«NOVEMBER 22, 1963 (Friday) 12:00 AM (Nov. 22, 1963) Nine Secret Service agents drinking at Pat Kirkwood’s bar the “Cellar Door” in Fort Worth, ...»
DPD James Chaney (one of the four Presidential motorcyclists)---stated that the Presidential limousine stopped momentarily after the first shot (according to the testimony of Mark Lane; corroborated by the testimony of fellow DPD motorcycle officer Marion Baker: Chaney told him that “ at the time, after the shooting, from the time the first shot rang out, the car stopped completely, pulled to the left and stopped Now I have heard several of them say that, Mr. Truly was standing out there, he said it stopped. Several officers said it stopped completely.” [2 H 44-45 (Lane)---referring to Chaney’s statement as reported in the “Houston Chronicle” dated 11/24/63; 3 H 266 (Baker)];
DPD motorcycle officer B.J. Martin (one of the four Presidential motorcyclists)---saw JFK’s car stop “ just for a moment.” [“Murder From Within” by Fred Newcomb & Perry Adams (1974), p. 71];
DPD motorcycle officer Douglas L. Jackson (one of the four Presidential motorcyclists)---stated “ that the car just all but stopped just a moment.” [“Murder From Within” by Fred Newcomb & Perry Adams (1974), p. 71];
Texas Highway Patrolman Joe Henry Rich (drove LBJ’s car) --- stated that “ the motorcade came to a stop momentarily.” [“Murder From Within” by Fred Newcomb & Perry Adams (1974), p. 71];
DPD J.W. Foster --- stated that “ immediately after President Kennedy was struck the car in which he was riding pulled to the curb.” [CD 897, pp. 20, 21; “Murder From Within” by Fred Newcomb & Perry Adams (1974), p. 97];
Secret Service Agent Sam Kinney (driver of the follow-up car behind JFK’s limo)---indicates, via his report to Chief Rowley, that Greer hit the gas after the fatal head shot to JFK and after the President’s slump to the left toward Jackie. [18 H 731-732]. From the HSCA’s 2/26/78 interview of Kinney: “He also remarked that ‘when Greer (the driver of the Presidential limousine) looked back, his foot must have come off the accelerator’ Kinney observed that at the time of the first shot, the speed of the motorcade was ‘3 to 5 miles an hour.’” [RIF#180-10078-10493; author’s interviews with Kinney, 1992-1994];
Secret Service Agent Clint Hill (follow-up car, rear of limo)---” I jumped from the follow-up car and ran toward the Presidential automobile. I heard a second firecracker-type noise SA Greer had, as I jumped onto the Presidential automobile, accelerated the Presidential automobile forward.” [18 H 742;
Nix film; “The Secret Service” and “Inside The Secret Service” videos from 1995];
Secret Service Agent John Ready (follow-up car)---” I heard what sounded like fire crackers going off from my post on the right front running board.
The President’s car slowed “ [18 H 750];
Secret Service Agent Glen Bennett (follow-up car)---after the fatal head shot “the President’s car immediately kicked into high gear.” [18 H 760; 24 H 541-542]. During his 1/30/78 HSCA interview, Bennett said the follow-up car was moving at “10-12 m.p.h.”, an indication of the pace of the motorcade on Elm Street [RIF#180-10082-10452];
Secret Service Agent “Lem” Johns (V.P. follow-up car)---” I felt that if there was danger [it was] due to the slow speed of the automobile.” [18 H 774].
During his 8/8/78 HSCA interview, Johns said that “Our car was moving very slowly”, a further indication of the pace of the motorcade on Elm Street [RIF# 180-10074-10079; Altgens photo];
Secret Service Agent Winston Lawson (rode in the lead car)---” I think it [the lead car on Elm Street] was a little further ahead [of JFK’s limo] than it had been in the motorcade, because when I looked back we were further ahead.” [4 H 352], an indication of the lag in the limo during the assassination.;
Secret Service Agent William “Tim” McIntyre (follow-up car)---”He stated that Greer, driver of the Presidential limousine, accelerated after the third shot.” [RIF#180-10082-10454: 1/31/78 HSCA interview];
Mrs. Earle (“Dearie”) Cabell (rode in the Mayor’s car)---the motorcade “stopped dead still when the noise of the shot was heard.” [7 H 487; “Accessories After the Fact” by Sylvia Meagher (1967), p. 4; “Murder From Within” by Fred Newcomb & Perry Adams (1974), p. 71];
Phil Willis ---” The [Presidential] party had come to a temporary halt before proceeding on to the underpass.” [7 H 497; “Crossfire” by Jim Marrs (1989), p. 24];
Mrs. Phil (Marilyn) Willis ---after the fatal head shot, “she stated the Presidential limousine paused momentarily and then sped away under the Triple Underpass.” [FBI report dated 6/19/64; “Photographic Whitewash” by Harold Weisberg (1967), p. 179];
Mrs. John (Nellie) Connally (rode in JFK’s limo)---JFK’s car did not accelerate until after the fatal head shot. [4 H 147; WR 50; “Best Evidence” by David Lifton (1988), p. 122];
Texas Governor John Connally (rode in JFK’s limo and himself a victim of the assassination)---” After the third shot, I heard Roy Kellerman tell the driver, ‘Bill, get out of line.’ And then I saw him move, and I assumed he was moving a button or something on the panel of the automobile, and he said ‘Get us to a hospital quick’ at about this time, we began to pull out of the cavalcade, out of line.” [4 H 133; WR50; “Crossfire” by Jim Marrs (1989), p. 13];
Dallas Morning News reporter Robert Baskin (rode in the National Press Pool Car)---stated that “ the motorcade ground to a halt.” [“Dallas Morning News”, 11/23/63, p. 2; “Murder From Within” by Fred Newcomb & Perry Adams (1974), p. 71];
Dallas Morning News reporter Mary Woodward (Pillsworth)---” Instead of speeding up the car, the car came to a halt.”; she saw the President’s car come to a halt after the first shot. Then, after hearing two more shots, close together, the car sped up. [2 H 43 (Lane); DMN, 11/23/63; 24 H 520; “The Men Who Killed Kennedy” 1988]. She spoke forcefully about the car almost coming to a stop and the lack of proper reaction by the Secret Service in 1993. [C-SPAN, 11/20/93, “Journalists Remember The Kennedy Assassination”; see also the 1/94 “Fourth Decade”: article by Sheldon Inkol];
AP photographer James Altgens --- “He said the President’s car was proceeding at about ten miles per hour at the time [of the shooting] Altgens stated the driver of the Presidential limousine apparently realized what had happened and speeded up toward the Stemmons Expressway.” [FBI report dated 6/5/64; “Photographic Whitewash” by Harold Weisberg (1967), p. 203] “The car’s driver realized what had happened and almost if by reflex speeded up toward the Stemmons Expressway.” [AP dispatch, 11/22/63; “Cover-Up” by Stewart Galanor (1998), Document 28];
Alan Smith --- “ the car was ten feet from me when a bullet hit the President in the forehead the car went about five feet and stopped.” [“Chicago Tribune”, 11/23/63, p. 9; “Murder From Within” by Fred Newcomb & Perry Adams (1974), p. 71];
Mrs. Ruth M. Smith --- confirmed that the Presidential limousine had come to a stop. [CD 206, p. 9; “Murder From Within” by Fred Newcomb & Perry Adams (1974), p. 97];
TSBD Supervisor Roy Truly --- after the first shot “ I saw the President’s car swerve to the left and stop somewheres down in the area [it stopped] for a second or two or something like that I just saw it stop.” [3 H 221, 266];
L.P. Terry --- “ The parade stopped right in front of the building [TSBD].” [“Crossfire” by Jim Marrs (1989), p. 26] William Greer, driver of JFK’s limo, will eventually tell Walt Brown that “the car was in low gear for parades, and it had to be shifted and then there would be a pause regardless, because of the weight of the heavily armored vehicle, such heavy armor plating being virtually meaningless since the vehicle was a convertible with the top off.” TID Regarding alteration of the Zapruder film, David Lifton suggests that one primary reason for alteration is because of the fact that the President’s limo stopped. “The car had stopped - even if momentarily - during the shooting; and the film of the shooting had been altered to conceal that fact.” The Zapruder film contains 486 frames. If the limo was moving slower than is shown in the available fim... or if the limo actually stopped, then the original Zapruder film is actually more than 486 frames. Sheriff Bill Decker will say later today that he thinks the assassination “took about 20 seconds.” As recorded on the Zapruder film, the elapsed time is roughly 5.6 seconds.
Decker’s estimate is important, Lifton points out, because the longer the elapsed time, the more obvious it is that the Secret Service is involved, and on two counts: a. The slowing down of the car in the first place. b. The failure of the agents to react. “So, basically, an altered Z film implicated the Secret Service.” TGZFH Fifty nine witnesses (ten police officers, seven Secret Service Agents, thirty-seven spectators, two Presidential aides, one Senator, one State Governor, and the First Lady of the United States will document Secret Service Agent William Greer’s deceleration of the Presidential limousine, as well as his two separate looks back at JFK during the assassination. Greer will deny all of this to the Warren Commission. MIDP According to the Zapruder film, JFK is now slumped over and leaning slightly to his left. Many eyewitnesses are of the opinion that JFK is sitting upright when he is shot in the head.
Bobby Hargis: “At that time [just before a shot to the head] the Presidential car slowed down. I heard somebody say, ‘Get going.’” MIDP Secret Service Agent Glen Bennett sees a second shot “... hit the right rear high of the Boss’s head.” Secret Service Agent “Lem” Johns is out of the Vice President’s follow-up car, and running towards the Vice President’s vehicle. He will later tell the Warren Commission: “... before I reached the Vice President’s Car a third shot had sounded and the entire motorcade then picked up speed and I was left on the street at this point. I obtained a ride with White House movie men and joined the Vice President and ASAIC Youngblood at the Parkland Hospital.”
JFK IS FATALLY HIT IN THE HEAD BY GUNFIRE *
The right side of the President’s head explodes in a shower of blood and brain tissue. JFK appears to be slammed backwards and to the left with violent force. This reaction is seen in the film by Abraham Zapruder and will be the subject of considerable discussion and debate in years to come. Some researchers suggest that this violent motion is the result of alteration of the film itself.
According to the Zapruder film, JFK’s head moves forward by an inch or two between frame 312 (the last pre-impact frame, according to the film) and 313 (the first post-impact frame.) Only after this brief forward movement of an inch or two does JFK’s head snap violently backwards and to the left. It has been suggested that JFK is hit almost simultaneously by two bullets - one from the back and one from the front right. Regarding possible Zapruder film alteration, it is also suggested that these series of movements could also have been caused by frame deletion - in which case the head movement as seen on the Zapruder film has nothing at all to do with the impact of any bullet.
In Murder In Dealey Plaza, Dr. David Mantik writes: “The final head shot most likely struck when JFK was sitting erect. This is based both on eyewitness testimony and on the lateral skull X-rays. The trail of metallic debris actually rises from front to back within the skull, a most unlikely trajectory for a frontal shot that occurred with JFK’s head tilted forward as seen in Z-312.... My own interpretation of all of the evidence is that JFK was hit first in the head from the rear while slumped forward such as in Z-312, then struck in the head for a second time (but from the front) while sitting erect. Such a posterior head shot has been strongly supported by the pathologists for over 35 years but they persistently ignored evidence for the second head shot. Only the second head shot produced a spray of blood;
not enough blood could have accumulated before the first shot to give rise to such a visible spray. The bloody spray now seen at Z-313 was probably imported from the image of the second head shot (which is no longer seen in the [Zapruder] film.”
The last two shots fired at JFK:
Jack Bell (AP): “in quick succession” (NYT 11/23/63, p.5) George Hickey: “in rapid succession... no time element between” (18H762) Roy Kellerman: “flurry... plane breaking the sound barrier... bang, bang”; (2H76) Clinton Hill: “The second shot had “an echo... double sound” (2H144) Mary Woodward: “The second two shots were immediate... as if one were an echo of the other... with the second and third shot... I saw the head explode” (A&E,II ) Will Greer: “simultaneously” (2H118) Glenn Bennett: “A second shot followed immediately and hit the right rear high of the President’s head.” (18H760) Rufus Youngblood: “in rapid succession.” Rufus Youngblood (Robert MacNeil’s The Way We Were, 1988, Carroll & Graf) Warren Taylor: “in the instant that my left foot touched the ground, I heard two more bangs” (CE1024) Seymour Weitzman: “simultaneous” (7H106) Linda Kay Wills: “two real fast bullets together” (7H498) Lee Bowers: Rapped his knuckles on a table showing the near simultaneity of the last two. (Mark Lane 1966 Tape) Junior Jarman: “third shot was fired right behind the second” (3H204) Carolyn Walther: “almost at the same time” (C.E.2086) Toney Henderson: “in rapid succession” (C.E.208) Mrs. Lyndon Johnson: “in rapid succession.” (H565) James W. Altgens (photographer) will later recall: “Fragments of his head fell right at my feet. That was some heck of an explosion when it hit his head. His skull just disintegrated and bone and flesh flying...” POTP Alan Smith: “The car was ten feet from me when a bullet hit the President in the forehead... the car went about five feet and stopped.” MIDP Charles Brehm is standing on the south side of Elm Street and is behind and to the left of the limousine during the fatal head shot. Brehm sees a piece of JFK’s skull blown backward and to the left by the fatal head shot. He will tell newsmen later today that “the shots came from in front or beside the President.” James L. Simmons is standing on the triple underpass and says the sounds of the shots come “from the left and in front of us, toward the wooden fence” on the knoll.