«Terms in context: A corpus-based analysis of the terminology of the European Union's development cooperation policy Judith Kast-Aigner Abstract This ...»
Whereas some of the terminological domains arise naturally from the data on closer inspection, there are also multi-word units that appear hard to classify for they do not seem to fall into any particular category. Moreover, word clusters may also relate to more than one domain, making classification a somewhat delicate and difficult task. Considering that decisions may not always be clear-cut and the categories are simply meant to provide a broad overview of the topics covered in the underlying texts, the aim is to arrive at a set of terminological domains that cover all word clusters identified in the corpus.
In this example, the word clusters of Lomé I have been classified into nine terminological domains, each of which characterises a specific topic of the Convention. While these domains cover more than 90 per cent of the clusters, a few multi-word units defy categorisation and are therefore combined and labelled as Other. Table 4 lists the terminological domains of the Lomé I corpus.
The word cooperation represents one of the most frequent and stable words used by the Community in the area of development cooperation. While the word cooperation per se has endured various generations of Conventions, the adjective collocations connected to cooperation, indicating different types of cooperation, have changed considerably over time. Table 5 illustrates the adjectives that co-occur with the noun cooperation in the various subcorpora at least five times.
Although Part Four of the Treaty of Rome, setting up the Association of the European colonies, was the predecessor of the Conventions of Yaoundé and covered the same elements, viz.
trade and aid, the word cooperation was not mentioned at all. Only in Yaoundé did the word cooperation appear, mainly in connection with technical cooperation and financial and technical cooperation. The latter was used as the official term to refer to the provision of financial resources by the Community and included, inter alia, activities in the field of general technical cooperation. While technical cooperation appeared both within financial and technical cooperation and as an independent term, financial cooperation did not exist.
Various forms of cooperation were mentioned throughout Lomé I and II, referring to familiar as well as new concepts. For example, industrial cooperation and administrative cooperation represented completely new subjects of the Community's development cooperation
- 149 Judith Kast-Aigner Articles / Aufsätze Fachsprache | 3–4 / 2009 policy. The concepts ‘trade cooperation’, ‘regional cooperation’ and ‘interregional cooperation’ had existed before, yet they had not been labelled as such. The most frequently used collocations were again technical cooperation and financial and technical cooperation.
In Lomé III, the concept ‘interregional cooperation’ was subsumed into the concept ‘regional cooperation’. Agricultural cooperation, both the term and the concept, was not a novelty of Lomé III, but gained in importance and visibility since it was dealt with more extensively in a separate section. The term acp-eec cooperation was introduced, representing a somewhat general way of referring to the relations between the Community and the ACP group. Strangely enough, Lomé III was the first of the Conventions to actually mention the term development cooperation, which probably best describes the purpose of the agreements. In the framework of the Lomé Conventions, the terms acp-eec cooperation and development cooperation can be considered synonyms. While acp-eec cooperation indicates the participating groups of countries, development cooperation accentuates the objective of their joint efforts.
The key change in Lomé IV was the fact that the term financial and technical cooperation was replaced with development finance cooperation. Development finance cooperation included technical cooperation, which still existed as an independent term, and the provision of financial resources. Although development finance cooperation was coined only five years later than development cooperation, the two terms seem to belong together and complement each other. Development cooperation, i.e. cooperation aimed at the development of the ACP States, has to be supported by development finance cooperation, i.e. financial and technical assistance, to make development possible.
Several forms of cooperation have been abandoned under Cotonou. The term development finance cooperation has been maintained, its key elements being technical cooperation and the provision of financial resources. While the former has always been part of the Community's terminology in this field, the latter is increasingly being referred to as financial cooperation.
The aim of this article has been to illustrate the use of corpora in order to identify and explore terms and concepts. Based on the terminology that the EU has created and used in the field of development cooperation, it is meant to show how a corpus-based approach can be adopted in a diachronic analysis of the terminology in a particular field. A corpus-based approach to terminology has been chosen for it is considered to offer several advantages over traditional, paper-based approaches. In fact, the idea of looking at terms in a variety of contexts assists in gathering information about and developing an understanding of the concepts involved.
While the application of WordSmith tools to generate key words and word clusters can be considered standard practice, the analysis is enhanced by the establishment of terminological domains, which represents a useful way of organising and structuring terms. The investigation of corpora from different time periods facilitates the identification of terminological and conceptual changes and helps to account for the historical background as well as potential ideological forces at work in order to explain linguistic phenomena. •
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