness of the equipment after milking: Poor / Fair / Good / Very Good

18. Material of the milking pail: Metal / Plastic III.- Sanitary and milking practices

19. Keep a notebook of treatment records: Yes / No

20. Cows are milked: By hand / By machine

21. Frequency of milking liners cleanliness during milking: At the beginning / Between cows / At the end of the milking 22 Udder examined before milking: Never / Always / Sometimes

23. Method of udder examination: Massaging / Foremilking / Foremilking and massaging

24. Udder washed before milking: Yes / No

25. Which udders are washed before milking: From all cows / Dirty udders only

26. Which part off the udder is washed: Whole udder / Teats only

27. The washing water contains disinfectant: Yes / No

28. The udder is dried after washing: No / Yes, with paper towels / Yes, with a cloth

29. Cows leak milk before milking: Yes / No

30. Order in which mastitic cows are milked: First / Last / No specific order

31. Mastitic milk is collected into a separate bucket: Yes / No

32. Have a written Milking Routine: Yes / No

33. Training Frequency: Never/ At Hiring/ Sometimes / Frequently

34. Complete milking routine: Yes / No

35. Predip: Yes / No

36. Forestrip practiced: Yes / No

37. Post-milking teat dipping practiced: Yes / No

38. Iodine product is used to PMTD: Concentrated / Deluded / Don’t used

39. Use California mastitis test (CMT): Yes / No

40. Duration of CMT use: 1 year / 2–3 years / 4 years / Don’t used

41. Wear gloves: Always / Occasional / Never

42. Milk is filtered before depositing in churns: Yes / No

43. Material of the filter: Metal / Plastic / Cloth or nylon / Plastic and cloth or nylon

IV. Animal cleanliness:

44. Cows restrained during milking: Yes / No

45. Source of water used to clean and feed the cows: Potable / Rain water / Irrigation ditch / Water well

46. Cow restrainers are washed: Once a day / Only when dirty / Not washed / Just with brush

47. Cow tail management: Clip tails once a year / Clip tails once a year / Tails ringed, cut

48. Average cow dirtiness score: 1.0 / 1.5 / 2.0 / 2.5 / 3.0 / 3.5 / 4.0

1.0 Clean skin and hair

1.5 Mainly clean, some loose manure

2.0 Approximately 50% of area being scored is clean, some loose manure, hair visible through manure

2.5 More than 50% of area being scored is soiled, some matting of hair

3.0 Most of the area being scored is dirty, much of the hair is matted

3.5 All of the area being scored is dirty, most of the hair is matted, little hair visible

4.0 All of area being scored is matted, hair not visible (Source: O’Driscoll et al, 2008)

IV. Feeding:

49. Detail what is the average diet used to feed your lactating cows (kg./cow/day) Forage kg/cow/day (Green Matter) Concentrate kg/cow/day ANNEX 4: Questionnaire for commercial dairy processors who have bought a MasterEco

–  –  –

I. PRODUCTION:

With how many farmers do you work? From where?

How many kilograms of milk do you collect from farmers per day?

Do you work with milk collectors?. If is YES with how many?. And how many kilograms of milk do you buy from them?. Do you know where the milk from the collector comes from?

What types of dairy products do you produce?

II. QUALITY:

What means milk quality for you?

Which milk characteristics do you think have a main impact at the moment to process your products?.

Do you know the exact impact of that component in your products?. If is YES, how do you evaluate that relationship?

What sort of constraints and problems do you face regarding these characteristics at the moment?

What are the reasons for why do you think it is important to check milk quality and dairy products quality through the processing chain?

How is the control of milk quality from farm gate to your dairy outputs in your case?

Do you have any “specification” in terms of quality? YES or NO. If is YES, how often do you check it?

–  –  –

What happens if a farmer or collector does not achieve the required quality?

III. MILK ANALYZER How did you learn about the existence of the milk analyzer?

Why and when did you buy the milk analyzer?

What benefits the seller indicated that you will achieve at the moment he offers to you the milk analyzer?

Does the seller provide any type of service to you (training in the use, data processing, maintenance)?

What characteristics and functions do you think were determinant for you in order to buy the milk analyzer?

How do you use the milk analyzer? Do you analyze milk from all the farmers or only the bulk tank? Do you analyze milk from collectors as well? The analysis is face to face with them or inside the plant gate?

Which parameters from the list of physicochemical components provided by the milk analyzer (Fat, protein, solids not fat, lactose, density, salts, freezing point or water) do you use to accept or reject the milk? Do you have minimum values for them?. If is YES, how did you determine them?

How often do you use the milk analyzer?

Do you keep milk quality records with you? If is YES, how do you process that information?

Did you notice a change in the quality of the milk delivered by your milk suppliers since the use of the milk analyzer?

The use of the milk analyzer in your plant have influenced in the way how you select your milk suppliers now? Did you have changed from milk suppliers since the introduction of your milk analyzer?

Did you perceive a negative reaction from your milk suppliers against the analysis you started to perform with the milk analyzer? Have you observed any difference of reaction between them (e.g.

between individual farmers and collectors)?



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