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«CROSS CULTURAL THEORY AND MODELS This attachment contains a variety of internet based texts, regarding cross cultural management with an emphasis on ...»

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North American managers primarily focus on achieving results within five years. Their long-term plans cover 5-10 years. In addition, employees hired in North America normally have from a few weeks to a couple of years to prove that they'll be successful. Employees who are unsuccessful in that time frame are normally asked to find another job or simply fired. In contrast, Japanese firms are more likely to hire employees with the intention of having a life-long employee.

In Summary...

Managers must work with and through others in order to be effective. However, the most effective way to work with and through others really depends on the cultural norms of the parties involved to a great extent. People from different national cultures have different expectations for how a person should act.

Note Hofstede used the terms "masculinity versus femininity" rather than "achievement versus quality of life." However, other authors and I believe the terms "achievement" and "quality of life" are less confusing.

Sources Kreitner, R. & Kinicki, A. (2001). Organizational behavior, (5th ed.). New York: Irwin McGraw-Hill.

Luthans, F. (2002). Organizational behavior, (9th ed.). New York: Irwin McGraw-Hill.

Putting a foreign accent on Southern hospitality: Savannah readies itself for G8 summit. CNN.com, posted May 17, 2004, accessed May 28, 2004.

http://www.cnn.com/2004/TRAVEL/05/15/g8.savannah.ap/index.html Culture Dimension Toolbook

Contents:

1. Ronen & Shenkar’s Country Clusters

2. Implications of Hofstede’s Dimensions

3. Inglehart’s Human Values and Beliefs The following materials augment culture dimension information provided in the text. The first section provides Hofstede’s review of the implications of his measures, while the remainder provides country scores for various alternative culture dimension frameworks.

1. Ronen & Shenkar’s Country Clusters Simcha Ronen and Oded Shenkar developed a set of country clusters from a variety of culture research projects conducted through the early 1980s. Hofstede’s project was important among these. While most scholars and residents of the nations in these country clusters recognize that there is considerably variability within each one, they provide a preliminary rough sense of what to expect in a given part of the world.

2. Implications of Hofstede’s Dimensions This first section provides tables in which Geert Hofstede summarizes research results that explain the implications of his culture dimensions. I find these tables helpful since implications of the dimensions are sometimes not evident from their labels. Also, research sometimes indicates that they have implications that one would not expect.

3. Inglehart’s Human Values and Beliefs Ronald Inglehart has been working in political science to study various work and non-work values. His data come from broad household samples in many nations.

1. Ronen and Shenkar’s Country Clusters

–  –  –

Countries in each cluster:

Nordic (Finland, Norway, Denmark, Sweden), Germanic (Austria, Germany, Switzerland), Anglo (United States, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, United Kingdom, Irelnad, South Africa), Latin European (Portugal, Spain, Italy, Belgium, France), Latin American (Colombia, Peru, Mexico, Chile, Venezuela, Argentina), Far Eastern (Thailand, South Vietnam, Indonesia, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, Philippines, Malaysia), Arab (Abu-Dhabi, Oman, Bahrain, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia), and Near Eastern (Turkey, Iran, Greece)

Nation clusters taken from Ronen, S. (1986). Comparative and multinational management. New York:

John Wiley & Sons and from Ronen, S. & Shenkar, O. (1985). Clustering countries on attitudinal dimensions: A review and synthesis. Academy of Management Review, 10, 435-454. Hofstede dimension data taken from: Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

2. Hofstede’s Culture Dimensions Key differences between small and large power distance societies.

I: general norm, family, school, and workplace

–  –  –

Hofstede, G. (1991). Cultures and Organizations. New York: McGraw Hill, p. 37.

Key differences between small and large power distance societies.

II: politics and ideas

–  –  –

Table Key differences between collectivist and individualist societies.

I: general norm, family, school and workplace Collectivist Individualist People are born into extended families or other Everyone grows up to look after him/herself and ingroups which continue to protect them in his/her immediate (nuclear) family only exchange for loyalty Identity is based in the social network to which Identity is based in the individual one belongs Children learn to think in terms of ‘we’ Children learn to think in terms of ‘I’ Harmony should always be maintained and direct Speaking one’s mind is a characteristic of an confrontations avoided honest person High-context communication Low-context communication Trespassing leads to shame and loss of face for Trespassing leads to guilt and loss of self-respect self and group Purpose of education is learning how to learn Purpose of education is learning how to do Diplomas increase economic worth and/or selfDiplomas provide entry to higher status groups respect Relationship employer-employee is perceived in Relationship employer-employee is a contract moral terms, like a family link supposed to be based on mutual advantage Hiring and promotion decisions take Hiring and promotion decisions are supposed to be employees’ingroup into account based on skills and rules only Management is management of groups Management is management of individuals Relationship prevails over task Task prevails over relationship Hofstede, G. (1991). Cultures and Organizations. New York: McGraw Hill, p. 67.

Key differences between collectivist and individualist societies.

II: politics and ideas

–  –  –

Hofstede, G. (1991). Cultures and Organizations. New York: McGraw Hill, p. 73.

Key differences between feminine and masculine societies.

I: general norm, family, school, and workplace

–  –  –

Hofstede, G. (1991). Cultures and Organizations. New York: McGraw Hill, p. 96.

Key differences between feminine and masculine societies.

II: politics and ideas

–  –  –

Hofstede, G. (1991). Cultures and Organizations. New York: McGraw Hill, p. 103 Key differences between weak and strong uncertainty avoidance societies I: general norm, family, school, and workplace

–  –  –

Hofstede, G. (1991). Cultures and Organizations. New York: McGraw Hill, p. 125 Key differences between weak and strong uncertainty avoidance societies.

II: politics and ideas

–  –  –

“Figure 1 shows where each of the 43 societies examined here falls on the two main dimensions of cross-cultural variation, which are linked with the process of “Modernization” and “Postmodernisation” respectively. These two broad dimensions reflect most of the key values examined in the 1990 World Values Survey. Since hundreds of questions were asked in these surveys, it would not be feasible to compare the values of all 43 publics on each topic separately.

Figure 1 compares the orientations of these publics on two important dimensions that sum up the cross-national variation on scores of narrower values.”

These two dimensions tap:

Traditional authority vs. Secular-Rational authority. This dimension is based on a large number of items that reflect emphasis on obedience to traditional authority (usually religious authority), and adherence to family and communal obligations, and norms of sharing; or, on the other hand, a secular worldview in which authority is legitimated by rational-legal norms, linked with an emphasis on economic accumulation and individual achievement.

Survival values vs. Well-being values. This reflects the fact that in post-industrial society, historically unprecedented levels of wealth and the emergence of the welfare states have given rise to a shift from scarcity norms, emphasizing hard work and self-denial, to postmodern values emphasizing the quality of life, emancipation of women and sexual minorities and related Postmaterialist priorities such as emphasis on self-expression.

“Figure 1 sums up an immense amount of information. It is based on the responses to scores of questions, given by more than 60,000 respondents in 43 societies. There is a great deal of constraint among cultural systems. The first two dimensions that emerge from the principal components factor analysis depicted in Figure 1 account for fully 51% of the cross-national variation among 43 variables! Additional dimensions explain relatively small amounts of variance. And these dimensions are robust, showing little change if we drop some of the items, even high-loading ones.” Inglehart et al. (1998). Human Values and Beliefs: A Cross-Cultural Sourcebook: Political, Religious, Sexual, and Economic Norms in 43 Societies: Finding from the 1990-1993 World Values Survey. Ann Arbor: The University Of Michigan Press, p.14-15. The values shown in the Table indicate the

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