WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 3 | 4 ||

«Journal of Consumer Culture Brands: A critical perspective Adam Arvidsson Journal of Consumer Culture 2005; 5; 235 DOI: ...»

-- [ Page 5 ] --

4. Although traditional Marxism has tended to identify ‘labour’ in general with (white, male) factory work, there is nothing in Marxian theory that prescribes such a narrow definition of labour. Rather, Marx defines labour functionally. In order to function as ‘productive labour’ human activity must fulfil two requirements. One, it must produce something that has some kind of, however local or specific, (use) value. Two, these local and specific use-values must be translatable: it must be possible to convert them into a more general value form that can be realized on markets. To take one of Marx’s own examples: Milton, who wrote Paradise Lost, was an unproductive worker. Because the particular use-value of that artefact was not immediately translatable into a general value form. (This changed, of course, once someone acquired the copyright to Paradise Lost and began to publish it commercially.) On the other hand, a writer who turns out work for his publisher in factory style is a productive worker. Because the use values that ‘he’ produces (short segments of an Alexander Dumas adventure, for example) are immediately translatable into a general value form: the novel as a commodity. It follows that the translatability of use-values are an effect of how a productive activity is organized, or to use the Marxist terminology: how labour is subsumed under capital. A human activity thus becomes productive labour by being subsumed by capital, by being made to produce something that is, or can be turned into, a commodity (cf. Marx,1990[1933]: 1044 ff.).

Downloaded from http://joc.sagepub.com at SAGE Publications on January 3, 2008 © 2005 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.

Journal of Consumer Culture 5(2)

5. Operaio sociale means ‘social worker’ in English. This is a direct reference to Marx’s term ‘social individual’. In the ‘Passage on Machinery’ in the Grundrisse, Marx argues that with the emergence of large scale industry, the key productive power becomes the ‘general social knowledge’ that is embodied in the factory environment. The worker has access to this, not on account of his individual merit, but on account of his simple existence as a social individual. ‘[I]t is, in a word, the development of the social individual which appears as the great foundation stone of production and of wealth’ (Marx, 1973[1939]: 705). For Negri, the social worker employs the general communicative capacity that he or she has access to by virtue of his simple existence as a member of society, as a ‘social individual’. I use the term ‘socializing worker’ to make things less confusing to the English reader.

6. With ‘General Intellect’ Marx refers to the ‘general social knowledge’ that becomes a productive force in advanced capitalism (see note 4). To Marx the General Intellect was confined to the knowledges and competences embodied in the factory environment, in machines, in social organization, in tacit knowledge.

Lazzarato, Virno, Negri and other Italian Marxists argue that today the General Intellect should be identified with the knowledges and competences that are intrinsic to the mediated lifeworld in general, and not just the factory environment. In our communicative construction of the social, we employ a General Intellect in the form of common cognitive, communicative and social competences, as well as a common reservoir of knowledge, cultural and social capital. Most of this is available to us through media culture. (Through the commercial mediatization of life, the factory has expanded to include all social relations.)

7. They define the common ‘not as a preconstituted entity and not as an organic substance that is a by-product of the national community, or gemeinschaft, but rather as the productive activity of singularities in the multitude’ (Hardt and Negri, 2004: 206).

8. Generally ‘brand image’ denotes consumers’ perception of a brand, while ‘brand identity’ denotes the perception that management intends it to have (cf. Aaker, 1991).

9. As Dallas Smythe (1981) showed in his analysis of the audience commodity and its work, it is not necessary that the productive subjects (the workers) be paid a wage for surplus value to be extracted. Smythe treated the use-value of television programs as a form of immaterial wage and calculated surplus value as advertising revenues minus production costs. Similarly, I suggest to treat the use-values derived from the productive use of brands (including, brand-sponsored media discourses and cultural events, freebies, cheaper access to material goods like cellular phones, etc.) as a form of immaterial wage. Surplus value is thus calculated as the difference between the direct production costs of the brand (M-C) and the revenue derived through appropriation and commodification of the attention that consumers produce (C-M).

10. Contemporary ‘critical’ or ‘post-modern’ marketing scholars have not taken up this point. Rather they sometimes equate the creativity that consumers exercise on the programmed arena of brands with human agency and liberatory potential in general (cf. Firat and Venkatesh, 1995).

–  –  –

References Aaker, D. (1991) Managing Brand Equity. New York: The Free Press.

Aaker, D. (1996) Building Strong Brands. New York: The Free Press.





Abercrombie, N. and Longhurst, B. (1998) Audiences. London: Sage.

Adorno, T.W. (1991) ‘The Schema of Mass Culture’, in J.M. Bernstein (ed.) The Culture Industry, pp. 53–84. London: Routledge.

Aglietta, M. (1978) A Theory of Capitalist Regulation. London: New Left Books.

Appadurai, A. (2002) ‘Deep Democracy: Urban Governmentality and the Horizon of Politics’, Public Culture 14(1): 21–48.

Barry, A. (2001) Political Machines. Governing a Technological Society. London: Athlone.

Baudrillard, J. (1970) La société de consommmation. Paris: Editions Denoël.

Beck, U., Lash, S. and Giddens, A. (1994) Reflexive Modernization. Cambridge: Polity.

Beller, J. (2002) ‘KINO-I, KINO-WORLD. Notes on the Cinematic Mode of

Production’, in N. Mirzoeff (ed.) The Visual Culture Reader, pp. 60–85. London:

Routledge.

Bengtson, A. and Östberg, J. (2004) ‘Co-constructing Brand Equity: Consumers and Brand Managers’, paper presented at the EMAC Conference, Murcia, Spain.

Bowlby, R. (2000) Carried Away.The Invention of Modern Shopping. London: Faber & Faber.

Brewer, J. and Porter, R. (1993) Consumption and theWorld of Goods. London: Routledge.

Castells, M. (1996) The Information Age. Oxford: Blackwell.

Celsi, R., Rose, R. and Leigh, T. (1993) ‘An Exploration of High-risk Leisure Consumption Through Sky-diving’, Journal of Consumer Research 20(1): 1–21.

Cochoy, F. (1999) Une histoire du marketing. Paris: Editions de la Decouverte.

Cohen, L. (2004) A Consumers’ Republic.The Politics of Mass Consumption in Postwar America. New York: Vintage.

Comaroff, J. and Comaroff, J. (2000) ‘Millenial Capitalism. First Thoughts on a Second Coming’, Public Culture 12(2): 291–343.

Cova, B. (1997) ‘Community and Consumption.Towards a Theory of the Linking Value of Products and Survices’, European Journal of Marketing 31(3/4): 297–316.

Cova, B. and Cova, V. (2001) ‘Tribal Aspects of Postmodern Consumption Research:

The Case of French In-line Roller Skaters’, Journal of Consumer Behaviour 1(1):

67–76.

Curtin, M. (1996) ‘On the Edge. The Culture Industries in the Neo-Network Era’, in R. Ohmann (ed.) Making and Selling Culture, pp. 186–210. Hanover, NH: Wesleyan University Press.

Dean, M. (1999) Governmentality. London: Sage.

Dichter, E. (1960) The Strategy of Desire. New York: Boardman.

Dyer-Withford, N. (1999) Cyber-Marx. Chicago, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Elliott, L. (2001) ‘Consuming Caffeine. The Discourse of Starbucks and Coffee’, Consumption, Markets & Culture 4(4): 369–82.

Ewen, S. (1976) Captains of Consciousness.Advertising and the Social Roots of Consumer Culture. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Firat, F. and Dholakia, N. (1998) Consuming People. From Political Economy to Theaters of Consumption. New York: Routledge.

Firat, A.F. and Venkatesh, A. (1995) ‘Liberatory Postmodernism and the Reenchantment of Consumption’, Journal of Consumer Research 22(3): 239–67.

Downloaded from http://joc.sagepub.com at SAGE Publications on January 3, 2008 © 2005 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.

Journal of Consumer Culture 5(2) Foucault, M. (1975) Surveiller et punir. La naissance de la prison. Paris: Gallimard.

Frank, T. (1997) The Conquest of Cool. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Gardner, B. and Levy, S. (1955) ‘The Product and the Brand’, Harvard Business Review (March-April): 33–9.

Giddens, A. (1991) Modernity and Self-Identity. Cambridge: Polity.

Gorz, A. (2003) L’immatériel. Paris: Galilée.

Grant, J. (1999) The New Marketing Manifesto. London: Texere.

Haig, M. (2002) Mobile Marketing.The Message Revolution. London: Kogan Page.

Hardt, M. and Negri, A. (2000) Empire. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Hardt, M. and Negri, A. (2004) Multitude. New York: Penguin.

Hochschild, A. (1997) The Time Bind.When Work Becomes Home and Home Becomes Work. New York: Metropolitan Books.

Holt, D. (2002) ‘Why Do Brands Cause Trouble? A Dialectical Theory of Culture and Branding’, Journal of Consumer Research 29(1): 70–96.

Interbrand (2001) ‘The World’s Most Valuable Brands’, URL (consulted January 2005): http://www.interbrand.com Janson, A. (2002) ‘The Mediatization of Consumer Culture. Towards an Analytical Framework of Image Culture’, Journal of Consumer Culture 2(1): 5–31.

Kates, S.M. (1998) Twenty Million New Consumers! Understanding Gay Men’s Consumer Behaviour. Birmingham, NY: Hamilton Park.

Kates, S.M. (2002) ‘The Protean Quality of Subcultural Consumption: An

Ethnographic Account of Gay Consumers’, Journal of Consumer Research 29(3):

383–99.

Keller, K.L. (2001) ‘Building Customer-based Brand Equity’, Marketing Management 10(2): 14–19.

Kellner, D. (1995) Media Culture. Cultural Studies, Identity and Politics between the Modern and the Postmodern. London: Routledge.

Klein, N. (2000) No Logo. London: Harper Collins.

Koehn, N. (2001) Brand New. How Entrepreneurs Earned Consumers’Trust from Wedgwood to Dell. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Kozinets, R. (2001) ‘Utopian Enterprise. Articulating the Meanings of Star Trek’s Culture of Consumption’, Journal of Consumer Research 28: 67–88.

Lash, S. (2002) Critique of Information. London: Sage.

Lash, S. and Urry, J. (1994) Economies of Signs and Symbols. London: Sage.

Lazzarato, M. (1997) Lavoro immateriale. Verona: Ombre Corte.

Lee, B. and LiPuma, E. (2002) ‘Cultures of Circulation. The Imaginations of Modernity’, Public Culture 14(1): 191–213.

Lury, C. (1999) ‘Marking Time with Nike. The Illusion of the Durable’, Public Culture 11(3): 499–526.

Lury, C. (2004) Brands.The Logos of the Global Economy. London: Routledge.

McAlexander, J.H. and Shouten, J.W. (1998) ‘Brandfests. Servicescapes for the Cultivation of Brand Equity’, in J. Sherry (ed.) Servicescapes.The Concept of Place in Contemporary Markets, pp. 377–401. Chicago, IL: NTC Buisines Books.

McCarthy, A. (2001) Ambient Television.Visual Culture and Public Space. Durham, NC:

Duke University Press.

Maffesoli, M. (1996) The Time of the Tribes. London: Sage.

Manovich, L. (2001) The Language of the New Media. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

–  –  –

Marchand, R. (1985) Advertising the American Dream. Making Way for Modernity 1920–40. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Marshall, P.D. (2002) ‘The New Intertextual Commodity’, in D. Harries (ed.) The New Media Book, pp. 69–92. London: BFI Publishing.

Martineau, P. (1957) Motivation in Advertising. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Marx, K. (1973[1939]) Grundrisse. London: Penguin.

Marx, K. (1990[1933]) ‘Results of the Immediate Process of Production’, in K. Marx Capital,Vol. 1, pp. 941–1084. London: Penguin.

Miller, D. (1998) A Theory of Shopping. Oxford: Berg.

Miranda, J. (1998) ‘The Performance of Consumption and Production’, Social Text 16(1): 25–61.

Moor, E. (2003) ‘Branded Spaces. The Scope of New Marketing’, Journal of Consumer Culture 3(1): 39–60.

Muniz, A. and O’Guinn, T. (2001) ‘Brand Community’, Journal of Consumer Research 27(4): 412–32.

Negri, A. (1989) The Politics of Subversion.A Manifesto for the Twenty-First Century.

Cambridge: Polity Press.

Negri, A. (1999) ‘Value and Affect’, Boundary 2 26(2): 77–88.

O’Guinn, T. and Belk, R. (1989) ‘Heaven on Earth. Consumption at Heritage Village, USA’, Journal of Consumer Research 16(2): 227–38.

Olins, W. (2003) On Brand. London: Thames & Hudson.

Peiss, K. (1986) Cheap Amusements.Working Women and Leisure in Turn of the Century New York. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.

Peñaloza, L. (1999) ‘Just Doing It: A Visual Ethnographic Study of Spectacular

Consumption Behaviour at Nike Town’, Consumption, Markets & Culture 2(4):

337–400.

Peretti, J. (2001) ‘My Nike Media Adventure’, The Nation, URL (consulted December 2004): http://www.thenation.com Perrier, R. (1997) ‘The Role of Branding’, in R. Perrier (ed.) Brand Valuation, pp. 13–87. London: Interbrand.

Pine, J.P. and Gilmore, J.H. (1999) The Experience Economy.Work is Theatre and Everyday Business is a Stage. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Provenzo, E. (1991) Video Kids. Making Sense of Nintendo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Putnam, R. (2000) Bowling Alone.The Collapse and Revival of American Community.

New York: Simon & Schuster.

Quart, A. (2003) Branded. London: Random House.

Reich, R.B. (1991) The Work of Nations. Preparing Ourselves for the 21st Century. New York: Knopf.

Ritzer, G. (1993) The McDonaldization of Society. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.

Ritzer, G. (1999) Enchanting a Disenchanted World. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.

Rose, N. (1999) The Powers of Freedom. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Sampson, J. (1997) ‘Brand Valuation Today and Tomorrow’, in R. Perrier (ed.) Brand Valuation, pp. 175–99. London: Interbrand.

Sassatelli, R. (2004) Consumo, cultura e società. Bologna: il Mulino.

Downloaded from http://joc.sagepub.com at SAGE Publications on January 3, 2008 © 2005 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.

Journal of Consumer Culture 5(2) Schmitt, B.H. (1999) Experiential Marketing. How to Get Customers to SENSE, FEEL, THINK,ACT and RELATE to your Company and Brands. New York: The Free Press.

Schor, J. (1998) The Overspent American. New York: Basic Books.

Sherry, J. (ed.) (1998) Servicescapes.The Concept of Place in Contemporary Markets.

Chicago, IL: NTC Business Books.

Shields, R. (2003) The Virtual. London: Routledge.

Smythe, D. (1981) Dependency Road. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishers.

Stalnaker, S. (2002) Hub Culture,The Next Wave of Urban Consumers. New York: Wiley.

Tarde, G. (1902) Psychologie economique. Paris: Editions F. Alcan.

Terranova, T. (2004) Network Culture. Politics for the Information Age. London: Pluto.

Thompson, C.J. and Troester, M. (2002) ‘Consumer Value Systems in the Age of Postmodern Fragmentation: The Case of the Natural Health Microculture’, Journal of Consumer Research 28(4): 550–71.

Van Ham, P. (2001) ‘The Rise of the Brand State’, Foreign Affairs (September/October):

2–6.

Virno, P. (2004) A Grammar of the Multitude. New York: Semiotext(e).

Wasko, J. (1994) Hollywood in the Information Age. Cambridge: Polity.

Williams, K. (2000) ‘From Shareholder Value to Present Day Capitalism’, Economy and Society 29(1): 1–12.

Wittel, A. (2001) ‘Towards a Network Sociality’, Theory, Culture & Society 18(6):

51–76.

Wolf, M.J. (1999) The Entertainment Economy.The Mega Media Forces that are Reshaping our Lives. London: Penguin.

Wright, S. (2002) Storming Heaven. Class Composition and Struggle in Italian Autonomist Marxism. London: Pluto Press.

ˇˇ Zizek, S. (1999) ‘You May!’, London Review of Books (18 March): 3–6.

ˇˇ Zizek, S. (2005) ‘Where to Look for a Revolutionary Potential?’, Adbusters Magazine 57, URL (consulted 24 Jan): http://www.adbusters.org/magazine Adam Arvidsson is Assistant Professor of Sociology at the Department of Media, Communication and Cognition at the University of Copenhagen. He has worked on the history of advertising and marketing. His work on the history of the Italian advertising industry, Marketing Modernity: Italian Advertising from Fascism to the Postmodern was published with Routledge in 2003. Another book, which expands on the argument in this article is forthcoming with the same publisher later on in 2005, and will be titled Brands: Meaning and Value in Media Culture. Address: Department of Media and Communication, University of Copenhagen, Njalsgade 80, 2100 Copenhagen 5, Denmark. [email: arvidsson@hum.ku.dk] Downloaded from http://joc.sagepub.com at SAGE Publications on January 3, 2008

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 3 | 4 ||


Similar works:

«Aspirational City Futures: Three Models for City Living Hunt, D.V.L. and Rogers, C.D.F The University of Birmingham This short report has been commissined by the UK Governments Foresight Future of Cities Project. The views expressed do not repressent policy of any governement or organisation. 1|Page CONTENTS 1.0 INTRODUCTION 2.0 THREE MODELS FOR CITY LIVING 2.1. MODEL 1: Work and Economy 2.2. MODEL 2: Environment and Resources 2.3. MODEL 3: People and Communities 3.0. CONCLUDING DISCUSSION...»

«BUYER AND BOTTLENECK MARKET POWER MAKE THE COMCAST-TIME WARNER MERGER “UNAPPROVABLE” Mark Cooper Director of Research April 8, 2014 TABLE OF CONTENTS ASKING THE RIGHT QUESTION 1 CONCERNS ABOUT MARKET POWER 2 Buyer Market Power Bottleneck Market Power Coordinated Effects ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF MERGERS 4 Thresholds Qualitative Assessment of the Merger The Impact of the Merger on Market Concentration Market Extension CONCLUSION 9 APPENDIX A: THE ECONOMIC THEORIES OF MONOPSONY AND MONOPOLY...»

«THE DECKS RAN RED! The grimmest of all wartime shipboard duty was experienced by the valiant medical corpsmen who manned the PCE (R) rescue ships the Naval equivalent of seagoing ambulances One of the least-known but most significant warship variants of WWII was the PCE(R) the Navy’s equivalent of a seagoing ambulance. Only 13 were commissioned and these saw extensive duty only in the later campaigns of the Pacific. Though few in number the heroic role of the PCE(R)s in Pacific invasions was...»

«Geographisches Institut der Universität Zürich Abteilung Wirtschaftsgeographie Winterthurerstrasse 190 8057 Zürich Geo 511 Masterarbeit Raumentwicklung im Limmattal Die Ziele in den Limmattaler Gemeinden Dietikon und Schlieren und der Beitrag von städtebaulichen Grossprojekten von: Roman Beer 08-742-363 Giessackerstrasse 39 8951 Fahrweid roman.beer@uzh.ch Betreut durch: Dr. Marco Pütz Eidg. Forschungsanstalt WSL Regionalökonomie und –entwicklung Zürcherstrasse 111 8903 Birmensdorf...»

«The European Union promoting democracy in South Africa: strengths and weaknesses Lorenzo Fioramonti, University of Siena and Research Affiliate, University of Pretoria Email fioramonti@unisi.it 1. Introduction: the EU promotion of democracy and South Africa The EU (European Union) is the largest donor of external assistance in the world. Democracy promotion became a relevant aspect of the EU’s international role in the early 1990s, during the post-Cold War international relations [Burnell...»

«On the Distributional Impact of a Carbon Tax in Developing Countries: The Case of Indonesia Authors: Arief A. Yusuf Faculty of Economics and Business Padjadjaran University Bandung, Indonesia Budy P. Resosudarmo Arndt-Corden Department of Economics Australian National University Canberra, Australia Corresponding author: Budy P. Resosudarmo Arndt-Corden Department of Economics Australian National University Canberra, Australia Email: budy.resosudarmo@anu.edu.au Phone: +61 2 6125 2244 Fax: +61 2...»

«Responding to Globalization The new challenges and opportunities created by the spread of globalization have reshaped both institutional and individual responses to this phenomenon. This comprehensive analysis of the way in which governments and firms have responded to globalization examines closely the options available to both, and the historical and institutional contexts to the strategic decisions made. Responding to Globalization draws together a panel of international experts in a...»

«INVESTIGATION SUMMARY REPORT KARPELES MANUSCRIPT LIBRARY MUSEUM 3201 CENTENERY BOULEVARD SHREVEPORT, LA. 71104 JOHN COMBS CASE MANAGER LOUISIANA SPIRITS NORTH TEAM NOTE: THE CLIENTS IN THIS INVESTIGATION HAVE GRANTED AND ALLOWED ALL REASONABLE DATA NOTED IN THIS INVESTIGATION TO BE MADE PUBLIC. Copyrighted © Louisiana Spirits-All Rights Reserved HISTORY Construction on the building was began in the 1920's. Due to the Great Depression, finances held up completion until 1938. This was the home...»

«Pipes, Pools, and Privies: Some Notes on Early Island Plumbing Robert C. Schmitt Few subjects are so basic to modern living, so commonplace, and yet so poorly covered by the historical literature of Hawaii as bathroom plumbing. The opening paragraph of Bushnell's pioneering paper on Hygiene and Sanitation Among the Ancient Hawaiians, for example, referred to the paucity of materials on pre-contact sanitary practices, and ruefully added: As a matter of fact, very few people have paid any...»

«BANCO DE LA REPUBLICA Subgerencia de Estudios Económicos RELACION ENTRE EL INDICE DE PRECIOS DEL PRODUCTOR (IPP) Y EL INDICE DE PRECIOS AL CONSUMIDOR (IPC). Carlos Huertas Campos Munir A. Jalil Barney* Resumen En este documento se da un breve resumen teórico de índices de precios, como también se describe las diferencias en la composición del IPC e IPP colombianos. Mediante técnicas econométricas se establecieron relaciones de largo plazo entre componentes de los dos indicadores, y se...»

«This PDF is a selection from a published volume from the National Bureau of Economic Research Volume Title: NBER International Seminar on Macroeconomics 2008 Volume Author/Editor: Jeffrey Frankel and Christopher Pissarides Volume Publisher: University of Chicago Press Volume ISBN: 978-0-226-10732-5 Volume URL: http://www.nber.org/books/fran08-1 Conference Date: June 20-21, 2008 Publication Date: April 2009 Title: Capital Flow Bonanzas: An Encompassing View of the Past and Present Author: Carmen...»

«Learning Alternative Name Spellings Jeffrey Sukharev1,2, Leonid Zhukov1,3, and Alexandrin Popescul1 arXiv:1405.2048v1 [cs.IR] 7 May 2014 1 Ancestry.com, San Francisco, USA 2 University of California, Davis, USA 3 Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia {jsukharev,lzhukov,apopescul}@ancestry.com Abstract Name matching is a key component of systems for entity resolution or record linkage. Alternative spellings of the same names are a common occurrence in many applications. We use the...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.