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«Abstract We explore which financial constraints matter the most in the choice of becoming an entrepreneur. We consider a randomly assigned welfare ...»

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Banerjee, Abhijit V, and Esther Duflo. 2008. “What is Middle Class about the Middle Classes Around the World?” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 22(2): 3–28.

Banerjee, Abhijit V., and Sendhil Mullainathan. 2010. “The Shape of Temptation: Implications for the Economic Lives of the Poor.” National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc NBER Working Papers 15973.

Banerjee, Abhijit V., Esther Duflo, Rachel Glennerste, and Cynthia Kinnan.

2009. “The miracle of microfinance? Evidence from a randomized evaluation.” J-PAL Working Paper.

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Collins, Daryl, Jonathan Morduch, Stuart Rutherford, and Orlanda Ruthven.

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de Mel, Suresh, David McKenzie, and Christopher Woodruff. 2008. “Returns to Capital in Microenterprises: Evidence from a Field Experiment.” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 123(4): 1329–1372.

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Dupas, Pascaline, and Jonathan Robinson. 2009. “Savings Constraints and Microenterprise Development: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Kenya.” National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc NBER Working Papers 14693.

Gertler, Paul, Sebastian Martinez, and Marta Rubio-Codina. 2006. “Investing cash transfers to raise long term living standards.” The World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 3994.

Gin´, Xavier, and Dean Yang. 2009. “Insurance, credit, and technology adope tion: Field experimental evidence from Malawi.” Journal of Development Economics, 89(1): 1–11.

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Naud´, Wim. 2010. “Entrepreneurship, developing countries, and development ecoe nomics: new approaches and insights.” Small Business Economics, 34(1): 1–12.

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Skoufias, Emmanuel, and Vincenzo Di Maro. 2008. “Conditional Cash Transfers, Adult Work Incentives, and Poverty.” Journal of Development Studies, 44(7): 935–960.

Zinman, Jonathan, and Dean Karlan. 2009. “Expanding Microenterprise Credit Access: Using Randomized Supply Decisions to Estimate the Impacts in Manila.” Economic Growth Center, Yale University Working Papers 976.

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300 250 200 150 100 50

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Note: This figure shows per-child monthly transfers an eligible household is entitled to receive as a function of the grade and the gender of the child. Amounts are expressed in current Pesos as of the second semester of 1998 and they have been increased over time in order to adjust for inflation.

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Number of Obs 78115 76560 15464 15148 Pseudo R-squared 0.034 0.128 0.02 0.13 Number of Localities 505 501 450 445 Note: This table reports probit marginal effects of the program on the probability to become entrepreneur. * denotes significance at 10%; ** significance at 5%; *** significance at 1%. Standard errors are clustered at the village level. Baseline control variables include age, age squared, years of education, gender, income (labor and other sources), households’ demographics, assets (land and animals), welfare index (score) and villages’ main economic activity, agricultural shocks, crop diversification and share of entrepreneurs.

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Number of Obs 16966 17094 12630 8744 Pseudo R-squared 0.055 0.056 0.056 0.054 Number of Localities 492 492 488 480 Note: This table reports probit marginal effects of the program on the probability to become entrepreneur. * denotes significance at 10%; ** significance at 5%; *** significance at 1%. Standard errors are clustered at the village level. Baseline control variables include age, age squared, years of education, gender, income (labor and other sources), households’ demographics, assets (land and animals), welfare index (score) and villages’ main economic activity, agricultural shocks, crop diversification and share of entrepreneurs.

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Number of Obs 32988 33036 30863 10441 15219 10763 R-squared 0.152 0.120 0.030 0.020 0.032 0.051 Number of Localities 494 495 495 488 488 483 Note: This table reports OLS estimates of the program on labor earnings (column 1), non-food expenditures (column 2), food consumption (column 3), hours worked (column 4), days worked (column 5) and on the probability to be engaged in a second paid occupation (column 5). * denotes significance at 10%;

** significance at 5%; *** significance at 1%. Standard errors are clustered at the village level. Baseline control variables include age, age squared, years of education, gender, income (labor and other sources), households’ demographics, assets (land and animals), welfare index (score) and villages’ main economic activity, agricultural shocks, crop diversification and share of entrepreneurs.

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Number of Obs 53195 53195 15996 17584 15617 35333 R-squared 0.038 0.094 0.079 0.006 0.009 0.081 Number of Localities 503 503 481 497 497 497 Note: This table reports OLS estimates of the program on the probability to be engaged in carpentry (column 1), handicraft (column 2), agricultural expenditures (column 3), animal stocks (column 4), agricultural production (column 5) and land owned or used (column 5). * denotes significance at 10%; ** significance at 5%; *** significance at 1%. Standard errors are clustered at the village level.

Baseline control variables include age, age squared, years of education, gender, income (labor and other sources), households’ demographics, assets (land and animals), welfare index (score) and villages’ main economic activity, agricultural shocks, crop diversification and share of entrepreneurs.

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Note: This figure shows non-parametric estimates (based on Local Linear Regression Smoothers) of the effect of current and future transfer amounts on the probability to become entrepreneur.

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