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«The London School of Economics and Political Science Wine In Their Veins: France and the European Community’s Common Wine Policy, 1967-1980 Maria ...»

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Historians who have previously worked on wine-growers in France have lamented that ‘We know little about the living and working conditions of grape growers, about their states of mind, precisely because the written evidence largely ignored them’61– certainly it is true too that farmers by and large did not engage with the written record. The primary sources presented in this thesis have attempted to address this gap. Transforming an industry in a country where the industry was unevenly distributed, and in certain quarters, where people Ibid., 11.

involved resisted change and distrusted policymakers, was a quagmire for the French government; indeed, ‘the question was: how does one transform a rural country with a large peasantry and where small, private businesses proliferate around a modern industrial state, without destroying the fabric of society?’62 The response the French chose was to use the machinery of the European Community to deal with an ailing agricultural sector, much as Alan Milward asserts that France, along with other Western European countries, did with the whole of their agricultural welfare systems. But this thesis has argued that the wine sector was distinct in a few important ways from the other markets, that it was not necessary for wine to have been included under the Common Agricultural Policy, and that the heavy influence of the French over the course of the wine policy negotiations meant they could have forced an exclusion for wine to be made. That they continued to seek the European Community, despite the political importance of wine in France and its place in the French cultural psyche, spoke volumes about their need to unburden themselves of the national wine sector. This was not without consequence – the reaction from the Midi was angry and even violent to what vignerons from there saw as abdication of state responsibility. Though initially scattered, their movement in response to the changes in wine policy quickly became, by 1980, both more locally and regionally organised and outward looking, even if with mixed results as to effectiveness. The pervasive idea of the isolated and independent French rural farmer, particularly those who could not reform or adapt to modern pressures, is challenged by this thesis.

In William Shakespeare’s Othello, Cassio shouts, ‘O thou invisible spirit of wine, if thou hast no name to be known by, let us call thee devil.’ Perhaps this was the sentiment felt at times Elie Cohen, 'France: National Champions in Search of a Mission,' in Industrial Entreprise and European Integration: From National to International Champions in Western Europe, ed. Jack Ernest Shalom Hayward (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995), 27.

by those involved in the complications of creating and then maintaining the Common Wine Policy. But Iago is quick with a reply to Cassio: ‘Come, come, good wine is a good familiar creature if it be well-used; exclaim no more against it.’

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