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«DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY OF THE AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES IN THE MEKONG DELTA, VIETNAM: SIGNIFICATION OF DIVERSIFICATION INTO BUSUNESS AND ACTITITIES ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

The United Graduate School of agricultural

sciences, Kagoshima University, Japan

DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY OF

THE AGRICULTURAL

COOPERATIVES IN THE MEKONG

DELTA, VIETNAM:

SIGNIFICATION OF DIVERSIFICATION INTO

BUSUNESS AND ACTITITIES

ベトナム·メコンデルタにおける農業協同組合の開発戦略

TRAN MINH HAI

2014 i

DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY OF THE AGRICULTURAL

COOPERATIVES IN THE MEKONG DELTA, VIETNAM:

SIGNIFICATION OF DIVERSIFICATION INTO

BUSUNESS AND ACTITITIES

ベトナム·メコンデルタにおける農業協同組合の開発戦略 A thesis submitted to the United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Kagoshima University, Japan In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree of Doctor of the Philosophy By

TRAN MINH HAI

Department of Agricultural Economics and Management Faculty of Agriculture 2014 ii The United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Kagoshima University, Japan The dissertation entitled “DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY OF THE

AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES IN THE MEKONG DELTA,

VIETNAM: SIGNIFICATION OF DIVERSIFICATION INTO BUSUNESS

AND ACTITITIES” prepared and submitted by TRAN MINH HAI in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR of PHILOSOPHY is hereby accepted Prof. Dr Izumi IWAMOTO Chairman Examination Committee Kagoshima University January 11, 2014 Prof. Dr Jea Hyeon LEE Prof. Dr SHIGEYUKI Naitoh Member Member Examination Committee Examination Committee Kagoshima University Ryukyus University Prof. Dr NORIO Sakai Prof. Dr SHIRATAKE Yoshiharu Member Member Examination Committee Examination Committee Kagoshima University Saga University iii

ABSTRACT

Vietnam’s Agricultural cooperative (AC), in general, and the Mekong Delta’s (MD) Agricultural Cooperative, in particular has developed since 1954 with many stages of rises and falls. During 1954-1975, ACs developed only in northern Vietnam, and none existed in southern Vietnam. Then, the government expanded the AC from North to South Vietnam during 1975-1995. During 1954-1995, ACs were formed with collection land, capital assets and property of individual farmers and equally distribution, which Vietnamese called the old AC model. The period 1986-1995, most of ACs in Vietnam largely collapsed after Vietnam change into renovation “DOI MOi” on economy policy in 1986.

In 1996, the government introduced again ACs follow the International Cooperative Alliance model and enacted the first Cooperative Law, which Vietnamese called the new AC model. In addition, the government has promulgated many resolutions, decrees and circulars to promote the new AC. The first Cooperative Law in 1996 and many polies related on cooperatives, Vietnamese government expects well development of ACs in Vietnam. However, ACs have uncounted opportunities as well as challenges on development and it seems that ACs have faced more challenges than opportunities.

However, we can observe some ACs in the Mekong Delta (MD) region, south of Vietnam to measure level of success and provided many lessons for development the ACs. Therefore, this paper aims to discover “development strategy of the agricultural cooperatives in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam-significant of diversification into business and activities”.

–  –  –

ACs in Vietnam, current status of ACs in MD, agricultural cooperatives’ contributions to farming practices, success of ACs in MD and development strategy of ACs in MD, Vietnam.

The research results shows that 1) Vietnam’s ACs, in general, and the MD AC, in particular, have both opportunities and challenges after the First Cooperative Law in 1996. 2) The current status development of ACs in MD, South of Vietnam is similar to ACs in Vietnam, ACs in MD have faced some challenges as simple business and activities, low educational degree of management staff, low ratio of farmers enrolment into ACs. But, some ACs in MD have been successful business and activities. 3) ACs have contributed to the improvement of farming practices for both members and non-members. Members use a greater variety of services from ACs than do non-members. Hence, contributions of ACs to farming practices have more significant effects on members than on non-members. In addition, the contribution of ACs to farming practices widely differs between P0, when the AC did not give services, and PT, when it provided services. 4) Case studies of successful ACs show that these ACs have succeeded because their business and activities are diversified, beneficial, convenient and based on the needs of members and non-members. Also, AC's services reduce production cost and increase revenue and profit and the AC has developed its internal resources for sustainable development. 5) Development strategy of ACs in the Mekong Delta includes 2 periods, 3 implementation suggestions, 4 strategies and 5 stages development business and activities.





v

Abstract

in JAPANESE

本論文ではベトナムの農業の中心地の一つであるメコンデルタにおける農協の発展戦略につ いて検討することを目的としている。 そこで第一に、1996 年の協同組合法制定後のベトナム農協が直面している課題と困難につ いて、マクロ環境、ミクロ環境、内部環境の三つの局面について検討した。考察の結果は以 下のようにまとめられる。 第一に、新協同組合法後、マクロ環境、ミクロ環境、内部環境それぞれにおいて、農協は 活動を多角化し、多くの利益を組合員、非組合員にもたらした。また農協の収益も改善し、 小規模農協は合併し組合員を拡大し、経営管理も改善された。 第二に、一方でベトナム農協は協同組合法のもとで多くの困難に直面している。法律が ICA 原則と一致していない面がある。また旧農協は多額の負債を抱え、旧農協への不信感も農協 発展の阻害要因となっている。農協の役員の管理能力が低いことが問題である。教育水準が 低いため、能力や知識に欠けている。 次に、メコンデルタの農協の現状について明らかにした。メコンデルタの農協は農協数は 増加しているものの、一農協当たりの組合員数が減少している。またメコンデルタ全体では 21.9%の加入率しかなく、様々な困難に直面している。 メコンデルタの中心部アンジャン省を対象に 62 戸と農協組合員と 61 戸の非組合員を抽出 し、農協が農業生産に与えている効果について検討を行った。その結果、農協は組合員にも 非組合員にも利益をもたらしているが、組合員の方が灌漑や収穫機械利用などにおいて大き な利益を得ており、農家の収益も高くなっていることが明らかになった。農協が農家経済に 果たしている役割が大きいことが調査結果から検証できた。 メコンデルタでは多くの農協が未発達の水準にあるが、いくつか農協自体の成功事例が見 られる。そこで次に農協の成功要因を明らかにした。ここでは成功指標を、組合員や非組合 員に対して利益やコスト低減において有利なサービスを提供していること、組合加入率が向 上していること、出資金、運転資金、資産、利益などを向上させていることにおいた。 その上で、メコンデルタの7つの成功農協を調査し、そこからプータンと 3A の二つの農協 を選んで考察対象とした。第1に、両農協とも、管轄地域における乾期の灌漑、雨期の排水 という用排水サービスを提供しているが、組合員には非組合員より料金を割り引いているた め、組合員の用排水コストは低く抑えられている。第2に、民間業者の半額程度でコンバイ ンサービスを提供している。第3に、良質品種の種子を供給している。第4に、組合員への 低利資金の供与である。第5に、プータン農協は、無料の救急車サービスを行っている。第 6に、3A 農協は、多くの非営利活動、例えば栽培暦の配布、運送サービス、普及情報提供、 健康診断などを行っている。 以上の結果、ベトナムメコンデルタの農協においても活動の多角化や農業生産のみならず、 農村生活に係る活動の活発化が農協発展要因となっていることが明らかとなった。

–  –  –

I would like to thanks all those who supported me in completing this doctoral dissertation paper. First of all I would like to thanks the Program 322 scholarship of Vietnamese government who gives me a chance to prove myself as a talented and for the financial support that without this, I would not have been able to come here in Japan and pursue my graduate studies.

My sincerest thanks to Professor Iwamoto Izumi, my main adviser, for his guidance and patience with me and sharing valuable knowledge, experiences both in academics and life here in Japan. You are my best father to me in this second home of mine.

To my panelist Professor Lee Hyeon Jea, Professor Naitoh Shigeyuki, my advisers, thanks you very much for the valuable critics and suggestion that makes this research interesting and valuable one. To Associate Professor Tsuji Kazunari, Associate Professor Takanashi Fumie, thanks for helping contributions on research papers. To Associate Professor.Yutaka Tomoyuki thanks for your helping, doing and hanging all things in our laboratory. To Joanie Greenfield, my English teacher at International Language Institute in Northampton city, Massachusetts, USA, thanks for editing and correcting English.

Lastly, I would like to thank my family members including a wife, kids, mother and farmer, mother and farther-in-law and younger sisters for supporting to be my inspiration and hope to live and strive hard to reach my goal. Thanks for taking care family and facing several challenges during 3 years. This is for you, I love you all.

vii

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT in JAPANESE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page................................................. viii

LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF PICTURES AND MAPS

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

LIST OF APPENDICES

CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Background

1.2.1 Definitions Cooperative (hợp tác xã) and ACs (hợp tác xã nông nghiệp)....3 1.2.2 Other Definitions of Agricultural Cooperative and Concepts

1.2.2.1 Agricultural Cooperatives

1.2.2.2 Members and Non-members of AC

1.2.2.3 Transformed cooperative and newly establish cooperative

1.2.2.4 Old cooperative and new cooperative

1.2.2.5 Agricultural cooperative’s service

1.2.2.6 Categories of types namely

1.2.3 Development of cooperative and AC in Vietnam

1.2.3.1 Periods 1954-1986

1.2.3.2 Period 1987-1995

1.2.3.4 Period 1996-2003

1.2.3.5 The period 2004 -2012

1.2.4 Principle of ACs in Vietnam after 1996

1.2.5 Organization related agriculture in Vietnam

1.2.5.1 Farmer Union (Hội nông dân)

1.2.5.2 Cooperative groups (tổ hợp tác)

1.3 Research Questions

1.4 Objectives

viii

1.5 Hypothesis

1.6 Literature Review

1.6.1 The World History of Cooperatives

1.6.2 Theory of Cooperatives

1.6.2 Natural of Agricultural Cooperative

1.6.3 Agricultural cooperatives in the World

1.6.3.1 Agricultural cooperatives in Japan

1.6.3.2 Agricultural cooperatives in Thailand

1.6.3.3 Agricultural cooperatives in Malaysia

1.6.3.4 Agricultural cooperative in the Philippines.

1.6.4 Agricultural cooperatives theory in Vietnam

1.7 Research Methodology

1.7.1 Research Design

1.7.2 Sampling Design

1.7.3 Data Collection Procedure

1.7.4 Method of Data Analysis

1.7.5 Limitation of data

1.8 Summary

1.9 Structure of the Thesis

CHAPTER II: OVERALL STATUS OF AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES IN

VIETNAM

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Objectives

2.3 Research Methodology

Table 1: Business Environment Analysis Model

2.4 Research Results

2.4.1 Current Status of Agricultural Cooperatives in Vietnam

2.4.2 Opportunities for AC Development in Vietnam

2.4.2.1 Opportunities from the macro environment

2.4.2.2 Opportunities from the micro environment

2.4.2.3 Opportunities from the internal environment

2.4.3 Challenges for AC Development in Vietnam

ix 2.4.3.1 Challenges from the macro environment

2.4.3.2 Challenges from the micro environment

2.4.3.3 Challenges from the internal environment

2.5 Summary

CHAPTER III: CURRENT STATUS OF AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES IN

THE MEKONG DELTA, VIETNAM

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Objective

3.3 Research Methodology

3.4.1 Current status of agricultural cooperatives in the Mekong Delta.............80 3.4.2 Problems and challenges of ACs in the Mekong Delta

3.4.3 Economic effects from agricultural cooperatives in the Mekong Delta.....89 3.4.4 Social effects from agricultural cooperatives in the Mekong Delta...........91 3.4.5 Research result from the case study in An Giang province

3.5 Summary and Discussion

CHAPTER IV: AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVE’S CONTRIBUTIONS TO

FARMING PRACTICES IN AN GIANG PROVINCE, THE MEKONG DELTA..97

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Objectives



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