«COUNTING THE NOTES The economic contribution of the UK music business A report by the National Music Council – November 2002 Preface This is the ...»
From age 16 - 18, children are offered, at some schools, advanced level courses in composition (or harmony and counterpoint), the history of music, and performance. Approximately 7,000 candidates study advanced courses each year. Some schools offer the Advanced Vocational Certificate in Education which Source - Education & Training Statistics for the United Kingdom, Office for National Statistics, 2001
The main challenge in secondary schools is the apparent and historic gulf between pupils’ interests as consumers of popular music and the music courses on offer which tend to focus on skill development provided by generally classically-trained teachers. Wider recruitment into teaching from the rock, pop, jazz and world music domains and more broad-based conservatoire and university course training will help to address these challenges.
In parallel with classroom music, lessons are also given to individuals and small groups on orchestra and band instruments, and in voice, by teachers who go from school to school. Lessons are generally for half an hour per week, and often a parental financial contribution is required either for the lessons themselves, or for the lessons as well as the purchase of a musical instrument. About ten per cent of pupils receive these instrumental and vocal lessons. More detail about the role and activities of school Music Services is given below.
Many schools offer extra-curricular activities in bands, orchestras, choirs, groups and ensembles with concerts and staged shows. For talented pupils, the opportunity exists to join local, regional and national music groups such as youth orchestras and choirs. These students may progress to specialist courses as provided in music specialist schools or the junior departments of conservatoires. A number of students take graded examinations in music and generally, enjoy a rich cultural and social life arising from their participation in an impressive range of in-school and out of school musical activities.
Primary schools usually have a full-time member of staff who combines usual teaching duties with a specialisation in music. In secondary schools, however, there are specialist music teachers employed full or part-time. These teachers support students who may opt to study music as a GCSE or A-level subject.
Teacher numbers by subject are not published, but it is possible to calculate the numbers of music teachers by working from the published numbers of vacancies for secondary school music teachers. The most recent figures, taken from Classroom Teacher Vacancies 2002 England33, indicate 80 music teacher vacancies representing 1.9% of total music teacher numbers. This suggests a ratio of 1.2 music teachers per English secondary school. If this estimate is applied across the UK it would give total numbers of music teachers in secondary schools of approximately 5,200.
The Independent Schools Information Service suggested in 199834 that about 600 independent schools entered students for music GCSEs. Assuming that this is still valid and applying the same ratio of 1.2 to independent schools this would add another 720 teachers, giving a total of 5958. Based on the average salary for a full-time teacher in a state secondary school35 this would suggest a value-added figure for music teachers in secondary schools of approximately £155 million.
9.3 Instrumental music services in schools
During the period 1950 to 1975, most Local Education Authorities established Music Services as part of their provision of education services to state schools and the wider community. Services provided included instrumental and singing lessons and group activities such as orchestras, bands and choirs.
Lessons were provided free of charge although nominal charges were sometimes made for non-school
based activities. The Education Reform Act of 1988 had a critical impact on Music Services:
• The non-statutory status of Music Services was confirmed, ie Local Education Authorities had no obligation to provide Music Services.
• The provisions for Local Management of Schools resulted in Local Education Authorities delegating all or a significant portion of their funding for Music Services to schools. This meant that schools were free to buy back tuition from their local Music Service, or buy tuition from another supplier, or use the money for alternative purposes.
“There are demonstrable positive effects of involvement with music on children’s personal and social development.” The Power of Music: The Strength of Music’s influence on our lives. PRS, 2002. p. 16.
This is a first release of statistics from DfES/ONS, published on the DfES website www.dfes.gov.uk.
A Sound Performance, p. 35.
Statistics of Education: Teachers in England 2001 edition, Dept for Education & Employment/Her Majesty’s Stationery Office,
Instrumental music services provide the services required for state schools – primary and secondary - to offer their pupils the chance to learn to play a wide variety of instruments. The Federation of Music Services (FMS) best estimate of the numbers of children learning an instrument through Services in England and Wales is about half a million. This is based on about 4000 children per Service in about 125 English and Welsh Services. (There are fewer Services than Local Education Authorities, as some Services cover larger areas.) The Services vary in size: the largest in the FMS 2001 survey served a population of over 200,000 students and the smallest under 20,000. Larger services can offer more variety of tuition and other activities.
During the 1980s and early 1990s, music was a neglected area of educational provision. In the late 1990s, a number of reports on the decline in the numbers of pupils learning to play musical instruments refocused government attention on music education. The decline was attributed to a lack of funding for the music education and the pressures of the National Curriculum on schools’ and pupils’ time. Research into Instrumental Music Services summed up the situation as follows: “Since the 1980s, legislation and financial restraints have forced many LEAs to devolve the monies previously spent on instrumental tuition to schools. To survive many Instrumental Music Services sought alternate sources of funding while at the same time reducing staff costs by increasing the number of hourly and part-time staff employed on temporary contracts. Some IMSs were unable to sustain themselves in this commercial environment and disappeared…The DfEE in its consultation on ‘Fair Funding’ feared that the decline in the provision of Instrumental Music Services would continue unless action was taken. Ministers decided that, to halt this decline, safeguard centrally funded music services and promote a degree of expansion, two Standards
Fund grants should be set up for the following purposes:
• a grant of £30 million at 100% to ring-fence what an LEA spends centrally on music services from this schools budget;
• a grant of £10/20/30M (including LEA contribution at 50%) to expand LEAs’ music provision beyond current levels.
The first tranche of money (£41m) was distributed in March 1999. Between 1999 and 2002 a total of £150m of additional money for music services has been released. “ The Research into Instrumental Services report surveyed IMSs in 1999/2000, and demonstrated that each IMS was unique. All provided tuition for primary schools and 96% for secondary schools. The study produced a limited amount of quantitative data. No information was available on the age of students learning music via IMSs, nor their gender or ethnicity. Most surveyed referred to providing a broad range of musical activities and offering the opportunity for everyone to learn. Interestingly, only one IMS reported preparing students for a career in some aspect of the music profession as an aim. Most offered music schools or centralised activities, orchestras and other ensemble opportunities. Most IMSs surveyed provided tuition in most of popular orchestral or band instruments. For example, over 90% of Services offered lessons in violin, cello, guitar, flute and other popular woodwind, trumpet, trombone and French horn. 80% offered keyboard and 60% piano tuition. Only 30% offered tuition in world music.
Activities provided apart from lessons included:
Other, less popular ones were Asian music ensembles (8%), folk music groups (8%), rock groups (10%) and steel pan ensembles (12%).
Prof Susan Hallam & Vanessa Price; DfEE Research Report RR229, 2000
The Federation of Music Services concerns are that the numbers of pupils may be rising but curriculum and other pressures may be causing earlier drop-out from music (see below for details of Susan O’Neill’s study of children dropping out of learning an instrument). The FMS believes that if overall funding is compared to the situation ten years ago, it may still be down in real terms, despite additional help from the Standards Fund.
9.4 Expenditure on music services
Expenditure on music services falls into three categories: 1) expenditure from central government, 2) local government expenditure and 3) parental contributions (ie consumer expenditure). Of these three categories only central government expenditure via the Standards Fund is known - £60 million. The DfES is currently conducting a survey which may produce figures for local authority contributions but the results are not yet available. As for parental contributions, the FMS suggested that they represent, at a very rough estimate, 40% of the total cost of Music Services. Thus, consumer expenditure in this area would be a minimum of £40 million pa for England only;. allowing for expenditure in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland the total is estimated at £60million pa for the UK.
9.5 Music teachers
Permanently employed classroom music teachers are referred to above. For instrumental teaching, there is a ‘mixed economy’ of lessons provided via Music Services or privately. These two areas overlap, and so are treated together. The Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music report Making Music 2000 surveyed a sample of the 50,000 teachers who enter pupils for its examinations. 1507 teachers were surveyed in 2000, in comparison with 926 in the previous (1996) survey. Teachers were asked where
they worked, and results are shown in the following table:
Table 9:2 – Where music teachers give lessons (%) In-home lessons At pupil's home State school lessons Group lessons at state school Individual lessons at independent school Group lessons at independent school Class music at state school Class music at independent school In higher education Source: ABRSM Making Music 2000 In 2000, 81% taught in their own homes, but 26% gave lessons in state schools, while 18% gave group lessons in state schools. Teachers also reported teaching in independent schools and higher education.
Numbers teaching at home had declined slightly, but percentages teaching in schools had increased on 1994 and 1997. This may be accounted for by a decline in the numbers of full-time permanent teaching staff employed by IMSs with a consequent increase in numbers teaching in a variety of settings in order to make a living. Research into Instrumental Music Services makes the following observations on teachers’ working conditions: “Because of the constraints on increasing group sizes most IMSs have attempted to cut staff costs. This has been achieved by changing the working conditions of staff. As vacancies arose new staff members have been employed on different contracts. In some cases this has been manifested in an increase in hourly paid teachers on short-term contracts, in others fulltime staff have been paid on instructor’s rates even when they may have had Qualified Teacher status. While in the short term this has been effective in reducing costs, the longer-term consequences in relation to staff recruitment are now beginning to be felt by IMSs.”
The ABRSM report found that private music teachers in 2000 were teaching an average of 36 pupils each (a decline from 43 in 1997 and 50 in 1994) but were on average teaching slightly longer hours – 14.5 hours in 2000, compared to 13.9 hours in 1997. Based on information from ABRSM, the number of fulltime equivalent private music teachers is estimated at 22,500. In terms of age and gender, three-quarters of the teachers were female, and 53% of them were aged 45 and over. Over half (54%) taught the piano as their main instrument, with the next most popular instruments being the violin (8%) and the clarinet (7%).
The variety of music teachers’ work is also illustrated by two other reports. In 1993, a study by Louise Gibbs of Goldsmiths College called Private Lives presented a survey of private music teachers which showed that only 25% regarded teaching as their sole source of income, 32% as the main source and 43% regarded it as a secondary source. The survey also found that 89% of teachers entered their students for examinations which indicates that those surveyed in the ABRSM report do constitute a representative sample. Finally, many of the teachers were found to have lively schedules of amateur and semiprofessional work.
The Tooley Report which surveyed players in leading orchestras, notes that 63% of those responding also taught. The lowest proportion teaching was in London (53%), perhaps indicating that it is easier to make a living solely from playing in the capital.