FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials

Pages:     | 1 | 2 || 4 | 5 |

«Trends and Prospects UNECE Committee on Forests and the Forest Industry November 3, 2015 Prepared by: Policy, Economics and Industry Branch Canadian ...»

-- [ Page 3 ] --

Canada will continue to take cooperative action with its continental trading partners, particularly the United States, and will work towards further action in integrated sectors of the economy, including energy and transportation.

Climate change is a shared responsibility in Canada. Canadian provinces and territories have jurisdictional authorities over natural resources, energy, and many aspects of the environment.

Each jurisdiction has its own legal framework and determines which policies and measures to put in place to reduce GHG emissions. The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, a federal/provincial/territorial intergovernmental forum, has agreed that climate change will remain a priority agenda item in the foreseeable future. A variety of actions undertaken to date in the largest provinces are discussed below.

Canada expects that the LULUCF sector will provide an important contribution to its broader climate change mitigation efforts. The role of provincial and territorial governments is vital as they own 90% of Canada’s forests, and federal, provincial and territorial governments are currently exploring how best to achieve forest-related mitigation. An analysis of how mitigation actions involving Canada’s managed forests could contribute over the longer term was published in 2014 (http://www.biogeosciences.net/11/3515/2014/bg-11-3515-2014.pdf). Examination of forest-related mitigation potential is on-going, including mitigation related to changes in forest November 2015 management; increased afforestation; increased use of harvested wood for long-lived products as a substitute for products that are more emissions intensive (on a life-cycle basis); and, increased use of harvest residues for bioenergy in place of fossil fuels. With respect to wood use, on-going efforts to promote the use of wood in mid-rise and tall building applications in Canada (see Market Drivers section) are expected to have mitigation benefits.

In June 2012, the Government of Quebec launched its Climate Change Action Plan 2013-2020.

The Plan included the allocation of $2.7 billion for climate change mitigation and adaptation programs to work toward a GHG reduction target of 20% below 1990 levels by 2020. One key element of the Plan is a GHG cap and trade system that began operating in 2013 and linked with California’s trading system in 2014. Other measures under the Plan include the establishment of green building standards and promotion of renewable energy. Quebec’s Programme de biomasse forestière résiduelle finances projects to use residual forest biomass for energy.

The Government of Ontario’s Climate Change Action Plan was released in 2007 and included a set of short-term (6% below 1990 levels by 2014), medium-term (15% below 1990 levels by 2020), and long-term (80% below 1990 levels by 2050) targets for reducing the province’s GHG emissions. The plan included a 50 Million Tree Program to plant trees on the settled landscape of southern Ontario, which is expected to sequester 6.6 Mt CO2 by 2050 and help restore forest cover on this fragmented landscape. As well, the Ontario Greenbelt Plan has identified about 725 thousand hectares of prime agricultural land and environmentally-sensitive areas for permanent protection from urbanization.

In October 2014, the provincial government released Ontario’s Climate Change Update 2014 (http://www.ontario.ca/document/ontarios-climate-change-update-2014) and announced that the province is expected to achieve its 2014 target. In February 2015 the government initiated a public consultation process and released a Climate Change Discussion paper (http://www.ontario.ca/environment-and-energy/climate-change-consultation). The document sets a vision to establish Ontario as a leader in climate change mitigation and science, and indicates areas for immediate actions such as putting a price on carbon, supporting science, research and technology, and promoting climate resilience and risk management. In April 2015, Ontario announced plans to introduce a cap and trade system to reduce GHG emissions. As part of its participation in the Western Climate Initiative, Ontario has joined with British Columbia, California and Quebec in a process to establish a new GHG reduction target.

In Alberta, the government announced its climate change action plan in 2008 with an objective to reduce GHG emissions by 50 megatonnes from a business-as-usual scenario by 2020 and by 200 megatonnes by 2050. In 2011, Alberta extended and expanded its Bioenergy Producer Credit Program until 2016. The program has been in place since 2006 and provides incentives to develop bioenergy products to support the development of new technologies and facilities the use non-food crops, waste biomass and wood fibre for fuel, power and heat. In 2011, the province implemented a Renewable Fuels Standard to accelerate the use of fuels derived from renewable sources.

–  –  –

Change Advisory Panel to engage Albertans and technical stakeholders on key issues related to climate change. The panel will provide advice to the government in order to inform a new provincial action plan on climate change expected in autumn 2015.

The Government of British Columbia enacted its Greenhouse Gas Reduction Act in 2008. Under the Act, B.C.'s GHG emissions are to be reduced by at least 33 per cent below 2007 levels by 2020 and 80% below 2007 levels by 2050. A key element of the province’s Climate Action Plan is a revenue-neutral carbon tax that puts a price on GHG emissions – the price started at $5/tonne CO2e in 2008 and was increased by $5/year to $30/tonne in 2012 where it has remained. British Columbia’s Energy Plan: A Vision for Clean Energy Leadership (2007), its Clean Energy Act (2010) and other initiatives have been adopted to reduce emissions from the energy sector and foster innovation including through carbon capture and sequestration for coal-fired electricity and a commitment to generate at least 93% of energy from clean or renewable sources The province has developed an initial institutional framework for carbon offsets as part of working toward a carbon neutral public sector. In 2011, the province introduced a forest carbon offset protocol to guide the design, development, quantification and verification of forest carbon offsets generated on private and public lands in the province. Forest carbon mitigation activities that are eligible include afforestation, improved forest management and forest conservation. In May 2013, the British Columbia Forest Carbon Partnership Program (BCFCPP) was launched with the aim of restoring damaged public forests. Under the program, the province leverages private sector investments in forest management to restore damaged public forest land in exchange for carbon offset entitlement. The BCFCPP seeks to stimulate forest ecosystem restoration and forest regeneration, which could see more than one million trees planted by 2018.

In summer 2015, the British Columbia government initiated a public consultation (http://engage.gov.bc.ca/climateleadership) as part of the process to develop a provincial Climate Leadership Plan that aims to prepare the province to achieve its 2020 and 2050 emissions reductions targets. The province intends to release a detailed draft plan in December 2015 for further public input.

Major Forest Pest Disturbances in Canada The Spruce Budworm Infestation in Eastern Canada Spruce Budworm (SBW) is one of the most damaging pests in North America, with most regions of Canada reporting damage by defoliation each year. During periods of major outbreaks, SBW causes disruptions to the forest industry and affects jobs, recreation and tourism, especially for those communities and regions that are heavily forest-sector dependant. The last extensive outbreak of Spruce Budworm in Canada reached its peak in the 1970s, and covered more than 50 million hectares across Quebec, Ontario, and Atlantic Canada, resulting in fibre losses of approximately 500 million m3 of spruce and fir, with a commercial value of approximately $12.5 billion in Quebec alone.

November 2015

The most recent Spruce Budworm outbreak began in 2006 in Quebec and as of 2014 had already spread to cover more than 4.2 million hectares; with the potential to spread further through Canada’s Atlantic provinces and the eastern United States. Due to the potential negative effects of an outbreak in eastern Canada, the federal government is working with provincial partners, industry, and academia to test and evaluate early intervention strategies aimed at minimizing the extent of the epidemic by targeting high-population Spruce Budworm epicentres.

The Mountain Pine Beetle Infestation in Western Canada

The Mountain Pine Beetle is a native insect that attacks pines in Western North American forests and the infestation has caused widespread timber losses in the province of British Columbia.

Since the current beetle epidemic started in the early 1990s, it has killed more than 50% of British Columbia’s commercial pine volume, largely dense stands of lodgepole pine in the central interior of the province.

The beetle has since spread far beyond its historic range into northern British Columbia and eastward into the boreal forest of north-central Alberta. Scientists are assessing the risk that the beetle may continue to spread eastward across Canada’s boreal forest, potentially impacting Canada’s forest industries and the well-being of forest-dependent communities located throughout Canada’s boreal zone.

Because of the vital role the forest industry plays in Canada’s economy as a whole, and the growing threat the beetle poses to forests throughout Western Canada, the Government of Canada is concerned about the impact of the beetle infestation on forest communities and is working in collaboration with the provinces, territories, stakeholders and communities across Canada to respond to the challenges it poses.

Trade Policy

In addition to the North American Free Trade Agreement with the United States and Mexico (1994), Canada has free trade agreements in force with Korea (2015), Honduras (2014), Panama (2013), Jordan (2012), Colombia (2011), Peru (2009), the European Free Trade Association (2009), Costa Rica (2002), Chile (1997) and Israel (1997). Negotiations are currently concluded with the TransPacific Partnership (2015), Ukraine (2015) and the European Union (2014).

Negotiations for free trade agreements are underway with Japan as well as with Morocco, the Caribbean Community, Dominican Republic, India, Singapore, Guatemala, Nicaragua and El Salvador. Negotiations are also underway to modernize the existing free trade agreement with Costa Rica.

Finally, Canada is engaged in exploratory trade discussions with Turkey, Philippines, Thailand and Mercosur.

–  –  –

Phytosanitary Measures Canada is a strong supporter of the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and is active in the development of regional and international phytosanitary standards (e.g. wood packaging standard, ISPM No. 15, and draft wood commodities standard). Canada has demonstrated leadership in implementation of wood-related standards through the development of certification systems for wood exports and for wood packaging. The Canadian Heat Treated Wood Products Certification Program (CHTWPCP) is the official certification system for the export of wood products to countries requiring heat treatment prior to entry. The Canadian Wood Packaging Certification Program (CWPCP) certifies that the wood packaging materials for export satisfies the international requirement of ISPM-15.

Canadian experts continue to take an active role in international fora related to phytosanitary measures, including: the North American Plant Protection Organization (NAPPO), the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and the International Forest Quarantine Research Organization (IFQRG). Phytosanitary scientific research is conducted nationally and coordinated internationally to ensure that import regulations for internationally traded wood commodities are based on the best available science.

III. Market Drivers

The Canadian forest sector has begun emerging from the global economic downturn of 2008/09.

Recovery in the sector has been driven primarily by growing demand from Asia (particularly by China and South Korea) for wood products. In addition, recovery has also been aided by the strengthening of the U.S. housing market. More recently, over the course of 2013 to present, the weakening of the Canadian dollar also facilitated exports from Canada and supported solid profit margins for Canadian producers.

The ongoing strength of emerging markets has maintained a significant trend of market diversification over the past decade. While in 2004, 79.5% of forest product exports were destined to the U.S., this percentage has dropped to 65.6% in 2014. Demand for wood products in Asia, and China in particular, has grown exponentially over the course of the past decade as a result of rapidly developing economies. Although China’s GDP growth has slowed to 7 percent in the second quarter of 2015 compared to an average of 10% between 2005 and 2014, rates of urbanisation are expected to continue with an estimated 200 million Chinese people moving into urban areas over the next decade. As a result, the value of Canadian wood product exports to China has increased almost 18-fold between 2005 and 2014. Likewise, the demand for Canadian pulp has been strong in China which has seen exports increase by 219% between 2005 and 2014.

Overall, the share of forest products exports destined to China increased from 2.4% in 2005 to 15.6% in 2014. In India, demand for paper and paperboard has also been robust with exports increasing by 27% between 2005 and 2014.

–  –  –

Emerging Opportunities While many traditional markets for Canadian forest products are mature, there are still opportunities for growth by pursuing developing or emerging markets. This also includes increased use of wood in non-residential and mid-rise construction and expanding offshore export opportunities for Canadian wood products in emerging markets. Climate change considerations and a growing recognition of the environmental benefits of wood use are helping to open up opportunities for wood products, including bio-energy and next generation bio-fuels.

Energy Prices

Pages:     | 1 | 2 || 4 | 5 |

Similar works:

«1 Shareholder Letter Zurich, 24 March 2015 The future of gategroup is in your hands Dear Shareholders, I am pleased to report that gategroup delivered a solid result in 2014. Cash flow and net income increased substantially, allowing us to propose a dividend that is 50% higher than last year. Since 2009, when gategroup first became a listed company, the industry environment has changed enormously. The emergence of low-cost carriers and increasing cost pressure in the traditional airline...»

«Hoyt Alverson Students’ Social Life at Dartmouth College: Reflections in Their Looking Glass 2/15/05 Like almost every other university in the United States, Dartmouth College, where I have taught anthropology for the past 38 years, has been wrestling with the problem of binge drinking by students. Dartmouth’s efforts (indeed those of most institutions) to understand why students’ frequently engage in this potentially dangerous behavior and what to do about it have consumed enormous time,...»

«Preservation of Affordable Housing Florida Housing Conference 2015 Preservation of Affordable Housing Florida Housing Conference 2015 Preservation of Affordable Housing The Case for Preservation Florida Housing Conference 2015 Preservation of Affordable Housing Florida Housing Conference 2015 The Case for Preservation Who are we? Where are the opportunities? What are the challenges? What are the resources financial and non-financial? What are the tools and strategies? Preservation of Affordable...»

«Journal of Development Economics 83 (2007) 157 – 175 www.elsevier.com/locate/econbase Historical legacies: A model linking Africa’s past to its current underdevelopment Nathan Nunn Department of Economics, University of British Columbia, and the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIAR). 997-1873 East Mall, Vancouver, B.C., Canada, V6T 1Z1 Received 22 July 2004; received in revised form 24 November 2005; accepted 23 December 2005 Abstract Recent studies have found evidence linking...»

«Managing financial difficulties in health economies: lessons for clinical commissioning groups Research report Natasha Curry, Benedict Rumbold, Richard Edwards and Sandeepa Arora October 2013 About this work programme In the face of severe spending constraints and an ageing population, the need for the NHS to find efficiencies has never been more urgent. Our work programmes on efficiency and productivity, and on commissioning, are assessing the scale of the financial challenge facing the NHS...»

«Firm Control Colin Mayer Peter Moores Professor of Management Studies Said Business School, University of Oxford 18 February 1999 This is the text of an inaugural lecture delivered to the University of Oxford on 18 February, 1999. It draws on work that I have done with several people over a long period of time, most notably Wendy Carlin, Jenny Corbett, Jeremy Edwards, Julian Franks and Tim Jenkinson. The paper also makes reference to results from work with Marco Becht and other members of the...»

«102 Int. J. Human Resources Development and Management, Vol. 3, No. 2, 2003 The concept employability: a complex mosaic Anneleen Forrier Higher Institute of Labour Studies (HIVA), E. Van Evenstraat 2a, 3000 Leuven, Belgium E-mail: anneleen.forrier@hiva.kuleuven.ac.be Luc Sels Organisation Studies, Department of Applied Economics, Naamsestraat 69, 3000 Leuven, Belgium E-mail: Luc.Sels@econ.kuleuven.ac.be Abstract: Since lifetime employment within the same organisation is no longer a prerogative...»

«House Money and Entrepreneurship Sari Pekkala Kerr William R. Kerr Ramana Nanda Wellesley College Harvard Business School Harvard Business School September 2014 PRELIMINARY CONFERENCE VERSION Abstract We examine the relationship between house prices and entrepreneurship using micro data from the US Census Bureau. Increases in house prices are often thought to drive entrepreneurship through unlocking the collateral channel for bank loans, but this interpretation is challenged by worries...»

«  It Takes a Village to Maintain a Dangerous Financial System Anat R. Admati Graduate School of Business, Stanford University May 31, 2016 Abstract: I discuss the motivations and actions (or inaction) of individuals in the financial system, governments, central banks, academia and the media that collectively contribute to the persistence of a dangerous and distorted financial system and inadequate, poorly designed regulations. Reassurances that regulators are doing their best to protect the...»

«Tara Quinn Mahoney, PhD Assistant Professor of Sport Management Professional Studies Building Office: (607) 753-5504 Suite 1111 Cell: (315) 380-7981 P. O. Box 2000 tara.mahoney@cortland.edu Cortland, NY 13045-0900 EDUCATION Ph.D. 2013 University of Louisville Major Area: Educational Leadership & Organizational Development Specialization: Sport Administration Dissertation: Exploring the influence of social media on future intentions of charity sport participants M.B.A. 2007 West Virginia...»

«Department of Border Region Studies Working Paper Series Working Paper No. 01/14 Business, Brokers and Borders: The Structure of West African Trade Networks Olivier J. Walther, Ph.D. University of Southern Denmark and Rutgers University Department of Border Region Studies Working Paper 1/2014 Editor: Olivier J. Walther, Ph.D. Department of Border Region Studies University of Southern Denmark Alsion 2, DK-6400 Sønderborg Tel. + Fax: +45 6550 1779 E-mail: ow@sam.sdu.dk The...»

«Local Government Ethics Law State of New Jersey Year of Service: 2013 Department of Community Affairs Financial Disclosure Statement * The Year that you are filing Division of Local Government Services the statement This Financial Disclosure Statement is required annually of all local government officers Local Finance Board in accordance with N.J.S.A. 40A:9-22.1 et seq., the Local Government Ethics Law. 1f8bba27-29f8-4ef6-b7e0-34fc8a0fd5c7 Enter the Local Government Served: Vineland City County...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.