«COUNTING THE NOTES The economic contribution of the UK music business A report by the National Music Council – November 2002 Preface This is the ...»
The complex possibilities which make up private music teachers’ careers make any estimate of earnings very difficult. The Making Music 2000 survey suggested that in 2000 those surveyed were teaching an average of 14.5 hours per week. The Incorporated Society of Musicians (ISM) publishes guideline information sheets for private music teachers, giving recommended rates. A newly qualified teacher in 2002 should expect to charge individual pupils a rate of between £19.68 and £20.85 per hour, while established teachers are recommended to charge more. Rates per pupil are lower for shared or group lessons, but the total fee per hour for the teacher is higher. For 3 or 4 pupils in a group, the total fee is one-and-a-half times the individual fee, while for groups of 5 or 6, the total fee is twice the hourly rate for an individual pupil. Based on this, a relatively inexperienced teacher, teaching only on an individual basis, could expect to earn about £10,000 pa for teaching the average number of hours per week. On this basis the value added and consumer expenditure for private music teaching is estimated at £225million.
In 1999 the National Foundation for Youth Music was set up with £30 million of Lottery funding, through the Arts Council of England, and in July 2001 a further £30 million in funding was provided to enable NFYM to continue to 2005. The Foundation provides music-making opportunities for children and young people (up to the age of 18), concentrating on those who live in areas of social and economic need. By the end of 2001, NFYM aimed to have reached more than 1 million people. While NFYM wants to develop programmes throughout the UK, the Lottery funding can only be used in England, although limited funds have been raised to do some work in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Another condition of the Lottery cash is that the work it supports must be ‘new and additional’ – it cannot provide core support for existing programmes. It supports organisations not individuals, concentrates on out-ofschool hours activities and supports music-making, not listening.
By 2002, NFYM had awarded over £12 million in grants to 501 groups, not including grants via the Youth Music Action Zones. These Zones aim to provide music-making opportunities to children and young
people in areas of social and economic need; there are 20 Zones in all. Other projects include:
• Youth Music and Schools, supporting music-making in schools out of school hours. Schools must work in partnership with at least one other organisation.
• Come and Play is a partnership with Kids Club Network to develop music-making for primary age children via out of school clubs and holiday play schemes.
Review of Music Conservatoires, HEFCE Conservatoires Advisory Group, chaired by Sir John Tooley, HEFCE, 1998
9.6 Young people learning music Various studies have been carried out to determine numbers of young people who are learning an instrument, who they are, what their motivation is and why some of them give up.
The FMS (see above) has estimated that in England and Wales, around half a million children are learning an instrument through IMS tuition; there are others who learn only through private lessons. The ABRSM survey of pupils aged between 5 and 14 in the UK followed on from other surveys in 1993 and 1996 - children were surveyed directly, but the report gives no details of sample sizes, or the methods of
selection. It found the following:
Percentages of children aged 5-14 playing a musical instrument:
1993 45% 1996 41% 1999 41% The survey identified an ‘age effect’ in the playing of musical instruments. The table below shows that numbers playing between ages 11 and 14 had declined from 48% in 1996 to 40% in 1999, although there was in increase in 5-7 year olds playing instruments. It was noted that if a child had not started playing an instrument by the age of 11, it was unlikely that s/he would start at all.
Table 9:3 – Ages of children playing music instruments 5-7 8-10 11-14 Source: ABRSM Making Music 2000 The study also identified children playing musical instruments by social grade.
Table 9:4 - Children playing musical instruments, by social “grade” AB C1 C2 DE Source: ABRSM Making Music 2000 The effects of social grade appeared to have declined somewhat in determining whether a child would learn an instrument. In 1999, there were less ABs learning, but more in social grades C2 and DE. This may be the result of increased opportunities at school, but it is also possible that the academic pressures on all children fall particularly heavily on those in the higher social grades, restricting the time they have available for leisure activities.
Children were asked how they decided to play a musical instrument. Most (62%) replied that it was their own decision, with 28% claiming they were influenced by a teacher and only 16% by a parent or guardian. The most popular instrument with children in 1999 was the recorder (46% played), followed by electronic keyboard (23%), piano (19%), classical guitar (12%) and violin (6%).
– page 57 Counting the notes – the National Music Council report on the economic contribution of the music business Children were asked where they took their lessons. The numbers learning in school only had increased from a low point in 1996, perhaps due to increased availability, while numbers learning with a private teacher only had declined.
Table 9:5 - Where do children learning musical instruments take lessons? (%) School only Private teacher only School and private teacher Source: ABRSM Making Music 2000 The survey also asked about those who had ever taken lessons, comparing this with those who are currently taking lessons. This showed that 49% of children were currently taking lessons, compared to 44% in 1996 and 42% in 1993. The percentage who had ever taken lessons was stable, at 72% in 1993, 74% in 1996 and 73% in 1999. This appears to show that the ‘drop-out rate’ in 1999 had declined.
Children who had stopped taking lessons were asked why they did so. The most common reasons were
It is significant that 22% of the reasons given relate to lessons becoming unavailable and 15% of the reasons given relate to having lack of time to devote to learning music.
The reasons why children stop learning to play an instrument were studied in Young People and Music Participation Project (Susan O’Neill, Unit for the Study of Musical Skill & Development, Keele University, 2001). The study concentrated on a group of pupils in Year 6 (last year primary school), following their progress into Year 7 (first year secondary). It sought to answer the question, why, when so many young people are given opportunities to learn musical instruments, so many either refuse or engage for a brief period before abandoning them.
Numbers who had music lessons, played in a school orchestra or with a group outside school had declined. The percentages for those playing an instrument alone or in class at school were more complex. Those never playing had increased, but those playing sometimes or not very often had also increased, while those playing frequently had declined, appearing to indicate that frequent players were,
9.7 Examinations for private pupils Pupils, mostly children, are entered and prepared for national music examinations by instrumental music teachers. These are mainly practical examinations although there are also theory examinations. They are not compulsory, although most teachers choose to enter students. The Louise Gibbs study of private music teachers (see above) showed that 89% of the teachers surveyed entered their pupils. In 2001, the ABRSM, which is by far the largest examining board in the UK (the most recent estimate available, for 1998, was that it had 80% of the market) received in excess of 570,000 entries for its examinations.
These entries came from all over the world, and include practical, theory and diploma examinations.
There are 601 examiners and the fees range from £20 to £51.
Based on the average examination fee for UK students, the total consumer spending on music examinations in 2001 is in the region of £8.4 million via ABRSM. Value added for UK examinations is estimated at £6 million.
The Government’s Music & Ballet Scheme (recently renamed the Music & Dance Scheme to reflect the fact that it also supports students in dance disciplines other than classical ballet) provides means-tested aided places for children, eight and older, who demonstrate outstanding talent. The scheme helps parents with fees and boarding costs at four specialist independent schools in England (Chetham’s School of Music in Manchester, Purcell School in Hertfordshire, Yehudi Menuhin School in Surrey and Wells Cathedral School in Somerset). Each school has its own entry requirements; competition for places is conducted through entrance examinations, auditions and interviews. The total cost of the scheme in 2000/01 was £11.1 million. 749 students were given places in all, 497 of them music students. This derives a cost of £14,845 per student, giving a total cost for the support of the music students of £7.4 million.
9.9 Military music schools
Kneller Hall, in West London, is the Royal Military School of Music, where Army band participants are trained. According to information provided by the Ministry of Defence, the cost of maintaining Kneller Hall was £2.6 million in 2000/1. Average student population was about 100, consisting of 23 student bandmasters and 80 Foundation course members.
9.10 Higher education and music conservatoires
There are a number of independent conservatoires which specialise in providing musical training. Most
are now under the auspices of the Higher Education Funding Councils for England, Scotland and Wales:
the Royal Academy of Music, Royal College of Music, Royal Northern College of Music, Trinity College of Music, Royal Scottish Academy of Music and Drama and the Welsh College of Music and Drama. In addition, there are the Guildhall School of Music and Drama, funded by the City of London, and the National Opera Studio, a postgraduate institution jointly funded by contributions from the main opera companies and the Arts Council of England. Most universities also provide courses in music. The conservatoires focus primarily on training performers though there is increasing emphasis in other employment prospects for musicians, such as teaching and education work. University degrees in music include a variety of career options including music performance, composition, management, and other paths.
The 1998 Tooley Report noted that university music departments had expanded in the previous decade, with undergraduate numbers doubling between 1985/86 and 1995/96, and postgraduate numbers more than doubling. The Report contrasts this with downsizing at the conservatoires, stating that university music departments accounted for around three-quarters of the output of undergraduate music degrees.
The table above shows continued growth in music student numbers at all HEFCE supported institutions, including both universities and conservatoires, with total numbers increasing by over 17% between 1996/7 and 1999/2000.
The total cost to the Funding Councils of maintaining the six conservatoires in 1999/2000 was almost £22 million, which represented about half of their total income, the remainder of which comes from tuition fees, research grants, endowment and investment and a range of other commercial activities38.
No statistics are published for numbers of staff teaching music in universities. Conservatoires employ 100 full-time and 500 part-time teaching staff39; some of whom must however be employed as drama teachers at RSAMD and the Welsh College of Music and Drama. HESA are able to provide figures for university and conservatoires teaching staff who have a higher qualification in music, and it seems reasonable to suppose that they are teaching within music departments. These total 690 full-timers and 415 part-timers; this is estimated as 898 full-time equivalent staff. Based on the mid-point of the salary scale for a lecturer in higher education, this suggests an estimate of £21 million for value-added.
Full-time Part-time Total
Full-time Part-time Total All students Source: Students in Higher Education Institutions 1999/2000 A recent survey by the Musicians’ Union (Orchestral Research Final Report) of players in the four major London orchestras and the contract orchestras showed the importance of the UK conservatoires in the training of orchestral musicians. Over 40% had trained at the Royal Academy of Music and the Royal College of Music. 6% had trained overseas (it is not known how many of these players were British),
while 15.6% had trained at university:
This slightly overestimates spending on music, as the Royal Scottish Academy of Music and Drama and the Welsh College of Music and Drama also train drama students.
The study found that 46% of the musicians had a postgraduate qualification and 22% had gained this abroad.
9.11 Professional musicians – further training and role in education A musician’s training does not usually end with a first or postgraduate degree. A report by the Musicians’ Union (Orchestral Research Final Report) surveyed musicians in the four major London and contract orchestras to clarify the position on training and development. A third of the respondents had undertaken some period of further training since leaving college and 39% had received training from their orchestra.
While the respondents felt that they had had a good musical training, many expressed a desire for further career development through training in other skills, particularly in the education work they were expected to undertake in addition to performing.