WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 14 |

«Toward More Effective Endangered Species Regulation By Jacob P. Byl Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Vanderbilt ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

Toward More Effective Endangered Species Regulation

By

Jacob P. Byl

Dissertation

Submitted to the Faculty of the

Graduate School of Vanderbilt University

in partial fulfillment of the requirements

for the degree of

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

in

Law and Economics

May, 2015

Nashville, Tennessee

Approved:

Professor J. B. Ruhl

Professor Kathryn H. Anderson

Professor Cindy D. Kam

Professor W. Kip Viscusi

Copyright © 2015 by Jacob P. Byl All Rights Reserved ii To my beloved wife Carrie and To my children Lily and Gideon iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This work would not have been possible without financial and institutional support of Vanderbilt Law School and the Ph.D. Program in Law and Economics. I thank my colleagues in the program for constant support and Laurel Donahue and Amy Maples for lots of heavy lifting.

I especially thank my family, including my wife Carrie, my children Lily and Gideon, and those who helped watch the kids—especially Joan, Beth, and my parents—so Carrie and I could make it through graduate schools.

I am grateful to my Dissertation Committee for providing me with valuable guidance and feedback. Professor J.B. Ruhl was a great example of leadership as the chair of my committee.

Professors Kathryn H. Anderson, Cindy D. Kam, and W. Kip Viscusi were engaged, helpful, and challenged me to improve my work in all the right way. I could not have asked for a better dissertation committee.

For Chapter 1, I extend a special thank you to Professors Anderson and Skiba and classmates in the third-year research class where I got the ball rolling on this research project. I thank Dean Lueck and participants at the 2014 ALEA and SEA conferences for feedback. I also want to thank Timber Mart South for donating data on timber prices and Jacob Thornton and Lindsey Fox for GIS assistance.

For Chapter 2, I want to thank Professor Viscusi for helping me develop the experiment, secure funding, and make it through the IRB process. I want to thank Professor Kam for helping me streamline the experiment and take it into the field with logistical support of research assistants and use of the Research on Individuals, Politics, and Society lab at Vanderbilt. I also thank Elissa Gentry and Henri Rautonen for help running the experiment, the professors who let me recruit students from their classes, and Jason Shogren for helpful feedback.

–  –  –

seminar where I started getting these ideas down on paper. I thank Professor Ruhl for helping me strengthen the legal argument and Professor Viscusi for providing feedback on my empirical work and showing me how to calculate the Value of a Statistical Turtle.

–  –  –

DEDICATION……………………………………………………………………………………iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS………………………………………………………………………iv LIST OF TABLES……………………………………………………………………………...viii LIST OF FIGURES………………………………………………………………………………ix LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS……………………………………………………...……...............x Chapter

1. Perverse Incentives and Safe Harbors in the Endangered Species Act: Evidence from Timber Harvests near Woodpeckers Introduction

Existing Literature

Legal Background

Red-Cockaded Woodpecker

Conceptual Model

Data on Forest Plots and Woodpeckers

Empirical Specifications

Results

Explanations and Policy Implications

Conclusion

References

Statute and Cases

2. Experimental Evidence of Landowner Behavior in Endangered Species Habitat Programs Introduction

Legal and Economic Context

Experimental Design

Predictions of Participant Behavior

Empirical Specifications

Results

Discussion of Results and Deviations from Profit-Maximization

vi Policy Implications and Conclusions

References

3. A Critical Balance: The Role of Economics in Protecting Endangered Species Habitat Introduction

Interpreting the ESA’s Call for Economic Analysis

Accurate Economic Analysis can Lead to More Effective Regulations

Measuring Benefits of ESA Regulations

Example: Critical Habitat for Loggerhead Turtles

Conclusion

References

vii LIST OF TABLES

Chapter 1—Perverse Incentives and Safe Harbors in the Endangered Species Act: Evidence from Timber Harvests near Woodpeckers Table 1: Summary Statistics of Forest Plots…………………………………………………38 Table 2: Summary Statistics of Forest Plots Near RCW Colonies…………………………..39 Table 3: Harvest Probabilities for Plots Near RCW Colonies……………………………….40 Table 4: Probit Regression of Harvest Probability…………………………………………..41 Table 5: Difference-in-Difference Regression of RCW Impact on Harvest…………………42 Table 6: Difference-in-Difference Regression of RCW Impact on Improving Habitat for Wildlife…………………………………………………………………………..43 Table 7: Triple-Difference Regression to Test Impact of Safe-Harbor Program on Habitat Destruction in Sandhills of North Carolina……………………………………...44 Table 8: Triple-Difference Regression to Test Impact of Safe-Harbor Program on Improving Wildlife Habitat in Sandhills of North Carolina…………………………………45 Table 9: Nearest-Neighbor Matching Estimators to Test Impact of Safe-Harbor Program on Harvest and Improving Wildlife Habitat in Sandhills of North Carolina………..46 Chapter 2—Experimental Evidence of Landowner Behavior in Endangered Species Habitat Programs Table 1: Timber Value and Woodpecker Probabilities by Tree Age………………………...78 Table 2: Summary Statistics of Participants…………………………………………………79 Table 3: Average Timber Harvests by Year ………………………………………………...80 Table 4: Regression Predicting Harvest Behavior…………………………………………...81 Table 5: Regression Predicting Exit from Conservation Agreement………………………...82 Table 6: Investment in Habitat Improvement (% of Landowners Participating)…………….83 Table 7: Regression of Habitat Improvement Behavior……………………………………..84 Table 8: Average Landowner Profits ($)…………………………………………………….85 Table 9: Average Number of Woodpeckers…………………………………………………86 Chapter 3—A Critical Balance: The Role of Economics in Protecting Endangered Species Habitat Table 1: Ordered Probit Regression of Desire to Protect Rare Natural Environments…….130





viii LIST OF FIGURES

Chapter 1—Perverse Incentives and Safe Harbors in the Endangered Species Act: Evidence from Timber Harvests near Woodpeckers Figure 1: Landowner Decision Tree from Conceptual Model………..…………………...…35 Figure 2: Forest Plots and RCW Colonies in North Carolina…………………..………........36 Figure 3: Forest Plots, RCW Colonies, and Safe-harbor Agreements in Sandhills Region of North Carolina………………………………………………

Chapter 2—Experimental Evidence of Landowner Behavior in Endangered Species Habitat Programs Figure 1: Landowner Decision Tree from Conceptual Model………………………………78 Figure 2: Harvest Behavior Over 20 Years By Group………………………………………79 Figure 3: Landowner Profit Over 20 Years By Group……………………………………...76 Figure 4: Average Woodpeckers on Property Over 20 Years By Group…………………

Chapter 3—A Critical Balance: The Role of Economics in Protecting Endangered Species Habitat Figure 1: Public Opinion Regarding Protection of Natural Environments…………………129

–  –  –

ALEA: American Law and Economics Association ATC: Average Treatment on the Control ATE: Average Treatment Effect ATT: Average Treatment on the Treated CEQ: Council on Environmental Quality CFR: Code of Federal Regulations EPA: Environmental Protection Agency ESA: Endangered Species Act FIA: Forest Inventory and Analysis FWS: Fish and Wildlife Service NC: North Carolina NEPA: National Environmental Protection Act NMFS: National Marine Fisheries Service NOx: Nitrous Oxides OIRA: Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs OLS: Ordinary Least Squares OMB: Office of Management and Budget OSB: Oriented-Strand Board RCW: Red-Cockaded Woodpecker SEA: Southern Economic Association USC: United States Code

–  –  –

The Endangered Species Act (“ESA”) is a strong environmental law that gives federal agencies authority to conserve imperiled species by regulating private and public parties. One consequence of the ESA’s regulatory force and structure, however, is a set of perverse incentives for private landowners to prevent endangered species from moving onto their properties by destroying potential habitat. In chapter one, I estimate the extent of habitat destruction by examining data from timber harvests near endangered woodpeckers in North Carolina and find that landowners are 25% more likely to harvest mature pine trees if there are woodpeckers nearby. I contribute to the literature with the first evaluation of a safe-harbor program intended to dampen the perverse incentive and find mixed evidence that the program encourages landowners to stop destroying habitat. I find stronger evidence that the safe-harbor program encourages landowners to manage their lands in ways that encourage wildlife habitat.

In chapter two, I use a computer-based experiment to compare the safe-harbor program with other regulatory regimes that could help align the incentives of landowners with those of federal regulators. I find that the safe-harbor program is an improvement for both landowners and endangered species over the status quo of strict regulation. Strong financial incentives are effective at encouraging landowner cooperation in habitat conservation efforts, but weak financial incentives are surprisingly ineffective. The findings of the experiment may have implications for proposed ESA regulations.

In chapter three, I explore the role of cost-benefit analysis of critical habitat designation under the ESA. The current agency methodology leads to estimates of low costs and zero benefits of critical habitat. I argue that agencies should use a broader concept of costs and benefits because it is a better reading of the ESA and can lead to more effective regulations. I focus on measuring benefits of critical habitat, which should include what people are willing to pay to conserve listed species and the value of ecosystem services that are protected because of the critical habitat.

The three chapters of this dissertation all aim to contribute to our understanding of how ESA regulations can more effectively achieve their goals. The first two chapters aim to encourage more cooperation with private landowners. The third chapter challenges the agencies that implement the ESA to use their limited resources more efficiently. In light of the expected challenges that climate change will place on both economic and ecological systems, the ESA will likely become a focal point of the tradeoff between conservation and economic activity. Therefore, it is important for imperiled species, for landowners, and for a range of interested parties to move forward: toward more effective endangered species regulation.

Chapter 1—Perverse Incentives and Safe Harbors in the Endangered Species Act: Evidence from Timber Harvests near Woodpeckers I. Introduction Natural resources such as wildlife and scenic green space provide valuable amenities to people and serve as important parts of ecosystems. Natural resources also serve as the building blocks for economic activity, so there can be a tradeoff between conserving natural resources and encouraging economic activity. For example, a conserved forest could serve as habitat for birds and host a scenic campground.

Alternatively, the trees in the forest could provide timber to build new houses and the land could be converted to agriculture. Both the conservation and development uses of the forest are valuable to people, but there are often conflicting views about how to strike the right balance between these inconsistent uses.

One of the places with tension between conservation and development is the protection of endangered species. The Endangered Species Act (ESA) is one of the strongest environmental laws on the books in the United States. The ESA has cut through longstanding debates about resource use on public lands and forces federal agencies managing those lands to make difficult decisions regarding things like water use in the arid west and strip mining in the Appalachian Mountains. In addition to the impact on public land management, the ESA can also have a substantial effect on private land.

Under the ESA, federal agencies can prevent landowners from building houses, cutting trees, or altering waterways if those changes are detrimental to populations of endangered species. If the private land includes potential habitat but no endangered species are established there, however, then the ESA does not create jurisdiction for the federal agencies to regulate that land. The stark contrast in regulatory outcomes depending on whether land currently supports endangered species or not can create perverse incentives for landowners to destroy habitat to prevent endangered species from using the property for its habitat values. Lueck and Michael (2003) find empirical evidence that this is not just a hypothetical concern, with landowners harvesting trees at higher rates when there are endangered species nearby.



Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 14 |


Similar works:

«ALTERNATIVE PHOTOGRAPHY IN THE DIGITAL AGE: PERFECT PHOTOGRAPHS IN AN IMPERFECT WAY A Master’s Thesis by SERDAR BİLİCİ Department of Graphic Design İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University Ankara January 2013 dedicated to the memory of Betsy ALTERNATIVE PHOTOGRAPHY IN THE DIGITAL AGE: PERFECT PHOTOGRAPHS IN AN IMPERFECT WAY Graduate School of Economics and Social Sciences Of İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University by SERDAR BİLİCİ In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of...»

«Moorland YMCA, Dallas HISTORY of the MOORLAND YMCA Dallas, Texas The historic Moorland YMCA building is located at 2700 Flora Street, in what was historically known as “North Dallas” and is now the thriving Arts District at the edge of Dallas’s central business district. The building has served Dallas’s African-American community from its initial construction in 1930 as the city’s only YMCA for this community to its present use as the permanent home of the internationally known Dallas...»

«The Effects of Opening and Closing Procedures on the NYSE and Nasdaq Jeff Bacidore New York Stock Exchange 11 Wall Street New York, New York and Marc L. Lipson Terry College of Business University of Georgia Athens, GA This draft: January 2001 We would like to thank Shane Corwin, Michael Goldstein, Jeff Harris and seminar participants at the University of Georgia’s “Brown Bag Lunch Seminar” for helpful comments. All remaining errors are the responsibility of the authors. The comments and...»

«Tim V. Eaton Professor of Accountancy, Miami University (AUGUST 2015) Department of Accountancy Farmer School of Business Miami University Oxford, OH 45056 (513) 529 2132 phone (513) 529 4740 FAX eatont@miamioh.edu Refereed Publications (45) Marking Pensions to Market: What Are the Implications? (with Po-Chang Chen, Qing Burke). 2015. (May) CPA Journal. Where to Retire? The Tax Implications of Geography in Retirement” (with Brianne Kellner).2015. Journal of Business & Economics Research....»

«The Medium Run Effects of Educational Expansion: Evidence from a Large School Construction Program in Indonesia ∗ Esther Duflo November 2001 Abstract This paper studies the medium run consequences of an increase in the rate of accumulation of human capital in a developing country. From 1974 to 1978, the Indonesian government built over 61,000 primary schools. The school construction program led to an increase in education among individuals who were young enough to attend primary school...»

«School of GeoSciences DISSERTATION For the degree of MSc in Environmental Sustainability Student Name: Luis Santiago Castillo1 Date: 23 August 2011 1 Becario de COLFUTURO 2010. Nature Building Sustainable Peace in Colombia: Potential of Payments for Ecosystem Services in Post-Conflict Scenarios ii I hereby declare that this dissertation has been composed by me and is based on my own work. Word Count: 15,984 iii Abstract Lately, the Colombian government has opted for military oppression as the...»

«Rationing in the presence of baselines by Jens Leth Hougaard, Juan D. Moreno-Ternero and Lars Peter Østerdal Discussion Papers on Business and Economics No. 8/2012 FURTHER INFORMATION Department of Business and Economics Faculty of Social Sciences University of Southern Denmark Campusvej 55 DK-5230 Odense M Denmark Tel.: +45 6550 3271 Fax: +45 6550 3237 E-mail: lho@sam.sdu.dk ISBN 978-87-91657-61-0 http://www.sdu.dk/ivoe Rationing in the presence of baselines∗ Jens Leth Hougaard† Juan D....»

«This paper was presented at CUMREC '97, The College and University Information Services Conference. It is the intellectual property of the author(s). Permission to print out copies of this paper is granted provided that the copies are not made or distributed for commercial advantage and that the title and authors of the paper appear on the copies. To copy or disseminate otherwise, or to republish in any form, print or electronic, requires written permission from the authors. BACK From Mainframe...»

«International Conference at Vienna University of Economics and Business Gender Responsive Budgeting: Theory and Practice in Perspective November 6 – 8, 2014 Session 3: GRB as a transformational approach towards gender equality and women's empowerment. GRB as a Tool for Social Change: Lessons from the Israeli Experience Yael Hasson & Valeria Seigelshifer Abstract In our paper we will discuss the Israeli experience with GRB. This experience has two main features. First, the combination of...»

«5610 THE THEORY OF THE FIRM Nicolai J. Foss Department of Industrial Economics and Strategy Copenhagen Business School Henrik Lando Department of Finance Copenhagen Business School Steen Thomsen Institute of International Business Aarhus Business School © Copyright 1999 Nicolai J. Foss, Henrik Lando, and Steen Thomsen Abstract This chapter is a survey of modern theories of the firm. We categorize these as belonging either to the principal-agent or the incomplete contracting approach. In the...»

«services provided by RISQS FAQs About RISQS RISQS, formerly known as Achilles Link-up, supports the GB Rail industry in the management of supply chain risk. The scheme has been developed to provide a service for the qualification of suppliers for products and services procured by the industry with the aim of becoming the preferred route for suppliers to engage with their customers in an efficient and effective manner. The scheme is governed by the RISQS board which comprises Network Rail, CECA,...»

«LTA 1/01 • P. 58– 9 7 SEPPO KINKKI Dividend Puzzle – A Review of Dividend Theories* ABSTRACT Dividend policy has been one of the areas of corporate finance to be analyzed with a rigorous model, and it has since been one of the most thoroughtly researched issues in modern finance. There are a number of theories of dividend behaviour, and empirical studies provide little evidence for one over the other. Also the conceptions concerning corporate dividend theories are different. The main part...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.