«Robert Spooner-Hart, Len Tesoriero, Barbara Hall 1 © 2007 Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation. All rights reserved. ISBN 1 74151 ...»
Field Guide to Olive
Len Tesoriero, Barbara Hall
© 2007 Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation.
All rights reserved.
ISBN 1 74151 549 1
Field Guide to Olive Pests, Diseases and Disorders in Australia
Publication No. 07/153
4 Foreword Although the Australian olive industry is 150 years old, recent rapid industry expansion in all mainland states has led to increased problems with pests and diseases not previously encountered. Arthropod pests and diseases are often key constraints to economic production through their effects on both yield and quality. Apart from diseases caused by living organisms (pathogens), olive trees are also subject to disorders resulting from adverse environmental conditions and cultural practices. While Australia appears to be free of a number of cosmopolitan olive pests and diseases, the industry is vulnerable to their introduction.
This book originated from a national RIRDC-funded project on sustainable pest and disease management in the Australian olive industry, and was one of its major recommendations. Apart from invertebrate pests and disease-causing organisms, many other symptoms of damage to plants and fruit were encountered which are likely the result of physiological and other disorders due to irrigation or nutrients. In addition, a national survey conducted as part of the project indicated that while a number of growers thought they could identify pests and diseases, few could recognise beneﬁcial species in their grove. This ﬁeld guide takes all of these issues into account.
This ﬁeld guide summarises information on most of the possible pests, diseases and disorders. It has been designed as a quick reference to take into the grove and 5 use to identify pests and diseases and the damage they cause. It is not deﬁnitive, as it is essentially a guide for recognition of damage and disorders in the ﬁeld. Thus, it has only brief biological and other descriptors for each pest or disease. In addition, we have not included recommended pesticide control measures. A list of currently registered and permitted chemicals for use on olives is provided in a pocket at the back of this publication. The website of the Agricultural Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Agency (www.apvma.gov.
au) should be checked regularly to maintain up-to-date information on pesticide registrations and permits for the Australian olive industry.
Peter O’Brien Managing Director Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation 6 Acknowledgements This ﬁeld guide is part of a communications initiative by the Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation (RIRDC), the University of Western Sydney, the NSW Department of Primary Industries, the South Australian Research and Development Institute (SARDI) and others to ensure that research can be passed on in a useful form to growers.
Funds to produce this ﬁeld guide were provided by RIRDC, the Spray Adjuvants Company of Australia Pty Ltd (SACOA), Nufarm Australia and the Rylstone Olive Press (Bentivoglio Olives). Without this funding, the ﬁeld guide could not have been published.
The authors would like to thank everyone who has contributed to this book. First, the other members of the project team on Sustainable Pest and Disease Management, Stewart Learmonth (WA Department of Agriculture) and Frank Page (formerly of Queensland Department of Primary Industries). We thank all the photographers who contributed to this book. While the authors and their institutions provided many of the images, we particularly wish to thank the State of Queensland, Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, in particular Chris Freebairn, for a number of images of pests and beneﬁcial species (as indicated on images); the Department of Agriculture and Food WA, for providing images of weevils and wingless grasshopper; the University of California IPM Program, for providing images of olive ﬂy; the International Olive 7 Council, which provided the image of olive moth from the Olive Pest and Disease Management book; and Ric Cother (NSW DPI) and Mark Whattam (AQIS Victoria) for images of olive knot. Last but not least, we would like to thank all the olive growers and consultants who have assisted in surveys, monitoring and supporting the research on sustainable pest and disease management in the olive industry.
This ﬁeld guide is dedicated to the memory of Damian Conlan, who was a member of the initial project team, a good friend and a tireless worker for the Australian olive industry.
8 Integrated pest & disease management Integrated pest and disease management (IPDM), developed in the 1960s and 1970s, is based on ecological principles. It encourages reduced reliance on pesticides through the use of a number of control strategies in a harmonious way to keep pests and diseases below the level causing economic injury. It came out of the realisation that too heavy a reliance on pesticides (particularly those with broad-spectrum
activity) can cause major problems, notably:
effects on human health and safety environmental contamination pesticide resistance in target and non-target organisms resurgence of secondary pests plant damage or yield loss (phytotoxicity) residues on fruit and products, with national and international consequences.
There is also general community concern about the use of pesticides, particularly on foods.
IPDM commonly utilises or encourages biological control through natural enemies such as predators, parasites, insect diseases and non-pathogenic antagonistic or competitive microorganisms. It also frequently involves cultural control strategies to minimise pest and disease entry and their spread in space and time. Cultural controls include protocols of entry to farms; manipulation of the ﬁeld environment to discourage pests and diseases, such as opening crop canopies to increase 9 air movement and reduce humidity; the elimination of alternative hosts for pests; or growing nectar- and pollen-producing plants to encourage natural enemies.
IPDM may also involve the physical destruction of infested materials and the use of tolerant or resistant plant species, where available. Chemical pesticides are used judiciously, and thus play a supportive role.
The major components of IPM systems are:
identiﬁcation of pests, diseases and natural enemies monitoring of pests, diseases, damage and natural enemies selection of one or more management options on the basis of monitoring results and action thresholds, from a wide range of pesticide and non-pesticide options use of selective pesticides targeted at the pest or disease—for instance, pesticides that will interfere least with natural enemies, targeted only at infested trees or parts of trees.
Monitoring The most important part of any pest and disease management system is monitoring. This is because the mere presence of a particular pest does not provide enough information for decision-making. The pest or disease may not be sufﬁciently widespread, or the population levels may not cause enough damage, to warrant undertaking management strategies.
10 Regular monitoring, with effective recording of the results, provides important information that helps in making decisions on whether and when action should be taken, and how effective actions have been. The ﬁrst step in the development of a pest and disease management program is to concentrate on the most serious pests and diseases, and build up records about the times and locations where problems are most likely to occur. Because natural enemies play an integral role in the system, they also need to be recorded.
In commercial situations, monitoring programs need to be quick and efﬁcient while still providing accurate and repeatable results. Monitoring can be undertaken by growers, trained employees or commercial pest scouts.
Monitoring commonly involves visual observations, usually based on sampling, and may involve actual counts, or the presence or absence of pests, diseases and their associated damage. Other supplementary monitoring methods are coloured sticky traps (yellow is the most common, and attracts small, ﬂying, sapsucking insects such as thrips, aphids and male scale insects, as well as beneﬁcial species such as parasitic wasps), and chemical attractant traps that are often species-speciﬁc.
Monitoring methods Monitor every grove (or block in large groves) at least monthly during the growing season. Monitor priority blocks (e.g. those with a high fruit load or with a history 11 of pest or disease problems) more frequently. Divide large blocks into sub-blocks. On each sampling, select at least several rows within each sub-block in a semistructured way. Sample different rows on each occasion, and combine detailed tree inspection with identiﬁcation of infestations as soon as possible.