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«PHILIPP KOROM & JAAP DRONKERS Last update 12 October 2009 Paper presented at the invited workshop ‘Nobility in Europe during the 20th Century: ...»

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8. Conclusions The first two hypotheses are supported by our analyses. The percentage of nobles in the Austrian economic elite is above-average in comparison with the nobles in the total Austrian population. Bute the age and other individual characteristics of nobles in the Austrian economic elite do not deviate from those of the non-nobles in the Austrian economic elite in such a way that one could consider nobles as residuals of a former Stand.

Hypotheses three to five were rejected by our data. There does not exist a significant concentration of nobles within the banking sector. Noble ranks are irrelevant as a stratifying device within the Austrian economic elite and finally nobles in the Austrian economic elite do not form an informal network.

Walterskirchen is correct in her judgement that being of the Austrian nobles gives an advantage to entry into the Austrian economic elite. We show that the same socio-economic advantages exist for the Austrian nobility as has been found for the Dutch, German and French nobilities (Schijf, Dronkers & Broeke-George 2004;

Dronkers 2008; Saint Martin 1993).

But Walterskirchen is wrong that the descendants of the Austrian nobles form an informal class (informeller Stand) in the sense of Saint Martin (1993, 13-17). There is no significant concentration in an economic sector, noble ranks are irrelevant and we could not find an informal network among these nobles within the Austrian economic largest firms. The persistence of the ancienne régime (Mayer 1981) is weak in Austria at the start of the 21st century, nearly 90 years after its breakdown.

We therefore propose an alternative explanation of this surviving noble advantage in Europe. In modern societies, the nobility no longer has the legal, political, economic or cultural means to maintain for themselves and their descendents a separate class or Stand. Nearly one century after the end of WW I the last remnants of that separate Stand have gone and the noble marriage homogeny is declining fast (although it is still significant higher compared to chance). But noble families have maintained a distinctive social and cultural capital (Wasson 2006), which is helpful in modern society for upward mobility or avoiding downward mobility. This distinctive social and cultural capital as an inherited characteristic of the descendants of the noble families can provide an additional positive selection-criteria in competitive selections for jobs and positions. Good manners, cultural knowledge, social relations, a wellknown family-name become advantages if all noble and non-noble competitors have enough basic qualifications (academic title, language knowledge, etc). Moreover, in a globalizing Europe, this distinctive noble social and cultural capital can be an additional advantage, because despite all 19th and 20th century nationalism, also among the nobility, noble families have maintained on average stronger international culture and ties (Dronkers, 2001).

In summary, the noble title as an indicator of a distinctive Stand is dead, but the noble social and cultural capital as a useful sociological characteristic is alive and well.

9. Literature Beckert, Jens. 2008. Inherited Wealth. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Binder-Krieglstein, Reinhard. 2000. Österreichisches Adelsrecht 1868-1918/19.

Vienna: Peter Lang.

15 Dronkers, Jaap. 2001. "Differences between and within urban and rural twentieth-century Dutch nobility." The Netherlands' Journal of Social Sciences 37:155-168.

Dronkers, Jaap. 2008. "Declining Homogamy of Austrian-German Nobility in the 20th Century? A Comparison with the Dutch Nobility." Historical Social Research / Historische Sozialforschung 33:262-284.

Firmenbuch (Austrian commercial register), November 2008.

http://www.bmj.gv.at/firmenbuch/index.php?nav=104 Giddens, A.1974.”Elites in the British Class Structure”. Pp. 1-21 in Elites and Power in British Society, edited by Philip Stanworth and Anthony Giddens.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hueck, Silve-Maria v. 2002. Gesamtverzeichnis der Bände 1-127 Genealogisches Handbuch des Adels. Limburg/Lahn: Starke.

Kadushin, Charles. 1995. "Friendship among the French financial elite ".

American Sociological Review 60:202-221.

Margreiter,Klaus. 2005. Konzept und Bedeutung des Adels im Absolutismus.

Florence: European University Institute. PhD thesis.

Mayer, Arno. J. 1981. The Persistence of the Old Regime, Europe to the Great War. New York; Pantheon.

Morawetz, Inge. 1985. "Personelle Verflechtungen zwischen Großunternehmen und Banken in Österreich. Ergebnisse einer Netzwerkanalyse." Österreichische zeitschrift für Soziologie 10:73-84.

Olscher, Werner. 1971. "Alles Recht geht vom Volk aus." Pp. 71-90 in Adel in Österreich, edited by Heinz Siegert. Wien: Kremayr & Scheriau.

Saint Martin, M. de, 1993. L'Espace de la noblesse. Paris: Éditions Métaillé.

Schijf, Huibert, Dronkers, Jaap & Broeke-George, Jennifer van den. 2004.

“Recruitment of members of Dutch noble and high-bourgeois families to elite positions in the 20th century”. Social Science Information 43: 435-475.

Siegert, Heinz. 1971. Adel in Österreich. Wien: Kremayr & Scheriau.

Stekl, Hannes. 2004. Adel und Bürgertum in der Habsburgermonarchie, 18. bis

20. Jahrhundert. Wien: Verlag für Geschichte und Politik.





Useem, Michael. 1984. The inner circle : large corporations and the rise of business political activity in the U.S. and U.K. New York: Oxford University Press.

Walterskirchen, Gudula. 2007. Adel in Österreich heute. Der verborgene Stand.

Wien: Amalthea.

Wasson, Ellis. 2006. Aristocracy in the Modern World. Basingstoke/New York;

Palgrave Macmillan.

Wessely, Kurt. 1971. "Vom Burgherrn zum Manager." Pp. 285-298 in Adel in Österreich, edited by Heinz Siegert. Wien: Kremayr & Scheriau.

Windolf, Paul. 2009. "Coordination and Control in Corporate Networks: United

States and Germany in Comparison, 1896-1938." European Sociological Review 25:

443-457.

Ziegler, Rolf. 1984. "Das Netz der Personen- und Kapitalverflechtungen deutscher und österreichischer Wirtschaftsunternehmen." Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 36:557-584.

Ziegler, Rolf, Bender Donald, and Hermann Biehler. 1985. "Austria Incorporated." Pp. 73-90 in Network of Corporate Power. A Comparative Analysis of

Ten Countries, edited by Frans N. Stokman, Rolf Ziegler, and John Scott. Cambridge:

Polity Press.

16Appendix I: names of nobles in Austrian economic elite

In appendix I names are listed of the nobles in the Austrian economic elite. It clearly shows that it is not only members of marginal nobility families who belong to the Austrian economic elite. Table 6 also proves that we have not be too generous in assuming that a person belongs to a likely noble family, and that thus our results are too conservative. The volume and page column show where we found the source in the Genealogisch Handbuch des Adels.

–  –  –

18 ORSINI ROSENBERG, Hubertus, DI (FH) Fürstliche Häuser, Band XI 197 PONGRACZ, Gerhard, PONGRATZ, Ingrid, Mag.

PONGRATZ, Alexander, Dipl.Ing.

PONGRATZ, Boris,

PRINZ ZU SAYN-WITTGENSTEIN -BERLEBURG,

Stanislaus, Fürstliche Häuser, Band XI 242 PROCHAZKA, Gerhard, QUAST, David, SCHAFFGOTSCH, Maximilian, Dr. Gräfliche Häuser, Band XIII 294 SCHLECHTA, Franz, SCHLECHTA, Robert, Ing.

SCHMIDT-CHIARI, Guido N. Dr.

SCHÖNBURG, Alfred, Dr.

SCHÖNFELDT, Carl Ludwig, Mag.

SCHRÖTTER, Christian, Mag.

SCHULENBURG, Ulrich, SEDLNITZKY, Christian, Dir. KR Mag. Dr.

SENARCLENS DE GRANCY, Regina, Mag.

SIXT, Frank, SIXT, Manfred, Bmst.Ing.

SPANNOCCHI, Hieronymus, Dr. Gräfliche Häuser, B, Band II 401 SPIEGELFELD, Benedikt, Dr. Gräfliche Häuser, Band XV 512 SPIEGELFELD, Markus, Dipl.Ing. Gräfliche Häuser, Band XV 513 STARHEMBERG, Georg, STEPSKI, Ulrich, Dr. Adelige Häuser, B, Band XIII 399 STERNBERG, Filip, Dr Gräfliche Häuser A, Band VI 407 STIEGLITZ, Christian, Mag.

TAXIS, Fritz Thurn und, THUN-HOHENSTEIN, Matthäus, Mag.Dr.

THUN-HOHENSTEIN, Felix, THURN UND TAXIS, Friedrich, Dkfm.

THURN UND TAXIS, Alfonso, THURN-VRINTS, Georg, Ing. Fürstliche Häuser, Band VII 431 TRAUN, Karl, UCKERMANN, Volker, Ing.

VETTER VON DER LILIE, Georg, Dr. Gräfliche Häuser, Band XVI 595 VEYDER-MALBERG, Constantin, Mag. Freiherrliche Häuser, Band XVI 543 VON ASPERN, Dieter, VON BÜLOW, Constantin Harald Joachim, VON DER THANNEN, Johann, VON FINCK, August, VON GABAIN, Alexander, Dr VON GUTZEIT, Reinhart, Univ.-Prof.

VON HARTLIEB, Marion,

–  –  –

Appendix II. Names of the firms which have nobles as members of the Vorstand, the Aufsichtrat or the Geschäftsführung 3M Österreich Gesellschaft m.b.H.

Academia Scientiarum et Artium Europaea Privatstiftung Allgemeine Sparkasse Oberösterreich Bankaktiengesellschaft Allianz Elementar Versicherungs-Aktiengesellschaft Almaviva Privatstiftung Alpenländische Heimstätte, gemeinnützige Wohnungsbau- undSiedlungsgesellschaft m Aon Jauch & Hübener Gesellschaft m.b.H.

ARAC GmbH

A-TEC INDUSTRIES AG

AUSTRO-MECHANA Gesellschaft zur Wahrnehmung mechanisch-musikalischerUrheberrecht Autobetriebe Ges.m.b.H.

AvW Invest AG Bank für Tirol und Vorarlberg Aktiengesellschaft Bank Gutmann Aktiengesellschaft Bank Sal. Oppenheim jr. & Cie. (Österreich) AG BAWAG P.S.K. Bank für Arbeit und Wirtschaft und ÖsterreichischePostsparkasse Akt BAWAG P.S.K. IMMOBILIEN AG BEGAS - Burgenländische Erdgasversorgungs - Aktiengesellschaft BKS Bank AG BMW Österreich Holding GmbH

BRAU UNION AG

BSH Hausgeräte Gesellschaft mbH B-Transport GmbH 20 Bucher-Catasta-Privatstiftung Bussetti & Co Gesellschaft m.b.H.

CAG Holding Gesellschaft m.b.H.

CAPITAL BANK - GRAWE GRUPPE AG

Caritas der Erzdiözese Wien (Caritasverband) Constantia Industries AG

CONSTANTIA PRIVATBANK AKTIENGESELLSCHAFT

DACA-Privatstiftung Danube Hotel-Betriebsgesellschaft m.b.H Deloitte Wirtschaftsprüfungs GmbH DIE ERSTE österreichische Spar-Casse Privatstiftung DLA PIPER WEISS-TESSBACH Rechtsanwälte GmbH DO & CO Restaurants & Catering Aktiengesellschaft DuPont Performance Coatings Austria GmbH Duropack Aktiengesellschaft EconGas GmbH EDUSCHO (Austria) GmbH Engel Holding Gesellschaft m.b.H.

Erste Group Bank AG Euromaster Reifenservice GmbH Familie Scheriau Privatstiftung Flughafen Graz Betriebs GmbH Flughafen Wien Aktiengesellschaft Foto-Röntgen-Video-Kino, Pongratz Handelsgesellschaft m.b.H.

funworld ag G. Coreth, Kunststoffverarbeitungsgesellschaft m.b.H.

Gemeinnützige Privatstiftung für Brustgesundheit General Logistics Systems Austria GmbH Generali Holding Vienna AG Gesellschaft für Bauwesen GmbH GetService-Flughafen-Sicherheits- und Servicedienst GmbH Grazer Wechselseitige Versicherung Aktiengesellschaft GS Privatstiftung GU Baubeschläge Austria GmbH.

GWS Produktion Handel Service GmbH Hagemeyer Austria GmbH Head Sport Aktiengesellschaft Hella Fahrzeugteile Austria GmbH Herba Chemosan Apotheker-AG Hirschmann Automotive GmbH Hitthaller + Trixl Baugesellschaft m.b.H.

Hotel Wimberger AG Hutchison 3G Austria GmbH Hypo-Wohnbaubank Aktiengesellschaft

INTERCELL AG

ISS Austria Holding GmbH JohnsonDiversey Austria Trading GmbH Josef Manner & Comp. Aktiengesellschaft Kapsch TrafficCom AG Kärntner Landesversicherung auf Gegenseitigkeit Kellner & Kunz Aktiengesellschaft Konservatorium Wien GmbH Kostmann Privatstiftung Leder & Schuh Aktiengesellschaft

LIEBHERR-HAUSGERÄTE LIENZ GMBH

Literar - Mechana Wahrnehmungsgesellschaft für Urheberrechte,Gesellschaft m.b.H.

M. & C. Oswald Privatstiftung M.T. Privatstiftung 21 MAHAVATO Privatstiftung Maschinenfabrik KBA-MÖDLING Aktiengesellschaft MAXIMS AS-Privatstiftung Mayr-Melnhof Holz Holding AG Mayr-Melnhof Karton Aktiengesellschaft MFE Vermögensverwaltung Privatstiftung Mosburger GmbH Niederösterreichische Versicherung AG ÖBB-Dienstleistungs Gesellschaft mbH Oberbank AG Oesterreichische Kontrollbank Aktiengesellschaft ONE GmbH OPTIMO Schlafsysteme Gesellschaft m.b.H.

Österreichische Beamtenversicherung, Versicherungsverein aufGegenseitigkeit Österreichische Elektrizitätswirtschafts-Aktiengesellschaft Österreichische Volksbanken-Aktiengesellschaft Österreichische Wohnbaugenossenschaft gemeinnützige registrierteGenossenschaft m Ottakringer Brauerei AG Ottakringer Holding AG PAA Laboratories Gesellschaft m.b.H.

Panmedia Western Werbeplanung GmbH Plappart Privatstiftung Pongratz Bau Gesellschaft m.b.H.

PORKAR PRIVATSTIFTUNG

Procter & Gamble Austria GmbH Raiffeisen Versicherung AG Raiffeisen Zentralbank Österreich Aktiengesellschaft Raiffeisenbank Kleinwalsertal Aktiengesellschaft Raiffeisenbank Korneuburg Raiffeisenbank Pittental/Bucklige Raiffeisenkasse Orth a.d. Donau Raiffeisenregionalbank Wiener Neustadt RHI AG Ritter Privatstiftung S & T System Integration & Technology Distribution AG SCHOELLER-BLECKMANN Edelstahlrohr GmbH Securitas Sicherheitsdienstleistungen GmbH Sefra Farben- und Tapetenvertrieb Gesellschaft m.b.H.

SevenOne Media Austria GmbH SG-Privatstiftung Sparkasse Horn-Ravelsbach-Kirchberg Aktiengesellschaft St. Anna Kinderspital GmbH Steiermärkische Bank und Sparkassen Aktiengesellschaft STEPSKI Privatstiftung Synthesa Chemie Gesellschaft m.b.H.

T.C.R. Privatstiftung Tagesmütter Graz-Steiermark gemeinnützige Betriebs GmbH Telekom Austria Personalmanagement GmbH Trierenberg Holding AG Valtrini Privatstiftung Vogel & Noot Holding Aktiengesellschaft von der Thannen GmbH Vorarlberger Krankenhaus-Betriebsgesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung Wienerberger AG Windhager Zentralheizung GmbH Würth Handelsgesellschaft m.b.H.

22

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