«COUNTING THE NOTES The economic contribution of the UK music business A report by the National Music Council – November 2002 Preface This is the ...»
This type of work is now a part of the orchestral musician’s career. A now rather dated report on British orchestras and education (Mapping the Field, Phyllida Shaw, Association of British Orchestras, 1996) studied the work of 30 orchestras. Two-thirds of them described their education work as constituting a continuous programme, and a further 31% ran regular but not continuous programmes. Schools were the most usual clients, but there were many others, including community groups, residential homes and the general public. The activities undertaken included “composition projects, multi-artform projects, projects involving more than one school, instrumental coaching, introduction to the orchestra sessions, preconcert talks, coaching and masterclasses, residencies, performances with and without participation, work experience placements, in-service training for teachers and producing written or video guidelines on different types of work with orchestras”.
9.12 Overseas earnings and payments
Although music education in the UK is primarily intended for UK residents, there are some activities within education that lead to overseas earnings and payments. Many overseas students take examinations set by UK examining boards. On the basis of information supplied by ABRSM, income from these students is estimated to be £9.2 million. There is no equivalent outflow.
Overseas students also come to the UK to study at universities and conservatoires. Table 9.8 shows that there were almost 2,000 such students in 1999/2000. Based on average tuition fees for undergraduates and postgraduates and taking into account the fact that students from other EC countries are partly funded by the UK government, the income to the UK from these students is estimated to be £6.2million.
Of course, UK students also go abroad to study, particularly at postgraduate level (see above). There is no information on how many UK student study abroad; therefore it has not proved possible to calculate the resulting outflow.
Teachers in schools Private music teachers Higher education Examinations Total
School music services Private teaching Examinations Total
As has been noted elsewhere the music industry has been quite narrowly defined for the purpose of this report. Whilst our definition does include music education and musical instruments, it does not attempt to bring in data from some important industries which depend substantially on music, such as radio, discotheques and audio hardware. Some of the economic significance of the music industry relates to the manner in which it interacts with these related sectors.
In the notes that accompany the tables summarising data on key economic parameters, attention is drawn to areas in the music industry where robust economic information is not available. Where there are gaps in data sources, estimates have generally been made by the research team after discussions with organisations operating in the sectors, drawing also on figures included in A Sound Performance from 1999, the last complete analysis of the economic significance of the industry.
(a) Estimates of the earnings of musicians/writers are split between the different sectors to which they relate.
(b) Figures for the retailing and distribution of musical instruments are the estimates used in “A Sound Performance”.
(c) This includes managers’ total earnings from music not just from live performance.
(d) “Others” represents an estimate of musicians’ income from other sources not included elsewhere, such as merchandising, sponsorship, TV fees etc and of artists’ earnings in the opera sector where no reliable data are available.
Given the nature of the music industry and in particular the employment status of musicians, whose earnings from recording, live music, composing and other sources form a large proportion of the sector’s value added, it is difficult to assess the sector’s value added with any real precision. The sectors where the data are more robust are those of the recording and music publishing corporate sectors where analysis based on the examination of detailed published accounts is possible. The approach adopted here for estimates of musicians’ earnings has been based on an examination of overall macro cost structures in the relevant sectors. There is detailed accounts-based analysis available to highlight the exceptionally high earnings of a number of UK musicians/writers in the rock and pop sector (Dane - Rock Accounts 1999) but this does not give a reliable indication of average overall earnings/value added.
10.2 Expenditure on music
The definition of total expenditure on music in the UK economy, in line with national accounting definitions includes indirect taxes such as VAT and excludes subsidies and grants. It is calculated by aggregating the key components of such expenditure which are consumer spending, spending by public and private corporations and public sector spending, including Arts Council and local authority expenditure.
(a) In the absence of new data, the A Sound Performance figures are included for these sectors.
Within the estimates of consumer expenditure, the two largest figures are both taken from wellestablished sources of data. These are 1) expenditure on new music recordings, primarily compact discs, and 2) expenditure on new musical instruments. Given also that the pop and rock live admissions figure is also based on an extensive industry survey, the overall industry total of £4,076m for 2000 is considered a reliable estimate of the sectors covered and suitable for direct comparison with the Sound Performance net estimate of £3,181m for 1997. Contributing to the 28% overall increase in consumer spending was a 17% increase in spending on sound recordings and a 35% rise in purchases of new musical instruments.
Table 10:3 - Estimated private corporations expenditure on music - 2000 Section reference Notes £m
(a) Source PPL 2000 Annual Report and Accounts (b) Including pubs, clubs, restaurants and holiday camps; see Section 4.5.1 (c) “Others” represents an estimate of a number of categories of payments for which no robust data are available. It includes payments by advertisers and film companies for the use of musical performances and compositions and also corporate sponsorship of music. In the last category the Art & Business survey, “Business Investment in the Arts 2000/01” disclosed music sponsorship of £10.9m and opera sponsorship of £8.3m.
(a) Based on 2000/1 accounts. This represents the minimum expenditure, as not all spending on music is identifiable as such in the accounts. A notional percentage for opera is included to represent the ACE grant to the Royal Opera House. There are also some significant omissions: it is not possible to identify the proportion of this grant that goes to the South Bank Board, for example.
(b) In A Sound Performance, Lottery grants were not included in public expenditure on music as they were assessed as mostly capital. However, we include here the annual grant of £10m to the National Foundation for Youth Music.
(c) This is the figure for 1996/7 – the latest available for local authority grants to music organisations. See note (e).
(d) This represents the central government grant to music services – additional expenditure by local authorities is unknown. In addition, this figure is for England only. See note (e).
(e) This figure represents an allowance for government expenditure on music services in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, and local authority expenditure on music services throughout the UK.
No reliable and complete published data on overseas earnings and payments are available outside of the composition/music publishing and recording sectors though estimates have been included for nonclassical live performance. It is not viable accurately to estimate overseas earnings and payments for the education, live classical and theatrical or musical instrument sectors thus they have been excluded from the table. Additional information, where available, is included in the relevant sections.
Notwithstanding the lack of complete data the above table does highlight the three sectors’ substantial positive net contribution to the balance of payments, though the surplus of £435m is substantially less
10.3 Employment numbers Within the UK music industry, as the table below highlights, the sectors employing the greatest numbers
of people are:
(a) Musicians are included within the live sector as opposed to dividing them between the various other sectors such as recording and composition.
As with all previous surveys related to the music industry it has proved very difficult to generate a robust estimate of the number of full-time-equivalent employees in all of the various sectors, including employees in the public education sector! Whilst the numbers employed by substantial companies in the recording and music publishing sectors, and those teaching music full-time within the state education system can be ascertained with a high degree of accuracy, no study has really come up with a satisfactory estimate of the number of full-time equivalent musicians. This is primarily because most musicians are self-employed and many are engaged in a number of economic activities both within and outside the sector. Thus for example there are both thousands of individuals in semi-professional bands operating on the live circuit who also pursue near full-time occupations elsewhere, and those who combine live performances or recording with the provision of private musical tuition. With no new compelling data on the subject, our estimate of the number of full-time-equivalent musicians in the nonclassical sector has been lowered from the figure of 35,000 used in the two previous NMC reports, The Value of Music and A Sound Performance to 26,000 which is the total number (31,000) of members in the Musicians’ Union, less an estimate of 5,000 of such members already classified within the live performance classical and music theatre sector. Given the use of various estimates within the total, comparisons with previous estimates contained in the reports above are not that meaningful.
Sources used Section 2 British Academy of Composers & Songwriters – Analysis of membership Mechanical Copyright Protection Society – Annual Reports & Internal Data Media Research Publishing – Music Publishing Companies Accounts Analysis 2002 Music Publishers’ Association – Members’ Survey 2000 National Music Publishers’ Association – International Survey of Music Publishing Revenues (11th Edition 2002) Performing Right Society – Annual Reports & Yearbooks and Internal Data
Music Industries Association (2002) Signposts to Success: Year 2000 UK Retail Sales of New Musical Instrumental Music Products. West Horsley, Surrey: Music Industries Association Music Industries Association unpublished data Office for National Statistics (2001) Product Sales and Trade (PRA 36300) Musical Instruments 2000.
London, HMSO Office for National Statistics (2002) Family Spending: a report on the 2000/2001 Family Expenditure Survey. London, ONS Office for National Statistics (2001) PA1003: Commerce, Energy & Industry: Size Analysis of UK Businesses. London, HMSO Section 4 British Tourism Authority Concert Promoters Association – Survey of Members 2000 DCMS International Tourism Office, Paul Blaker Laing & York (2000) The Value of Music in London. Cultural Trends Issue 38 Mean Fiddler Group – Prospectus 2001 National Arenas Association – 2001 Members’ Survey National Arenas Association – Music Concert Research 2000 Performing Right SocietyVenues’ Expenditure on Live Performance Pollstar – Annual Summaries of North American Tours Scottish Arts Council/Scottish Tourist Board (2000) Culture and Tourism in Scotland. Edinburgh: Scottish Arts Council Association of British Orchestras (2002) Knowing the Score 2. London: Association of British Orchestras Shaw P & Allen K (2001) Festivals Mean Business. London: British Arts Festivals Association Association of Festival Organisers, Steve Heap.
Association of British Orchestras (2002) Knowing the Score 2. London: Association of British Orchestras
Society of London Theatre/Lidstone G & Stewart-David M (2002) Box Office Data Report 2001. London:
Society of London Theatre Opera & Music Theatre Forum (2001) Opera for Now: a profile of Opera and Music Theatre Companies in Britain. London: Opera & Music Theatre Forum Dwinfour P, Joy A & Jermyn H (2001) A statistical survey of regularly and fixed term funded organisations based on performance indicators for 1999/2000, Statistics Report 4. London: Arts Council of England British & International Music Yearbook 2002. London: Rhinegold Publishing Chartered Institute of Public Finance & Accountancy (2001) Leisure & Recreation Statistics 2000/1 Estimates. Croydon: IPF Selwood, S (2001) The UK Cultural Sector: profile and policy issues. London: Policy Studies Institute
Arts Council of England (1996) A Statistical Profile of the Professional Drama Sector in England. London: