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«CONCEPT BY Mr. Rohit Tandale Copyright © 2012 by Rohit Mahadev Tandale. All rights reserved. Concept Solution papers are in draft form. This paper ...»

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CIGARETTE

BUTTS

Strategy to Recycle

and Management

A CREATIVE BUSINESS IN ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

CONCEPT BY

Mr. Rohit Tandale

Copyright © 2012 by Rohit Mahadev Tandale. All rights reserved. Concept Solution

papers are in draft form. This paper is published & distributed for purposes of

comment, discussion and educating yourself only. It may not be reproduced without

permission of the copyright holder. Copies of working papers are available from the author.

7 JAN 2012, PARIS CIGARETTE BUTTS 2012 AGENDA

1) INTRODUCTION

2) WHAT IS CIGARETTE AND BUTTS?

3) GEO-GOVERNMENT TREATS

4) CIGARETTE BUTTS- ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION

5) CASE VISIT (LA DEFENSE)

6) SOLUTION

7) BUSINESS IN ENVIRONMENTAL

MANAGEMENT

8) CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT- IPAG MBA 2011-12. MR. ROHIT TANDALE CIGARETTE BUTTS 2012

1) INTRODUCTION Cigarette butt litter is one of our biggest environmental pet-peeves and we're not alone! For those who share our disgust for this disrespectful assault on the places we all share, this project is a great opportunity to get your hands dirty with us.

Together we will clean up our big blue playground, stop the damage cigarette butts inflict upon our eco-systems, and give butts a better second life. And since this has never been done before, you'll be a pioneer too!

WHY I AM CHOOSING THIS TOPIC?

Cigarette smoking started near about in ancient 5000BC phase till now it’s going on.The main reason behind smoking cigarette is nicotine. People take nicotine for getting immediate refreshment like caffeine, tannin. Because nicotine immediately dissolves or absorbed in blood, that’s why people and young generation started smoking to reduce stress for a while. When any person take Cigarette after smoking last part remains called “filter/butts” and now butts are everywhere….walk down the street, across a parking lot…anywhere, and you will see. These butts are making their way in to our streams, rivers, and oceans causing increased costs to our municipalities. Our State and Local Governments are spending MILLIONS OF DOLLARS every year to combat this litter issue. It is time that someone stands up and reduces these costs.

ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT- IPAG MBA 2011-12. MR. ROHIT TANDALE CIGARETTE BUTTS 2012

2) WHAT IS CIGARETTE AND BUTTS?

2.1) Composition of Cigarette Once made only of paper and tobacco, cigarettes since the 60's more and more additions and varied. In total more than 4,000 chemicals inhaled by cigarette smoke, over 60 classified as carcinogenic by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. (IARoC) Here are some to make you green with anguish of acetone is a solvent, hydrogen cyanide, which was formerly used in gas chambers, carbon monoxide coming out of exhaust pipes of our cars, DDT is an insecticide like nicotine, arsenic. These all things which are added to make Cigarette are very harmful like poison.

As for believing that a cigarette "unburned" contains less harmful substances, certainly... but it is still 2,500 chemicals, including pesticides and many additives!

–  –  –

2.2) Cigarette Filter (butts) Fig. Cigarette Filters n Cellulose acetate fiber bundle.

The raw material for the manufacture of cigarette filters is cellulose(obtained from wood). The cellulose is acetylated (i.e making it into a material called cellulose acetate or simply "acetate" for short), dissolved, and spun as continuous synthetic fibers arranged into a bundle called tow. The cellulose is a substituted diacetate (actually 2.35 - 2.55 substitution range) cellulose, due to its chemical and physical processing. This tow is opened, plasticized, shaped, and cut to length to act as a filter. Then filter act like plastic sponge.

Purpose:

A cigarette filter has the purpose of reducing the amount of smoke, tar, and fine particles inhaled during the combustion of a cigarette. Filters also reduce the harshness of the smoke and keep tobacco flakes out of the smoker's mouth. In above images you can clearly see the before smoke and after smoke condition of filter and plasticized fibers of cellulose acetate.

–  –  –

Disposal:

Most cigarette filters are made from cellulose acetate. Depending on conditions, estimates for the time taken for them to degrade range from British American Tobacco's 1 month - 3 years, to 10–15 years.

Fig. A cigarette filter littered on the ground.

This resistance to biodegrading is a factor in littering, environmental damage and suggested lung damage. In the 2006 International Coastal Cleanup, the number of individual cigarettes and cigarette butts collected amounted to 24.7% of the total number of garbage items collected, over twice as many items as any other category.

–  –  –

3) GEO-GOVERNMENT TREATS

Target is to reduce smoking:

All countries over the world are trying to reduce smokers, so butts are automatically reduced. On the other hand they are trying to fill their treasury by increasing tax and license fees. This is a major hurdle that no country is coming together to set up single protocol on this issue.





EU is trying to reduce smokers by implementing following policies….

Health policy is largely formulated and implemented by the devolved administrations of each of the member countries of the United Kingdom.

However, as tobacco falls within the remit of a number of different government departments: e.g. Health, Treasury, Trade, etc. tobacco control policy is partly determined at UK-wide level and partly by the devolved administrations. The four nations of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have responsibility for their own smoking cessation and health education campaigns while UK-wide policy and law applies to taxation, smuggling, advertising, and consumer protection issues such as the provision of health warnings on tobacco packaging.

Some of these measures are determined by European Union legislation.

–  –  –

ADVERTISING

Tobacco advertising is banned by law throughout the United Kingdom. The Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act 2002 prohibits tobacco advertising on billboards, in print media, by direct mail and through sponsorship. Currently limited advertising at the point of sale - equivalent in size to one A5 sized ad - is still permitted but this will end when a new law banning the display of tobacco products comes into effect from 2011. (See below). A health warning equivalent to one third of the surface area of the advertisement must be included

–  –  –

PRODUCT REGULATION AND LABELLING

Written health warnings are required on all tobacco packaging as determined European Union Council Directive 2001/37/EC, implemented in the UK by the Tobacco Products (Manufacture, Presentation and Sale) (Safety) Regulations 2The EU Directive permits Member States to add pictorial warnings on tobacco products but only EU approved images are allowed. To date, seven EU Member States – Belgium, France, Latvia, Malta, Romania, Spain and the UK – have passé legislation requiring pictorial warnings on tobacco products.

TAX

–  –  –

NON-PROMOTION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS OR EVENTS OVERSEAS

UK embassies and high commissions of EU are decided to take care to avoid involvement in events which advertise or promote tobacco products overseas.

All these policies are either in the favor of government or Cigarette companies.

–  –  –

NHS National health Service of UK finally found these policies are working properly but on the other side smokers are increasing day by day. All countries are not giving attention towards “cigarette butts are increasing with smokers” because they may get profited by tax revenues.

That’s why finding how environment pollution occurs by butts and providing solution on that is important.

–  –  –

4) CIGARETTE BUTTS –ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION

NEW YORK, May 24 2011 – Worldwide, smokers toss at least 4.5 trillion cigarette butts each year, litter that causes significant environmental harm- US researchers report.

In their study, published in the Spring 1999 issue of the journal Tobacco Control, they call for better enforcement of laws against littering to reduce the environmental impact of cigarette butts, additional taxes on tobacco products to go towards clean-up efforts, and more effort on the part of tobacco companies to reduce packaging waste and educate consumers about the impact of tobacco waste on the environment.

Novotny and Zhao examined data from two leading US environmental organizations- the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Center for Marine Conservation (CMC).They found that ``for the past 8 years, cigarette butts have been the leading item found during the (CMC's) International Coastal Cleanup Project,'' accounting for nearly one in every five items collected.

Discarded cigarette butts in ashtrays can also pose a serious health risk to children, according to the researchers. They note that ``in 1994-1995, the Rhode Island Department of Health identified 40 cases of cigarette butt ingestion among children aged 6 to 24 months... 13 of the cases of ingestion produced symptoms such as vomiting, gagging and lethargy.” How Pollution occurs: The average cigarette butt ``contains numerous chemicals which may be considered health hazards,'' according to co-authors Dr. Thomas Novotny of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, and Dr. Feng Zhao of the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health in Baltimore, Maryland.

The researchers note that ``smokers may not consider that a cigarette butt is litter, but these waste products seem to be ubiquitous.'' Butts are often cast onto the sidewalk, where they often end up in drains and then out to lakes and seas.

While the paper and tobacco of cigarette butts are biodegradable, their cellulose acetate filters are not, according to the report.

–  –  –

It's enough to make your blood boil - the sight of someone throwing a cigarette butt out of a car window. Every year the NSW Fire Brigades (NSWFB) is called to hundreds of roadside fires believed to be caused by discarded butts.

As well as the environmental cost associated with littering, there is also the potential for fires from dropped cigarette butts.

2) Ocean Conservancy, Australia reported in January 2011 Ocean trash ranks as one of the serious pollution problems choking our planet.

Far more than an eyesore, a rising tide of marine debris (waste or scrap found in marine pollution) threatens human health, wildlife, communities and economies around the world.

As butts contains tar, nicotin, smoke and fine particles which get mixed with air, emits smell of chloral vinyl and color used for paper. The same and more mixed with water, as Cigarette composition contain cellulose acetate fiber and

–  –  –

insecticides in small amount which get mixed immediately in water, when sea living organisms eat this that cause immediate death of marine lives.

Cigarette butts are the most common type of litter on earth. Collected, they weigh in the millions of pounds. The toxic chemicals absorbed by cigarettes' cellulose acetate filters and found in butts' remnant tobacco, are quickly leached from the butts by water.

The evidence indicates that the toxic chemicals leached from discarded cigarette butts present a biohazard to the water flea at concentrations of more than 0.125 butts per liter, or about one butt per two gallons of water. The lechate from the remnant tobacco portion of a cigarette butt is deadlier at smaller concentrations than are the chemicals that leach out of the filter portion of a butt.

–  –  –

3) Ingestion of Cigarettes and Cigarette Butts by Children To characterize risk factors for and outcomes associated with ingestion of cigarettes and cigarette butts among children aged less than or equal to 6 years, the Rhode Island Department of Health (RIDH) analyzed data from the RIPCC and the 1996 Rhode Island Health Interview Survey (RIHIS). This report summarizes the findings of the study, which indicate that ingestion of cigarettes and cigarette butts by children aged less than or equal to 6 years resulted in minor toxic effects and occurred more frequently in households where smoking was permitted in the presence of children and where cigarettes and cigarette wastes were accessible to children.

–  –  –

Cigarette filters are composed of cellulose acetate, A form of plastic that can persist in the environment for long periods of time. Plastics of this sort have been found in the stomachs of sea turtles, fish, birds, whales and other marine creatures.

–  –  –

After collecting all the information about Cigarette butts, I visited the most famous business district area near Paris, which is “La Defense”, to calculate actual amount of Cigarette butts littered per day.

AREA SPECIFICATIONS Declared as business District, 10 km from towards west from central Paris

• Divided into 12 sectors 400 acres (1.6 km2) • • 3,500,000 square meters (38,000,000 sq ft) of offices • 1,500 businesses (of which 14 from the national top 20 and 15 from the global top 50) • 1,50,000 employees • 20,000 residents • 310,000 square meters (3,300,000 sq ft) of flagstone walkways and sidewalk • 110,000 square meters (1,200,000 sq ft) of greenery As we got all the information about why people smoke cigarette, In this area more than 200 MNC’s are having corporate offices. And Employee after every average 1-3 hr of interval come below the building and smoke to get relief from stress and litters the butt on the ground. So, I personally feel its good place to calculate butts per day.

–  –  –



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