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«COUNTING THE NOTES The economic contribution of the UK music business A report by the National Music Council – November 2002 Preface This is the ...»

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The economic contribution of the

UK music business

A report by the National Music Council –

November 2002


This is the third of the reports produced by the National Music Council on the economic significance of the

music industry. As in the case of its predecessors, this is not a report containing primary research;

nevertheless it was a Herculean task to identify the data, write the commentaries, check the figures and edit and format the report. Much of this work was undertaken voluntarily by members of the steering group; and much of it had to be undertaken outside normal working hours and at short notice. There thus follows the inevitable but important list of thanks to the numerous individuals without whose dedication this report would not have happened.

First and foremost, thanks must go the researchers, Cliff Dane and Kate Manton. Theirs was the primary task of collating the data, persuading industry groups and associations to part with their data, and writing the majority of the commentaries. On many occasions their efforts have superseded the call of duty by a very large margin, and we are very grateful for their dedication and support.

Lydia Kan was Project Manager during the majority of the research phase, and we are grateful for her commitment and insights.

The National Music Council steering group performed the majority of the proof-reading and editing functions for a complex and detailed report. Thanks are due to the members: Frances Lowe (British Music Rights), Gwyn Owens (Department for Culture, Media and Sport) and Chris Green (British Phonographic Institute). Many others too numerous to mention attention-to-detail skills in great measure; but I would like to single out the monumental efforts of Jennifer Goodwin of the Music Publishers Association.

The administrator of the National Music Council, Fiona Penny, has run the project with enthusiasm, assiduity and commitment. I hope the report is evidence that the sleepless nights were worthwhile.

We must thank our sponsors the Department for Culture, Media and Sport for their major financial contribution, without which this report would never have been possible. Other financial contributors have included (in alphabetical order) the British Association of Record Dealers (BARD), British Music Rights, the British Phonographic Institute (BPI), the Concert Promoters Association (CPA) and Phonographic Performances Ltd (PPL).

And finally I must thank my employers, Making Music, for their forbearance during what must have seemed an endless period of editing.

I would like to end on a note of caution. The economic significance of the music industry, huge though it is, must never be taken to be the be-all and end-all of the importance of music. In a world where numbers and statistics are ever more important, we need always to understand the economic impact; but the proof of the importance of musicalso lies in the sheer joy of making and listening to music, which enriches all our lives in so many ways.

Robin Osterley Chairman, National Music Council

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Preface 2 1 Introduction

1.1 Methodology

1.2 The significance of music in everyday life

2 Composition of musical works and music publishing

2.1 Performance income

2.2 Mechanical income

2.3 Printed music sales

2.4 Grand Rights fees and synchronisation income

2.5 The domestic market

2.6 Employment and value-added

2.7 The UK in relation to the world market

2.8 Overseas income and payments

2.9 Current industry issues

2.10 Summary data for 2000

3 Musical instruments

3.1 Sales of instruments and related equipment

3.2 Consumer spending on musical instruments

3.3 Production and employment

3.4 Retailing & distribution

3.5 Imports and exports

3.6 Summary data for 2000

4 Live musical performance - non-classical

4.1 Festivals and other major music events

4.2 Tourism

4.3 Current issues

4.4 Overseas

4.5 Employment and value added in the touring/live music industry

4.6 Concert promoters

4.7 Summary data for 2000

5 Live musical performance - classical

5.1 Professional orchestras

5.2 Venues

5.3 Classically focused festivals

5.4 Broadcasting and recording

5.5 Education

5.6 Brass Bands

5.7 Military bands

5.8 Other freelance musicians

5.9 Amateur music

5.10 Employment, value added, consumer spending and overseas activities

5.11 Opera

5.12 Musical theatre

5.13 Amateur opera & musical theatre

5.14 Summary data for 2000

6 The recording industry

6.1 Employment and value added

6.2 Recording studios and facilities

6.3 Producers - employment and value added

6.4 Manufacturing

6.5 Manufacture - employment and value added

6.6 Summary data for 2000

7 Music retailing and distribution

7.1 The marketplace

7.2 Employment statistics

7.3 Distribution

– page 3 Counting the notes – the National Music Council report on the economic contribution of the music business

7.4 Distribution - employment and value added

7.5 Smmary data for 2000

8 Participation and audiences

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Audience trends

8.3 Participation

9 Music education & training

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Music in schools

9.3 Instrumental music services in schools

9.4 Expenditure on music services

9.5 Music teachers

9.6 Young people learning music

9.7 Examinations for private pupils

9.8 Music & ballet scheme

9.9 Military music schools

9.10 Higher education and music conservatoires

9.11 Professional musicians – further training and role in education

9.12 Overseas earnings and payments

9.13 Summary data for 2000

10 The overall economic contribution of the music business

10.1 Value added

10.2 Expenditure on music

10.3 Employment numbers


1 Sources used

2 Biographies of researchers…………………………………………………………………………............71 3 The National Music Council

– page 4 Counting the notes – the National Music Council report on the economic contribution of the music business 1 Introduction 1.1 Methodology Counting the Notes, the 2002 National Music Council (NMC) report, is a summary and analysis of the available economic data on the UK’s music industry. Music industry groups, the government, and member organisations of the NMC, have contributed to the work of this report. Counting the Notes is a mapping document of available information only. It is not a primary research or survey report.

The purpose of Counting the Notes is similar to that of two previous NMC reports -- The Value of Music (1996), and A Sound Performance (1999). Through descriptions of each stage at which value is created in the music industry, the report attempts to outline the value of the music sector to the UK’s economy.

Counting the Notes builds upon the foundation of data published in the previous reports but should not be regarded as a comparative document. Inevitably, there are some gaps in economic data on the music industry, and it is therefore not always possible to compare figures over time. Where this has been achievable, for example in the retailing, recording and music publishing sections, the report does include some comparisons with previous reports.

Counting the Notes is structured to reflect the steps by which value is created within the UK’s music sector and describes the music industry in terms of tangible economic value, such as employment, turnover, and export value. However, it also recognises that there are many other less tangible ways in which music adds value to our everyday lives.

Counting the Notes describes how composers and publishers, musicians, performers, managers, agents, presenters, recording companies and many others derive income and generate value and revenue. The importance of participatory music in the UK, the trends in UK audiences, and the role of music in the tourism market is also addressed within the report. We then focus on music education, including acknowledgement of leading academic research on the impact of early childhood music education on enhancing children’s overall ability to learn in school.

It would be a mistake to think that even a report as comprehensive as Counting the Notes tells the whole story of the contribution to society of the music business. In addition to the value of music, both economically and otherwise (see below), the industry contributes or supports merchandising, radio, and the manufacture and distribution of audio hardware. The design, law, and accounting professions are also dependent upon music for a portion of their income. Music journalism and the publishing of books about music also carry significant economic value. Television broadcasting through music channels and mainstream music shows such as Top of the Pops and Later (Jools Holland) are linked to significant economic activity in the UK. Other creative industries, especially the film and advertising sectors, are generally often very reliant upon music for their impact.

1.2 The significance of music in everyday life

It hardly needs to be said that music is an integral part of everyday life. Almost everyone listens to music at some point in any day, and it is of course a key element within films, television, radio programmes and computer games. Music is often an important feature of travel plans, and musical events can be a significant aspect of holidays at home and abroad. The British are surrounded by music in their everyday lives, which most of us find pleasant, enjoyable and indeed life-enhancing.

Neither is it coincidental that the most memorable and popular features of the 2002 Queen’s Golden Jubilee celebrations included music-making and live music performances throughout the country.

1 For a list of the membership, please see www.musiced.co.uk 2 The Music Industry, like most of the other creative industries, does not fall neatly into the existing structure of Standard Industrial Codes or Standard Occupational Codes. The Census also does not collect data relevant to the music industry. Due to the industry’s diversity and relative independence, data on many musicians and musical activities are also not captured by trade and other associations.

–  –  –

So, whilst the primary focus of this report is on the economic value of music and its contribution to the UK’s economy, it is vitally important not to ignore the immense significance of the value of music per se.

To illustrate this, two reports published in the period covered by this research are worth mentioning. In 2000 the Performing Right Society commissioned a report entitled The Power of Music, a study into the impact, effects and benefits of music. This report highlights very effectively the role of music in the lives of millions of people, as well as reflecting the importance of learning, playing, listening to, and performing music to society as a whole. Secondly, the Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music (ABRSM), one of the organisations responsible for setting and examining graded music examinations, reported that in 2000, 49% of children participated in instrumental music lessons at some time in their lives. The ABRSM also estimates that approximately a quarter of adults can play an instrument to some level.

And making music is not, of course, only the playing of instruments. It also includes singing as well as the creative mixing of other people’s’ music as a DJ. There are choirs, choral groups, and performance groups based in communities, corporations, and government. There are karaoke bars, sing-a-long Sound of Music events at cinemas, sing-a-long Messiahs at the Royal Albert Hall; there is singing in pubs, singing in churches, synagogues, and singing is a feature of life at nearly all schools and universities. DJs have repertoires, loyal fan bases, and recognition as music makers, not just players of music made by others. Indeed the whole amateur music making scene, built up from a tradition of participation in church, music-making throughout education, and music-making as a social activity, is of prime significance to the quality of life for a very significant proportion of the population.

No report can cover the entire impact of music on society; by looking primarily at the economic benefits we in no way underestimate the intrinsic significance of music nor its effect on the quality of people’s lives. It is absolutely impossible to imagine a world without music; and if it was imaginable, it is certain noone would want to live there.

–  –  –

Income can be earned from the creative act by generating interest in the music through its promotion to artists, record companies, broadcasters, advertisers and other music users, and then licensing them to use the music in different ways and in different media. For the most part writers/composers contract with music publishers who promote, exploit, protect and administer the copyright musical works they have created. Publishers pay the writers/composers an agreed proportion of the income earned from exploiting their work – “royalties”. However, composers of film and TV music more usually contract directly with the film companies and broadcasters who commission them. In this case, the composer is generally paid a commission fee and may receive royalties from other exploitation. Classical composers often receive commission fees via a third party such as an estate or foundation, or from state funding through Arts Councils and their associated organisations, though receipts from the latter have seen a recent decline.

The principal sources of revenue from the exploitation of musical compositions are as follows, albeit

defined in a rather simplified manner:

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