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«Metropolitan City Finances in India: Options for A New Fiscal Architecture Roy Bahl International Center for Public Policy Working Paper 12-33 ...»

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 A particularly difficult issue will be how to stem the tide of demands for city-state status, e.g., Kolkata, Chennai, Hyderabad, Bangalore, and others. Most large urban areas in India probably feel discriminated against and many would see this new governmental arrangement as a way to reduce the flow of money from their tax base to support services provided elsewhere. Others may argue for a change in their governance status in order to capture rents. In countries where the fiscal architecture has been changed dramatically, subnational governments have succeeded in changing their status in order to gain some advantages from the intergovernmental transfer system. Indonesia is an example.

(Hofman and Kaiser, 2003)

2526 International Center for Public Policy Working Paper Series

 The cost of government might increase with the creation of state level cities, at least in the initial period. For example, a “residual “state of Maharashtra would be smaller and with less expenditure responsibility, so it should be able to reduce government employment and overhead. But such costs are sticky downward. On the other hand, a new city- state might increase its spending dramatically to address a backlog of unmet needs, but the cost increases might be held back by the requirement of more selffinancing.

CONCLUSIONS

While revenues do not match expenditure needs at any level of Indian government, a particularly critical problem has emerged in the case of large cities where infrastructure is inadequate and promises to grow more so with expected high rates of migration. In recent years, the federal government has recognized the urban government finance problem with programmatic assistance and policy advice, but state governments have been slow to follow this lead. It would be fair to say that a coherent strategy for metropolitan finances has not been implemented. The approach continues to be one of muddling through with various policies that have independent effects at the margin, rather than with a comprehensive strategy that involves a fundamental change in the fiscal architecture.

The implementation of a comprehensive metropolitan fiscal strategy is a possibility for India, but it would be politically difficult and would involve some costs that might be unacceptable on social as well as economic grounds. Such a strategy would have the objective of making the metropolitan cities more financially self-sufficient, and giving them more control over their budgets. It might have three legs: redrawing metropolitan government boundaries, assigning more revenue raising powers to metropolitan governments than to other local governments, and limiting transfers to metropolitan governments to those that are designed to address externalities and equity concerns.

Metropolitan City Finances in India: Options For A New Fiscal Architecture 27 In many respects, India operates as a traditional federalism with state governments controlling the fiscal powers of third tier local governments. While municipalities have been empowered in terms of their expenditure responsibilities, there has been little movement by state governments to implement a strategy that would give them more budgetary self-sufficiency.

Some large metropolitan areas could be converted to city-states, i.e., be given state government status. This would create a taxing district that is roughly coterminous with the labor market area, and the metropolitan government would have access to all state government tax bases and user charge bases. Revenue raising powers would be extended to include all present state government taxes.

Independence in revenue raising powers would be extended to motor vehicle taxes and various forms of development charges, and the metropolitan local government would have freedom to raise user charges to whatever rate they chose. The revised JNNURM would grow in size and be the major intergovernmental transfer in the revenue system.

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Note: Data reported are unweighted averages for the 2000s for years in which data are reported.

a. The number in parenthesis shows the number of countries included in the comparison.

Metropolitan City Finances in India: Options For A New Fiscal Architecture 29 REFERENCES Bahl, R. W., and J. F. Linn. 1992. Urban public finance in developing countries. New York: Oxford University Press.

Bahl, Roy, Johannes Linn and Deborah Wetzel, editors (forthcoming). Financing Metropolitan Cities in Developing Countries (Cambridge Mass: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy) Bahl, Roy (forthcoming). “The Decentralization of Governance in Metropolitan Areas” in Financing Metropolitan Cities in Developing Countries, ed. By Roy Bahl, Johannes Linn and Deborah Wetzel (Cambridge Mass: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy).

Bahl, Roy (2010). “Financing Metropolitan Areas” in Local Government finance:

The challenges of the 21st Century, Second Global Report on decentralization and Local democracy (Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar).

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Indian Cities. World bank Policy Research Working Paper 4863, (Washington DC:

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Bird and F. Vaillancourt eds, Perspectives on Fiscal Federalism. WBI Learning Resources Series (Washington, DC: World Bank), pp. 177-96.

Boadway, Robin W. and Anwar Shah (2009) "Fiscal Federalism," (Cambridge University Press).

Estache, Antonio (2010) “Infrastructure Finance in Developing Countries: An Overview,” EIB Papers, 15 (2): 61-88.

Freire, Maria E. (forthcoming). “Slum Upgrading” in Financing Metropolitan Cities in Developing Countries, ed. By Roy Bahl, Johannes Linn and Deborah Wetzel (Cambridge Mass: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy).

Garg, Subash Chandra (2007). “Overview of Urban Infrastructure Finance in

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India” in in Financing Cities, ed. by George Peterson and Patricia Annez (Washington: The World Bank) pp 108-157.

Glaeser, E. and Gottlieb, J. (2009). “The Wealth of Cities: Agglomeration Economies and Spatial equilibrium in the United States” The Journal of Economic Literature, 47 (4), pp 983-1028.

Hashim, S.K. (2009). “ Economic Development and Urban Poverty” in India: Urban Poverty Report (New Delhi: Oxford University Press), pp. 3-27.

High Powered Expert Committee For Estimating the Investment Requirements for Urban Infrastructure Services (2011). Report on Indian Urban Infrastructure and Services (Delhi: Government of India) Hofman, Bert and Kai Kaiser (2003). “What explains the creation of new regions in Indonesia?” Mimeo, World Bank, 2003.

Hofman, Bert and Kai Kaiser (2004). “The Making of the “Big Bang and its Aftermath: A Political Economy Perspective” in Reforming Intergovernmental Fiscal Relations and the Rebuilding of Indonesia, edited by James Alm, Jorge Martinez-Vazquez and Sri Mulyani Indrawati (Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar) pp 15-46.

Ingram, Gregory, Zhi Liu, and Karin Brandt (forthcoming) “Metropolitan Infrastructure and Capital Finance” in Financing Metropolitan cities in Developing

Countries edited by Roy Bahl, Johannes Linn and Deborah Wetzel, (Cambridge:

Lincoln Institute of land Policy).

Linn, Johannes (2010). “Urban Poverty in Developing Countries: A Scoping Paper for Future Research” Wolfensohn Center for Development at Brookings (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution).

Martinez-Vazquez, Jorge (forthcoming). “Local Non-Propoerty Tax Revenues” in Financing Metropolitan Cities in Developing Countries, ed. by Roy Bahl, Johannes Linn and Deborah Wetzel (Cambridge Mass: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy).

Metropolitan City Finances in India: Options For A New Fiscal Architecture 31 Mathur, Om (2006). Impact of the Constitution (74th) Amendment Act on the Urban Local Bodies: A Review, working Paper (Delhi: national Institute of Urban Affairs).

McKinsey Global Institute (2010). “India’s Urban Awakening: Building Inclusive Cities, Sustaining Economic Growth” (London: McKinsey & Co.).

Mohan, Rakesh and Shubhagato Dasgupta (2004). Urban Development in India in the 21st Century: Policies for Accelerating Urban Growth, Working Paper 231, Stanford University.

Mohanty, P.K., B.M. Misra, Rajan Goyal, and P.D. Jeromi (2007). “Municipal Finance in India: An Assessment”, Study No. 28. Development Research Group, Department of economic Analysis and Policy (Mumbai: Reserve Bank of India).

OECD (2006). “Competitive Cities in the Global Economy”, OECD Territorial Reviews.

Oommen, M.A. 2000. Eleventh finance Commissions’s Transfer system and the Local Bodies: A Critique” ISS Discussion Paper Series 6, (Delhi: Institute of Social Sciences).

Pethe, Abhay (forthcoming). “Metropolitan Public Finances: The Case of Mumbai” in Financing Metropolitan cities in in Developing Countries edited by Roy Bahl, Johannes Linn and Deborah Wetzel, (Cambridge: Lincoln Institute of land Policy).

Rao, M. Govinda and Richard M. Bird (2011). Coping wth Change: the Need to restructure Urban Governance and Finance in India, IMFG Papers on Municipal Finance and Governance, No. 4, (Toronto: University of Toronto), Rao, Govinda (2009). “Fiscal Federalism in India – Trends and Reforms” in Decentralization Policies in Asian Development ed. by Shinichi Ichimura and Roy Bahl (Singapore: World Scientific Press) pp 107-140.

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Rao, U. A. Vasanth (2008). “Is Area-Based Assessment an Alternative, an Intermediate Step, or an Impediment to Value-Based Taxation” in Making the Property Tax Work, edited by Roy Bahl, Jorge Martinez-Vasquez, and Joan Youngman, (Cambridge: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy) pp241-306.

Rao, V.M. Rama (2009). “Basic Services for the Urban Poor: Innovative Actions and Interventions” in India: Urban Poverty Report (New Delhi: Oxford University Press), pp. 222-237.

Singh, D.P. (2009). “Poverty and Migration: Does Moving Help?” in India: Urban Poverty Report (New Delhi: Oxford University Press), pp. 50-75.

United Nations (2008). World Urbanization Prospects: The 2007 Revision, Economic and Social Affairs (New York: United Nations).

Yusuf, Shahid (forthcoming). “Metropolitan Cities: Their Rise, Role and Future” in Financing Metropolitan Cities in Developing Countries, ed. By Roy Bahl, Johannes Linn and Deborah Wetzel (Cambridge Mass: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy).

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