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«IMAGINING AUSTRALIA’S ENERGY SERVICES FUTURE Alan K Pearsa a Adjunct Professor, RMIT University, GPO Box 2476V Melbourne 3001 Australia email ...»

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8. Water As noted earlier in this paper, with climate change it is likely that many parts of Australia will become drier. It is likely that within 200 years, water efficiency will need to improve in all sectors, and that reprocessing and desalination of water will be more common.

For households, desalination or water treatment is likely to be a relatively modest energy requirement.

Present technologies can desalinate water using around 5 kilowatt-hours per litre. An average Australian uses around 275 litres per day around the home, and this would require 1.4 kilowatt-hours per person per day (500 kWh per year) to produce. With improved water efficiency and use of waste water for gardens, etc, as well as improvements in desalination efficiency, both the quantity of water and the energy requirement would be much reduced.

Household water comprises only a small proportion of Australian water usage, with most being used for agriculture. So if more widespread desalination or water processing is required for agriculture and industry, the energy cost could be very substantial. And since farmers pay very low prices for water now, they would see large cost increases, which would drive them towards extreme water efficiency and require decisions to be made regarding the types of agriculture pursued in Australia.

9. Recreation and Lifestyles A typical speedboat is a heavy user of fuel, with fuel consumption typically from 1 to 5 kilometres per litre. In comparison, a sailboat uses almost no fuel. Many people think little of driving 500 kilometres to go skiing for a weekend. As sport becomes increasingly national, large numbers of enthusiasts travel around Australia following their teams. The energy use of international air travel has been discussed earlier. Watching DVDs with headphones and 3-D glasses or gardening are, in comparison, low energy activities. So the choices people make about their recreational activities will have potentially large impacts on energy use. But how people might spend their time in 200 years is difficult to predict.

However, if the real costs and impacts of different recreational activities are signalled to their participants, there is potential to direct activity towards sustainable paths.

10. Conclusion

The reality is that Australians have a range of demand side and supply side energy options, all of which can help to satisfy our future energy service requirements, and are or can be made cost-effective. The choices we make regarding energy will either consciously or unconsciously involve assumptions relating to our culture and personal priorities. External factors such as climate change, the resource constraints of our old and weathered continent, and our relationships with the rest of the world will also shape our energy future. There is no reason why the Australia of two hundred years from now cannot provide for its energy service requirements sustainably. But there is no guarantee that this will be the case.

11. References [1] Productivity Commission (2003) Trends in Australian Manufacturing Commission Research Paper, Ausinfo, Canberra available at www.pc.gov.au [2] P. McDonald and R. Kippen (1999) Population Futures for Australia: the Policy Alternatives Australian Parliament Research paper 5 1999-2000, Canberra [3] Australian Bureau of Statistics (2000) Household Expenditure Survey Australia: Detailed Expenditure Items Cat No 6535.0 ABS Canberra [4] George Wilkenfeld & Associates and Energy Strategies (2002) Australia’s National Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1990, 1995 and 1999 End Use Allocation of Emissions Report to Australian Greenhouse Office available at www.greenhouse.gov.au [5] Australian Bureau of Statistics (2002) Environmental issues - people’s views and practices Cat No.

4602.0 Canberra [6] Australian Building Codes Board (2004) Energy Efficiency BCA Volume 2 Regulation Document:

Proposal for 5 Star Houses RD 2004-02 Australian Government and the State and Territory Governments of Australia, Canberra. Available at www.abcb.gov.au [7] L. Harrington and P. Kleverlaan (2001) Quantification of Residential Standby Power Consumption in Australia: Results of recent survey work Report for National Appliance and Equipment Energy Efficiency Committee, Australian Greenhouse Office Canberra [8] Navigant Consulting (2003) Energy Savings Potential of Solid State Lighting in General Illumination Applications Report for Building Technologies Program US Department of Energy, Washington D.C.

[9] Sustainable Solutions Pty Ltd (2003) A Study of Home Entertainment Operational Energy Issues Report for National Appliance and Equipment Energy Efficiency Committee, Australian Greenhouse Office Canberra [10] Sustainable Solutions Pty Ltd (2003a) A Study of Office Equipment Operational Energy Use Issues Report for National Appliance and Equipment Energy Efficiency Committee, Australian Greenhouse Office Canberra [11] Dr T Marker (2004) ) Minimum Energy Performance Standards Presentation on behalf of Australian Greenhouse Office at ACRE Energy Efficiency Workshop, UNSW March [12] Energy+ (2004) website http://www.energy-plus.org accessed 14 march 2005 [13] Daviss, B (2003) The Net Comes Home New Scientist 15 Feb V 177 No 2382 26-29 Reed Business Information, London [14] Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (2000) Australian commodity Statistics 2000 ABARE Canberra [15] Australian Building Codes Board Energy Efficiency BCA Volume 1 Regulation Document: Proposal for Class 5-9 Buildings RD 2004-01 Australian Government and the State and Territory Governments of Australia, Canberra. Available at www.abcb.gov.au [16] Department of Energy Utilities and Sustainability ABGR Bulletin Issue 24, Dec www.abgr.com.au Sydney [17] www.energyrating.gov.au accessed 24 Feb 2005 [18] Faramarzi, R (1999) Efficient Display Case Refrigeration ASHRAE Practical Guide: Refrigeration [19] Buckminster Fuller, R (1992) Cosmography MacMillan New York [20] E. Worrell (2004) Industrial Energy Use, Status and Trends Encyclopedia of Energy Vol 3, Elsevier [21] A. Pears (2004) Energy Efficiency – Its Potential: some perspectives and experiences International Energy Agency Energy Efficiency Workshop, Paris [22] Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (2004) Australian Energy Consumption Data downloaded from www.abare.gov.au Jan 2005 ABARE Canberra [23] Bureau of Resource Economics (1987) Energy Demand and Supply Australia 1960-61 to 1984-85 Australian Government Printing Service, Canberra [24] Bureau of Transport and Regional Economics (2002) Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Transport:

Australian Trends to 2020 Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra Figure 1. Energy’s role in delivery of services [21]

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Figure 3. Australian residential sector energy and electricity use by activity 1999.

Total energy use 381 PJ, electricity use 170.6 PJ [4]. This compares with 1973-74 residential energy use of 231.4 PJ and electricity use of 71.1 PJ [22].

Petajoules per annum

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Figure 9. Recent trends and Business As Usual projections for transport energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, Australia [24] Million tonnes of Co2 equivalent per annum

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