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«NOVEMBER 22, 1963 (Friday) 12:00 AM (Nov. 22, 1963) Nine Secret Service agents drinking at Pat Kirkwood’s bar the “Cellar Door” in Fort Worth, ...»

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Special Agent William Greer, the limousine driver, testified that “the last two shots seemed to be just simultaneously, one behind the other.” The other Secret Serviceman in the limousine was Roy Kellerman. Agent Kellerman sat next to Greer and was intimately familiar with the sound of weapons. He described the first shot like many others had, as sounding like a firecracker. But the other two shots, which he officially reported as a “flurry,” sounded different than the first shot. Asked by Mr. Specter if Kellerman could describe the sound of the flurry of shots by way of distinction of the first shot, Kellerman replied “... if I recall correctly these were two sharp reports, sir.” Did they sound different from the first shot, asked Specter. “Yes. Definitely. Very much so.” Kellerman added: “... “Let me give you an illustration... You have heard the sound barrier, of a plane breaking the sound barrier, bang, bang? That is it. It was like a double bang

--- bang, bang.” In Warren Commission testimony Special Agent Hickey described “two reports which I thought were shots... that there seemed to be practically no time element between them.” Clint Hill, the agent who threw himself into the limousine after the shooting, told the Commission that the second noise he heard was different from the first shot “... like the sound of shooting a revolver into something hard... almost a double sound.” S.M. Holland carefully watched the motorcade from the railroad overpass. He heard four shots with the third and fourth sounding like a “double shot.” He thought some of the shots came from behind the fence on the grassy knoll. “Well it would be like you’re firing a.38 pistol right beside a shotgun, or a.45 right beside a shotgun... the third shot was not so loud... the third and fourth shot hit the President.” Deputy Sheriff Roger Craig. “The first shot... sort of like it reverberated... well, it was quite a pause between there [the first and second shots]... It could have been a little longer [than two or three seconds]... “ Between the second and third shots there was “no more than two seconds. It was--they were real rapid.” Joe R. Molina. “... Of course, the first shot was fired then there was an interval between the first and second, longer than the second and third.” Seymour Weitzman. “First one, then the second two seemed to be simultaneously.” Ladybird Johnson. “... suddenly there was a sharp loud report--a shot. It seemed to me to come from the right, above my shoulder, from a building. Then a moment and then two more shots in rapid succession.” Special Agent Forrest V. Sorrels. “There was to me about twice as much time between the first and second shots as there was between the second and third shots.” Congressman Ralph W. Yarborough. “... by my estimate--to me there seemed to be a longer time between the first and second shots, a much shorter time between the second and third shots... after the first shot about three seconds another shot boomed out, and after what I took to be one-half the time between the first and second shots... the third shot about one and one-half seconds after the second shot...” Mayor Earle Cabell. “There was a longer pause between the first and second shots than there was between the second and third shots.

They were in rather rapid succession.” Special Agent Sam A. Kinney. “I saw the President lean toward the left and appeared to have grabbed his chest with his right hand. There was a second of pause and then two more shots were heard... “ Special Agent William A. McIntyre. “The Presidential vehicle was approximately 200 feet from the underpass when the first shot was fired, followed in quick succession by two more. I would estimate that all three shots were fired within five seconds. After the second shot, I looked at the President and witnessed his being struck in the head by the third and last shot.” Special Agent George Hickey (in reference to the second and third shots). “At the moment he was almost sitting erect I heard two reports, which I thought were shots and that appeared to me completely different in sound than the first report and were in such rapid succession that there seemed to be practically no time element between them.” Special Agent Warren W. Taylor. “In the instant that my left foot touched the ground, I heard two more bangs and realized that they must be gun shots.” Linda Willis. “Yes, I heard one. Then there was a little bit of time, and then there were two real fast bullets together. When the first one hit, well, the President turned from waving to the people, and he grabbed his throat, and he kind of slumped forward, and then I couldn’t tell where the second shot went.” Special Agent Rufus Youngblood. “There seemed to be a longer span of time between the first and the second shot than there was between the second and third shot.” “... from the beginning at the sound of the first shot to the second or third shot, happened with a few seconds.” Robert Jackson. “I would say to me it seemed like three or four seconds between the first and the second, and between the second and third, well, I guess two seconds, they were very close together... “ Arnold Rowland. “The actual time between the reports I would say now, after having had time to consider the six seconds between the first and second report and two between the second and third.” Luke Mooney. “... The second and third shot was pretty close together, but there was a short lapse there between the first and second shot.” Ms. Mitchell (Mary Ann Mitchell). “... there were three---the second and third being closer together than the first and second... “ Lee Bowers “I heard three shots. One, then a slight pause, then two very close together... also reverberation from the shots.” Jean Hill. “There were three shots -- one right after the other, and a distinct pause, or just a moment’s pause, and I heard more... “ And concerning the shots that followed the first three Ms. Hill said they were “quicker -- more automatic.” While still sprinting toward the Presidential limousine, Clint Hill hears more shots.

Gov. Connally will later testify: “ I do not believe, nor will I ever believe, that I was hit with the first bullet. I don’t believe that.

I heard the first shot. I reacted to the first shot and I was not hit with that bullet: Now, there’s a great deal of speculation that the President and I were hit with the same bullet that might well, be, but it surely wasn’t the first bullet and Nelly doesn’t think it’s the second bullet.

I don’t know, I didn’t hear the second bullet. I felt the second bullet. We obviously weren’t hit by the third bullet. I was down reclining in her lap at the time the third bullet hit.” At this sound, driver William Greer will testify, he realizes that something is wrong, and he presses down on the accelerator as Roy Kellerman yells, “Get out of here fast.” As he issues his instructions to Greer and to the lead car, Kellerman hears a “flurry of shots” within 5 seconds of the first noise. [W.C.]

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Fifteen-year-old Amos Euins reportedly sees a colored man firing from the Book Depository window. Later, he will testify that he does not know whether the man he sees in the window is colored or white. WR 147 James Richard Worrell, Jr. sees six inches of a rifle protruding from the Book Depository window, and hears a total of four shots.

Billy Lovelady, who is standing on the front steps of the TSBD, believes the sounds of shots have come from “right there around that concrete little deal on that knoll.” He will tell the FBI that he did not “at any time believe the shots had come from the Texas School Book Depository.” Maggie Brown is standing to the left front of the knoll. She believes the shots have come from behind and to her right, i.e., from the knoll.

Aurelia Lorenzo is standing to the left front of the knoll. She believes the shots have come from a point to her right rear.

Mr. and Mrs. John Chism, and their three-year-old son are standing along the curb with their backs to the Grass Knoll near the Stemmons Freeway sign. John Chism and his wife look behind them to see exactly where the shots are coming from, believing the shooter is somewhere on the knoll.

William Newman and his wife are standing at the base of the grassy knoll and are positioned between the knoll and the limousine during the shooting. Both say the shots have come from behind them.

Hugh Betzner, Jr., witnesses the assassination almost immediately after snapping three photographs of the scene near the intersection of Houston and Elm streets. He runs through Dealey Plaza in an effort to keep pace with the president’s limousine while taking several more pictures. Betzner allegedly tells a sheriff’s deputy that he believes at least some of the shots were fired from the area of the picket fence on the Grassy Knoll. He surrenders his camera and film to Deputy Eugene L. Boone, who has the film developed and returns both the camera and the negatives to Betzner.

Dr. David W. Mantik thinks, based on eyewitness accounts, that JFK actually slumped forward twice in the limo - once after the throat shot, and then immediately after the fatal head shot [a movement not seen in the Zapruder film.] Between these two events, Mantik suggests that Jackie Kennedy slowly lifted JFK to an erect position so that she could examine his face closely. MIDP

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-UPI’s “Four Days” (1964), p. 17---In the right hand picture [a frame from the Muchmore film], the driver slams on the brakes and the police escort pulls up.”

-”Newsweek”, 12/2/63, p. 2---”For a chaotic moment, the motorcade ground to an uncertain halt.”

-”Time”, 11/29/63, p. 23---”There was a shocking momentary stillness, a frozen tableau.”

-”Case Closed” by Gerald Posner (1993), p. 234---”Incredibly, SA Greer, sensing that something was wrong in the back of the car, slowed the vehicle to almost a standstill.” AND -Gerald Posner, with Dan Rather, on CBS’ “Who Killed JFK: The Final Chapter?”, 11/19/93---By turning around the second time and looking at JFK as the car slows down, Posner says that “What he [Greer] has done is inadvertently given Oswald the easiest of the three shots.” Houston Chronicle Reporter Bo Byers (rode in White House Press Bus)---twice stated that the Presidential Limousine “almost came to a stop, a dead stop”; in fact, he has had nightmares about this. [C-SPAN, 11/20/93, “Journalists Remember The Kennedy Assassination”; see also the 1/94 “Fourth Decade”: article by Sheldon Inkol];

ABC Reporter Bob Clark (rode in the National Press Pool Car)---Reported on the air that the limousine stopped on Elm Street during the shooting [WFAA/ ABC, 11/22/63];

UPI White House Reporter Merriman Smith (rode in the same car as Clark, above)---”The President’s car, possibly as much as 150 or 200 yards ahead, seemed to falter briefly” [UPI story, 11/23/63, as reported in “Four Days”, UPI, p. 32];

DPD motorcycle officer James W. Courson (one of two mid-motorcade motorcycles)--”The limousine came to a stop and Mrs. Kennedy was on the back. I noticed that as I came around the corner at Elm. Then the Secret Service agent [Clint Hill] helped push her back into the car, and the motorcade took off at a high rate of speed.” [“No More Silence” by Larry Sneed (1998), p. 129];

DPD motorcycle officer Bobby Joe Dale (one of two rear mid-motorcade motorcycles)---”After the shots were fired, the whole motorcade came to a stop. I stood and looked through the plaza, noticed there was commotion, and saw people running around his [JFK’s] car. It started to move, then it slowed again; that’s when I saw Mrs. Kennedy coming back on the trunk and another guy [Clint Hill] pushing her back into the car.” [“No More Silence” by Larry Sneed (1998), p. 134];

Clemon Earl Johnson ---”You could see it [the limo] speed up and then stop, then speed up, and you could see it stop while they [sic; Clint Hill] threw Mrs. Kennedy back up in the car. Then they just left out of there like a bat of the eye and were just gone.” [“No More Silence” by Larry Sneed (1998), p. 80];

Malcolm Summers ---”Then there was some hesitation in the caravan itself, a momentary halt, to give the Secret Service man [Clint Hill] a chance to catch up with the car and jump on. It seems to me that it started back up by the time he got to the car “[“No More Silence” by Larry Sneed (1998), p.


NBC reporter Robert MacNeil (rode in White House Press Bus)---”The President’s driver slammed on the brakes ---after the third shot “ [“The Way We Were, 1963: The Year Kennedy Was Shot” by Robert MacNeil (1988), p. 193];

AP photographer Henry Burroughs (rode in Camera Car #2)---” we heard the shots and the motorcade stopped.” [letter, Burroughs to Palamara, dated 10/14/98];

DPD Earle Brown---” The first I noticed the [JFK’s] car was when it stopped... after it made the turn and when the shots were fired, it stopped.” [6 H 233];

DPD motorcycle officer Bobby Hargis (one of the four Presidential motorcyclists)---” At that time [immediately before the head shot] the Presidential car slowed down. I heard somebody say ‘Get going.’ I felt blood hit me in the face and the Presidential car stopped almost immediately after that.” [6 H 294; “Murder From Within” by Fred Newcomb and Perry Adams (1974), p. 71; 6/26/95 videotaped interview with Mark Oakes & Ian Griggs: “That guy (Greer) slowed down, maybe his orders was to slow down slowed down almost to a stop.” Like Posner, Hargis feels Greer gave Oswald the chance to kill Kennedy.];

DPD D.V. Harkness ---” I saw the first shot and the President’s car slow[ed] down to almost a stop I heard the first shot and saw the President’s car almost come to a stop and some of the agents [were] piling on the car.” [6 H 309];

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