«COUNTING THE NOTES The economic contribution of the UK music business A report by the National Music Council – November 2002 Preface This is the ...»
Managers of rock and pop artists such as Brian Epstein (The Beatles), Peter Grant (Led Zeppelin), Marcus Russel (Oasis), Simon Fuller (Spice Girls and S Club 7) and many others play an important role in shaping and developing their clients’ careers. Their activities obviously extend beyond the live sector but are most closely affiliated with this area of work. Professional managers are often the interface between the artist and record companies, music publishers, tour promoters, merchandisers and professional advisors, and they can command gross commission rates typically of 15%-20% of artists’ earnings. There has been a trend in recent years for increased professionalism among music managers which can be illustrated by the growing size and status of the Music Managers Forum (MMF).
Additionally, an increasing number of substantial companies have emerged in the sector, such as The Firm and Sanctuary Management, but most UK management companies are small and medium sized enterprises. Estimates by the MMF suggest that there are approximately 160 full-time UK managers who employ staff with perhaps a further 150 others, controlling significant acts, who are micro-businesses.
This would tend to support an estimate of a total of perhaps 1,000 people engaged in pop and rock management, including the personal staff of major artists. In estimating the value added of the sector, a reasonable estimate would be around £130m being 10% of the figure of total artist earnings.
Amongst the difficulties in determining the number of venue staff who are engaged in the music industry is the problem of categorisation within industries. Thus whilst all of the part and full-time staff at a permanent music-only venue would reasonably be considered to be working in the music industry it is not so easy to categorise staff in venues such as arenas which also stage non-music events or those employed in bars, pubs or clubs which have a music bias but who are probably better categorised as employed in the pub business. The live music industry is also one where, particularly at major outdoor festivals, the vast majority of staff are part-time, and who could according to their function be classified as forming part of the security or catering operations instead of the music industry.
Significant employers within the music venue business, such as the Mean Fiddler Group and Clear Channel Entertainment UK disclose employee numbers. These figures are not straightforward however, and it is difficult to extrapolate their figures to gain an overview of the sector as a whole. (The most recent published estimate of employees in the sector is probably that contained within The Value Of Music (1996) which allocated 5,000 full-time equivalent employees to its estimate of 110 music venues with an audience capacity in excess of 1,000, 2,000 to smaller venues and 4,000 to large-scale tours and
Concert promoters play a key role in the live music sector. As the individuals and companies responsible for organising major concerts (and assuming the risks of the ventures), they work closely with bands’ tour agents, management and venue owners. The Concert Promoters Association (CPA) has 33 members representing most of the important players in the market, though numbers employed exclusively in promotion are relatively small and are estimated as 300 people creating £30m value added.
(a) estimated from the total number of musicians in the Musicians Union (31,000) less an estimate of 5,000 classified within the next chapter (b) includes managers’ employee numbers and value added from all activity not just the live sector.
The British & International Music Yearbook 2002 lists 222 professional symphony and chamber orchestras and 946 ensembles in the United Kingdom. It is likely that the majority of these function on an occasional or part-time basis.
The Association of British Orchestras (ABO), the trade association representing professional orchestras, has a membership of 61, including all the UK’s major orchestras; its most recent research, Knowing the Score 2 provides a statistical analysis of professional orchestral life in the UK. 34 orchestras provided data on the number of concerts produced or played during the research season, 1999-2000. In Table 5.1, ‘Own promotions’ refers to concerts promoted by orchestras themselves, and ‘hired engagements’ to concerts promoted by others, for which the orchestra would receive a fee. Details of numbers attending were not available; orchestras sometimes keep records of attendance of their own concerts but do not normally keep records of attendance for hired engagements.
The latest available figures for orchestras in England only are from the Arts Council of England for the research period 1999/2000. Included are the four London symphony orchestras, English regional contract orchestras (both detailed below) plus the London Sinfonietta. These ten gave a total of 1,184 concerts to a total audience of 1.12 million during the 1999/2000 season.
Table 5:1 – Concerts by ABO members (base 34 respondents) Total orchestral concerts by type, 1999/2000
Home concert promotions Schools orchestral concerts Total own promotions UK hired engagements Total UK concerts Overseas concerts Total Source: Knowing the Score 2, unpublished data
London is home to the London Philharmonic (LPO), the London Symphony (LSO), the Philharmonia and the Royal Philharmonic Orchestras (RPO). These four are “self-governing” in that the players are selfemployed freelance musicians who work through contracts to each orchestra and who are responsible for the orchestras’ governance. The London orchestras receive substantial funding from the Arts Council of England but also must raise significant support from corporations and individuals. These orchestras give most of their concerts in central London. The LPO shares a residency at the Royal Festival Hall with the Philharmonia and in the summer the LPO is in residence at Glyndebourne Festival Opera. The LSO maintains a residency at the Barbican Centre, receiving significant financial support from the Corporation of London. In addition to London concerts and Glyndebourne, these orchestras maintain residences in Knowing the Score 2, 2002, Association of British Orchestras. 41 of the 61 orchestras queried responded to the ABO’s survey, although not all provided full information.
A Statistical survey of regularly and fixed term funded organisations based on performance indicators for 1999/2000, 2001. Paul Dwinfour, Alan Joy & Helen Jermyn, Arts Council of England.
The LSO was the UK’s first independent, self-governing orchestra.
These four orchestras undertake recordings. Two orchestras report a total of 44 recordings in 1999/2000 and a third 96 recording sessions. The LSO started its own record label, LSO Live, and recorded 7 live concerts during the 1999/2000 season. All orchestras are involved in recording music for films and one recorded music for computer games during the year.
The turnover for the four orchestras in 1999/2000 was in excess of £27.4 million, of which £5.9 million came from public subsidy and £2.8 million from partnerships, sponsorships, and corporate and private donations. Expenditure for the four orchestras on staffing costs totalled 8%.
If the BBC Symphony Orchestra is included (see below for details), London has more professional symphony orchestras than any other city in the world.
There are 7 regional contract orchestras where players earn an annual salary: Bournemouth Symphony Orchestra, City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra, Hallé Orchestra, Northern Sinfonia, Royal Liverpool Philharmonic Orchestra (RLPO), Royal Scottish National Orchestra, and Ulster Orchestra. All except the Northern Sinfonia) are symphony orchestras and are funded by their respective Arts Councils and, to varying degrees, by local authorities. They also seek and receive funding support from corporations and individuals.
Although most of the regional contract orchestras’ activities are centred around their respective cities and regions, they also tour throughout the UK. Only three orchestras played abroad during the year. The regional contract orchestras record less than the London symphony orchestras; five made a total of 14 studio recordings and the RLPO made an additional five recordings for its own record label, which was started during the year.
The seven orchestras recorded a total turnover of £31.9 million during the year. Public funding totalled £17 million but this included nearly £3.2 million of “one-off” funding through the Arts Council of England’s Stabilisation fund; this is Lottery expenditure designed to secure the financial position of major arts organisations. Local authority funding for all seven of the regional orchestras averaged 9% of turnover.
5.1.3 Freelance chamber orchestras
There are over 200 hundred professional chamber orchestras listed in the UK, although only a minority are regularly active. These orchestras are funded in a variety of ways with some entirely dependent on income from operations and others in receipt of substantial public funding. Just over a half of the chamber orchestras included in the ABO’s survey were based in and around London, with the rest spread throughout the UK. The majority of chamber orchestras perform regularly at a “home” venue, though some also tour extensively. 10 chamber orchestras had performed abroad during the year and 11 orchestras had made a total of 27 recordings.
Their activities were very diverse. In total, 53% of their activities was in the form of UK engagements (ie the orchestra was hired by a promoter), 20% consisted of activities promoted by the orchestra itself, 18% was work overseas and 9% was recordings and broadcasts.
According to responses reported in the ABO’s report, Knowing the Score, freelance chamber orchestras had a total income of £11.8 million. Public subsidy of these orchestras amounted to £3.3 million while partnership, sponsorship and donations amounted to £2.1 million. The balance of the freelance chamber orchestras’ income came from orchestral operations - engagement fees, touring income, box office income etc. Most of these orchestras are managed with only a few staff, some working part-time.
– page 25 Counting the notes – the National Music Council report on the economic contribution of the music business 5.1.4 Period instrument orchestras Period instrument orchestras are managed and run similarly to freelance chamber orchestras, but are distinguished by their period playing style. There are comparatively few of these orchestras: five are members of the ABO and four responded to the survey for Knowing the Score 2. Three out of the four respondents are based in London where they mainly perform. Although UK touring is not particularly strong, foreign touring is a strong feature of period orchestras. In 1999/2000 these orchestras made a total of 9 recordings and 24 live radio broadcasts.
Turnover for the four period instrument orchestras that responded to the ABO’s survey, amounted to £8.14 million with public subsidy of less than 3%. Foreign earnings accounted for 29% of their turnover and partnership; sponsorship and donations totalled about 36% of income. Like the chamber orchestras, staffing levels are low.
The BBC has employs five orchestras: BBC Concert Orchestra, BBC National Orchestra of Wales, BBC Philharmonic, BBC Scottish Symphony Orchestra, and BBC Symphony Orchestra. This distinctive group is funded by the BBC and the players are full time employees.
The BBC orchestras provide output for BBC Radio and television; all their work is broadcast on BBC Radio 2 and 3. The BBC orchestras appeared in 71 venues during the year and at 17 festivals. The BBC Proms also feature the orchestras, with just under 40% of all Proms concerts performed by them. The
predominance of the BBC orchestras on BBC Radio 3 is shown below:
Table 5:2 – Broadcasts of orchestras by type (2000) Type of orchestra Percentage of broadcasts
In addition, four of the BBC orchestras made at least one overseas tour during the year. The total turnover of the five BBC orchestras is £25.7 million of which just under £12.6 million (48%) is core subsidy from the BBC. The BBC National Orchestra of Wales also receives a subsidy from the Arts Council of Wales. The remainder of is made up of £8.9 million from broadcasting and recording and £3.6 million from other operations. The BBC employs a similar number of staff to other symphony orchestras, although some administrative and technical staff are not treated as direct employees of the orchestras.
Knowing the Score 2 reported that the 39 orchestras which responded to the survey employed a total of 391 full-time and 77 part-time staff in administrative and related areas. These figures are generally similar to research conducted in the ABO’s Knowing the Score 1 research project. The most recent estimates available on the numbers of players in orchestras are from A Sound Performance (1999). Numbers of players were estimated at 540 for 6 of the 7 regional contract orchestras, while for the four London symphony orchestras playing staff was estimated at 382, and for BBC orchestras at 400.
Knowing the Score, July 2000, was published as Association of British Orchestras and ABO Trust research into the statistical dimensions of the UK orchestral sector. Research conducted by Emc.Arts / Institute for Cultural Policy & Practice formerly The Bay Group, UK.
The following table contains an estimate of orchestras’ incomes. The total income for all orchestras is estimated at £105.2 million in 1999/2000.
Table 5:4 - Orchestras' income in 1999/2000, by orchestra type Total income (£m) Operating income (£m) Grants (a) (£m) Development (£m)