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«EFFECT OF DROUGHT STRESS ON YIELD OF A DETERMINATE CULTIVAR OF BLUE LUPINE GROWN IN PURE SOWING AND IN MIXTURE WITH BARLEY Janusz Podle ny, Anna ...»

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Nevertheless, mixed stands gave higher yields than pure stands of lupine. A decrease in the seed yield of lupine cultivated in pure sowing and the lupine-barley mixture – caused by water deficiency in the soil – amounted to 48.1 and 26.2%, respectively. The results of other studies [Lopez 1996, Mwanamwenge 1999, Podle ny 2001] indicate that drought occurring during the cultivation of legumes can cause considerably larger decreases in yield then those observed in the present experiments. The results obtained Agricultura 9(3) 2010 J. Podle ny, A. Podle na 66 show the explicitly less sensitivity to drought of the lupine-barley mixture than of lupine cultivated in pure sowing. This is also confirmed by the study by Kotwica and Rudnicki [2003], where lupine-cereal mixtures yielded quite steadily, since the variation coefficient of their yielding did not exceed 10-12%, that is was much lower than that of lupines cultivated in pure sowing.

A decrease in the seed yield of lupine grown under conditions of a lower soil moisture resulted from a smaller pod number per plant, smaller number of seeds per plant and thousand seed weight (Table 2), and in barley grain as a result of weaker tillering – from the smaller number of ears and grains per plant (Table 3). A significant effect of the sowing method on the formation of yield structure characters of lupine and barley was also observed (Table 3). Lupine plants cultivated in mixture with barley set fewer pods and gave less seed than those cultivated in pure sowing. At the same time, lupine seeds derived from mixed stands were characterized by a larger thousand seed weight than those from pure stands. It is worth noticing that a reduction in seed yield of lupine and its structure characters, caused by water deficiency in the soil, was larger when it was cultivated in mixture and definitely smaller – in pure sowing. A similar response of cereal-lupine stands to water deficiency in the soil occurs under conditions of field experiments. From the study by Gaá zewski [2006b], it appears that in dry years mixtures yield more poorly than pure sowings of cereals, whereas the reverse is the case under moist conditions.

Table 2. Value of selected characters of lupine yield structure depending on the sowing method and soil moisture Tabela 2.

Warto ü wybranych cech struktury plonu áubinu w zale no ci od sposobu siewu i wilgotno ci gleby

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It was also observed that barley grown in mixture with lupine formed more shoots, ears and grains per plant than that grown in pure stands. The results obtained are confirmed by the field study concerning cultivation of yellow lupine with triticale [Kotecki et al. 2003a] which indicated that the triticale plants derived from mixed stands formed a larger number and weight of grains per ear than the plants from purer

Acta Sci. Pol.Effect of drought stress... 67

stands. The response of particular cereal species to mixed sowing with lupine is not the same. For example, Rudnicki and Gaá zewski [2007] showed that barley cultivated with yellow lupine was characterized by weaker tillering and formed less developed panicles and a less seed weight per panicle than that from pure sowing.

Table 3. Value of selected characters of barley yield structure depending on the sowing method and soil moisture Tabela 3.

Warto ü wybranych cech struktury plonu j czmienia w zale no ci od sposobu siewu i wilgotno ci gleby

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Water deficiency in the soil had also a limiting effect on the weight of lupine hulls and barley ears (Fig. 2). The ear weight obtained from barley plants grown both under conditions of limited and optimal soil moisture was larger than the hull weight of lupine cultivated in pure sowing and the weight of hulls and ears of the mixture. Reduction in the hull weight of lupine cultivated in pure sowing and from lupine cultivated in pure sowing and with barley, resulted from water deficiency in the soil, was: 28.2 and 34.6%, respectively, and it was slightly higher than a reduction in ear weight, which for barley cultivated in pure sowing and in mixture amounted to: 26.1 and 26.2%, respectively.

Decreasing the soil moisture also had a limiting effect on the stem weight of lupine and barley (Fig. 3). Reduction in the stem weight of lupine cultivated in pure sowing and with barley as a result of water deficiency in the soil amounted to 23,6 i 29,7%, respectively, and was considerably larger than the reduction in stem weight of barley, which for barley cultivated in pure sowing and in mixture amounted to 14.3 and 13.5%, respectively. It should be stressed that a reduction in the weight of the vegetative organs of lupine and barley, resulting from water deficiency in the soil, was considerably smaller than a reduction in the seed yield. Similar relations, but concerning the effect of drought stress on bean yielding, were obtained by Barrios et al. (2005).

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Fig. 2. Weight of blue lupine hulls and barley ears depending on the cultivation system and soil moisture Rys. 2. Masa str czyn áubinu w skolistnego i káosów j czmienia w zale no ci od sposobu uprawy i wilgotno ci gleby Fig. 3. Straw yield of blue lupine and barley depending on the cultivation system and soil moisture Rys. 3. Plon sáomy áubinu w skolistnego i j czmienia w zale no ci od sposobu uprawy i wilgotno ci gleby The root weight of lupine and barley formed quite different from the weight of the aboveground part organs (Fig. 4). Although water deficiency in the soil reduced the weight of lupine roots, it stimulated the weight of barley roots. The root weight of barley grown on soil of a moisture of 30% FWC and cultivated in pure sowing and with lupine was larger than the root weight of barley grown on soil of a moisture of 60% FWC, by: 19.3 and 45.4%, respectively, whereas the root weight of lupine decreased by: 50.0 and 40.9%, respectively. Thus the results obtained confirmed the known rule

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that the water deficit in the soil stimulates growth of the root system [Starck 2002], but only in relation to barley plants.

Fig. 4. Root yield of blue lupine and barley depending on the cultivation system and soil moisture Rys. 4. Plon korzeni áubinu w skolistnego i j czmienia w zale no ci od sposobu uprawy i wilgotno ci gleby Soil moisture and sowing method had a significant effect on the amount of protein yield, which constituted a product of seed yield and the content of this component in seeds (Fig. 5). Differences between individual treatments of the experiment concerning protein yield were considerably smaller than those found concerning seed yield. This resulted mainly from a much higher protein content in lupine seeds than in barley grain.

Under conditions of water deficiency in the soil the highest protein yields were obtained from cultivation of barley in pure sowing, whereas under conditions of the optimal moisture – from the mixture of lupine and barley. Soil moisture and the sowing method modified the protein content in lupine seeds and barley grain. Seeds obtained from plants grown under conditions of water deficiency in the soil contained more protein than those from plants grown on the soil of a higher moisture. Similar results, but in relation to yellow lupine, were presented by Bieniaszewski [2003b]. Additionally, barley grains obtained from plants cultivated in mixture with lupine contained considerably more protein than those derived from pure sowings (Table 4). Increasing protein content in grain of cereals cultivated with legumes was also observed in the study by Kotecki et al. [1997, 2003b]. This most likely results from a better nitrogen supply of the cereal plant cultivated with the legume [Triboi 1985, Fujita et al. 1992].

Fat content decreased along with a growth in protein amount in lupine seeds and barley grain, just as in other species of agricultural crops.

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Fig. 5. Protein yield from blue lupine seeds and barley grain depending on the cultivation system and soil moisture Rys. 5. Plon biaáka z nasion áubinu w skolistnego i ziarna j czmienia w zale no ci od sposobu uprawy i wilgotno ci gleby Table 4. Protein and fat content in lupine seeds and barley grain depending on the sowing method and soil moisture Tabela 4. Zawarto ü biaáka i táuszczu w nasionach áubinu i ziarnie j czmienia w zale no ci od sposobu siewu i wilgotno ci gleby

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CONCLUSIONS

1. Reduced water content in soil strongly limited the development and yield of plants. The highest reduction of seed yield as a result of drought occurring in the flowering period was observed in blue lupine cultivated both in pure sowing and in mixture with barley, and the lowest – in barley cultivated in pure sowing.

2. Lupine-barley mixtures gave the highest yield under conditions of the optimal soil moisture, whereas barley cultivated in pure sowing – under conditions of water deficiency in soil.

3. A decrease in seed yield of lupine growing under conditions of lower soil moisture resulted from a smaller pod number per plant and smaller number of seeds per plant, and a decrease in grain yield of barley due to weaker tillering – from a smaller number of ears and grains per plant.

4. Due to a larger yield stability, under conditions of predicted water deficiency in soil it is better to cultivate blue lupine with barley than in pure sowing. Planning such sowings, one should take into account that in spite of high yields they provide less lupine seeds than pure sowings of this species.

5. Lupine seeds and wheat grain obtained from plants grown under conditions of water deficiency in soil contained less protein than those from plants grown on the soil with the optimal moisture. Barley grain obtained from plants cultivated in mixture with lupine contained more protein than barley grain from pure sowing.

REFERENCES

Baigorri H., Antolini M.C., Sanchez-Diaz M., 1999. Reproductive response of two morphological different pea cultivars to drought. Eur. J. Agron. 10, 119-128.Barrios A.N., Gerrit Hoogenboom G., Nesmith D.S., 2005. Drought stress and the distribution of vegetative and reproductive traits of a bean cultivar. Sci. Agric. 62(1), 18-22.

Bieniaszewski T., Fordo ski G., Kurowski T., Szwejkowski Z., 2003a. Wpáyw poziomu wilgotno ci gleby na wzrost i plonowanie tradycyjnych i samoko cz cych form áubinu óátego. Wzrost, rozwój i zdrowotno ü ro lin [Influence of soil moisture on the growth and development of traditional and epigonalcultivars of yellow lupin. Influence of soil moisture on the growth, development, yield and health of plants]. Zesz. Prob. Post. Nauk Rol. 495, 95-106 [in Polish].

Bieniaszewski T., Fordo ski G., Kurowski T., Szwejkowski Z., 2003b. Wpáyw poziomu wilgotno ci gleby na wzrost i plonowanie tradycyjnych i samoko cz cych form áubinu óátego. Skáad chemiczny nasion [Influence of soil moisture on the growth and development of traditional and epigonalcultivars of yellow lupin. Influence of soil moisture on chemical compositon of grain]. Zesz. Prob. Post. Nauk Rol. 495, 107-119 [in Polish].

Costa-Franca M.G., Thi A.T., Pimentel C., Pereyra R.O., Zuily-Fodil Y., Laffray D., 2000.

Differences in growth and water relations among Phaseolus vulgaris cultivars in response to induced drought stress. Environ. Exp. Botany 43, 227-237.

Fujita K., Ofosu-Budu K.G., Ogata S., 1992. Biological nitrogen fixation in mixed legume-cereal cropping system. Plant and Soil 141, 155-175.

Gaá zewski L., 2006a. Reakcja áubinu óátego w siewie czystym i jego mieszankach z owsem na wilgotno ü gleby [Response of yellow lupine on soil moisture in sole crop and in intercrop with oat]. Rocz. AR w Poznaniu 66, 55-65 [in Polish].

Gaá zewski L., 2006b. Wpáyw wilgotno ci gleby na plonowanie áubinu óátego i owsa oraz ich mieszanek [Effect of soil moisture on the yield of yellow lupine and oat and their mixtures].

Rocz. AR w Poznaniu 66, 67-73 [in Polish].

Agricultura 9(3) 2010 J. Podle ny, A. Podle na 72 Grzesiak S., Filek W., Grzesiak M., 1998. Wpáyw stresu wodnego na wzrost korzeni ró nych odmian ro lin str czkowych ró ni cych si wra liwo ci na susz [Effect of water stress on

the root growth of different drought tolerance cultivars of legume species]. [In:]

Ecophysiological aspects of plant responses to stress factors, International Scientific Meeting, Institute of Plant Physiology Cracow, 63-68 [in Polish].

Kotecki A., Grz dkowska A., Steinhoff-Wrze niowska A., 1997. Ocena przydatno ci odmian áubinu w skolistnego do uprawy w mieszankach ze zbo ami [The pure and mixture effect on the seeds of blue lupin]. Mat. Konf. àubin we wspóáczesnym rolnictwie, Olsztyn-Kortowo, ATR Olszyn, 261-271 [in Polish].

Kotecki A., Kozak M., Malarz W., 2003a. Ocena przydatno ci odmian áubinu óátego do wspóárz dnej uprawy z pszen ytem jarym [The evaluation of use of yellow lupin cultivars for mixed cultivation with spring triticale]. Zesz. Probl. Post. Nauk Rol. 495, 129-143 [in Polish].

Kotecki A., Kozak M., Malarz W., 2003b. Wpáyw wspóárz dnej uprawy áubinu óátego z pszen ytem jarym na skáad chemiczny i gromadzenie skáadników mineralnych w nasionach i resztkach pozbiorowych [The effect of yellow lupin and spring triticale mixed cultivation on chemical content and mineral component accumulation in seeds and harvest residues]. Zesz.

Probl. Post. Nauk Rol. 495, 145-161 [in Polish].

Kotecki A., Kozak M., Wincewicz E., Zawadzki W., 2001. Uprawa áubinu óátego na nasiona w siewie czystym i wspóárz dnym z pszen ytem jarym [Yellow lupine growing for seeds in pure and mixed sowing with spring triticale]. Zesz. Nauk. AR we Wrocáawiu, Rolnictwo 426, 73-92 [in Polish].

Kotwica K., Rudnicki F., 2003. Komponowanie mieszanek zbó jarych z áubinem na glebie lekkiej [Mixture of spring cereals with legumes in the light soil]. Zesz. Probl. Post. Nauk Rol.

495, 163-170 [in Polish].

Ksi ak J., Borowiecki J., 2001. Ro liny str czkowe w rolnictwie ekologicznym [Legumes in organic agriculture]. Zesz. Nauk. AR we Wrocáawiu, Rolnictwo 426, 93-100 [in Polish].

Lopez F.B., Johansen C., Chauhan Y.S., 1996. Effect of timing of drought stress on phenology, yield and yield components of a short-duration pigeon pea. J. Agron. Crop Sci. 177, 311-320.



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