«Annual Report 2011-2012 WaterAid in Madagascar WaterAid à Madagascar – Rapport annuel 2011-2012 Executive summary With the efforts of all the ...»
WaterAid à Madagascar – Rapport annuel 2011-2012
Annual Report 2011-2012
WaterAid in Madagascar
WaterAid à Madagascar – Rapport annuel 2011-2012
With the efforts of all the actors steps were taken to get the country out of the crisis in which it was locked in
for three years. This is evidenced by the signature of the road map and the implementation of its terms.
However, the reaction of some of the groups who signed the road map after the amnesty vote by the two parliamentary houses have displayed a continuation of the tension in the coming months. The negative impact of this crisis on the economy and society is beyond imagination. Per capita GDP has dropped cumulatively by about 7-8% between 2009 and 20111.
WaterAid Madagascar confirms its strategic position in the sector through the facilitation of the sector review, the preparatory phase and the presence of Madagascar at Africa San 3, the development of the National Action Plan for sanitation, the Global Assessment and Analysis of Sanitation and Drinking water process and the Sanitation and Water for All process. WaterAid Madagascar continues the management of the executive secretariat of Diorano-WASH and an active member of the group of technical and financial agencies, and the inter-ministerial committee for sanitation in Madagascar, recently formed by the government.
Through our direct partners in the rural area we were able to realize 172 community water facilities, 79 in schools, and 13 institutional facilities for 23,449 users; 37 school latrines and 2,279 for families (CLTS type), and institutional toilets were constructed for 32,509 people. Some of our intervention villages are more and more remote with well spread homesteads of only 4 to 5 houses in some cases. In addition, some of our municipalities of intervention are not safe and our partners had to abandon those places.
As regards the urban area, our partners have served 12,918 Washing is now easier ! Timing better planned, people through the realization of 61 water facilities in schools, isn’t it!
55 water booths for JIRAMA and 3 institutional taps in the Miandrivazo prison. 128,277 people have benefited from 23 school latrines. 7 other school latrines were constructed and 1,462 sandplat slabs sold. We were able this year to implement a new marketing approach for sanitation under WSUP Project in the suburbs of Antananarivo. That experience will be replicated in other urban municipalities in the next fiscal year. In other terms the successful completion of the process of renting the drinking water provision system in Miandrivazo has positively impacted our interventions in the urban and suburban areas this fiscal year.
The country program had joined the international campaign « Water Works » and carried out activities such as the launching of the flagship report « Off track- off target », the implementation of Sanitation and Water for All process and the celebration of World Days for water, toilets, and hand washing with soap.
Regarding administration, the Country Programme has updated the following policies: Accountant Manual, Human Resource Rules and regulations, and Health and safety. The salary survey by Birches at the international level will inform on the opportunity to review the scale of salaries. The team has benefited from team building and capacity building sessions during the fiscal year.
The Country Programme has realized 105% budget absorption and raised £ 207,649 in total.
1. General National context
The political crisis that has been undermining the country since January 2009 has not yet been resolved.
Under the aegis of SADC, the road map to take the Great Island towards a constitutional order, guaranteeing of international recognition and investments was signed despite difficulties displayed by 11 political groups on September 17, 2011. Based on the “Road map” the prime minister of consensus, Omer Beriziky formed by Decree no 2011-687 his government of “National union” with 35 members (including 9 women) on 21 November 2011 after tense negotiations between partisans and opponents to the transitional regime2. The High Council of the Transition and the Congress for Transition were expanded to include 11 political groups respectively by Decrees 2011-707 and 2011-708 on December 1, 2011. Given that the principal mission of the transition is the organization of elections the members of the Independent Electoral Commission for the Transition were sworn in on 12 March 2012 as per the terms of Article 29 of February1 2012 Law No 2012-004. Its members are from the civil society and the 11 political groups3. Despite all the progress made, the adoption of the amnesty law by the two houses of parliament on April 17, 2012 without the agreement of the Ravalomanana wing is a serious risk in the crisis resolution process.
Per capita GDP has dropped cumulatively by about 7-8% between 2009 and 2011. Now the support of donors is essential for funding public investment. They have contributed about one third during the same period despite the continuation of some humanitarian projects4. Given this, the budget for external investments still constitutes 74% of all investments as indicated in the 2012 Finance Law. The growth rate in 2011 was 0,7% compared with an initial 2,8% due to economic international recession and the unresolved national political situation. The level of public investments is reduced to 3,0% and that of private investments to 22,8%. The latter constitutes 25,9% of total GDP. The primary sector showed a negative growth rate of -2,3% whereas the secondary sector, with the influence of extractive industries forecast a slight growth of 2,7%. The tertiary sector has 2,1% growth based on the sectors of tourism and transport5.
Malagasy commercial balance records a 5777,4 million SDRs (Special Drawing Rights) gap in 2011 compared with 704,7 million in 2010.
In 2010, with 2.8% growth rate the population of Madagascar is estimated between 19.6 and 20.8 million people with 20% living in urban areas and 80% in the rural areas6. The 45 communes enumerated during the 2008 census record a demographic growth rate of 83% compared with about growth 48% for the entire country between 1993 and 20087.
Madagascar is ranked 151th out of the 187 countries that were studied and it has lost two points in terms of Human Development Index between 2009 and 2011: 0,483 to 0,480. The rough per capita income of Madagascar is 824 (2005 figure) according to $PPA (parity of purchasing power). The incidence of dimensional poverty is 66,9% in 2009, and 49,4% of the Malagasy population live in extreme poverty. The depletion of natural resources is 0,2% of the GNI (Gross National Income) calculated on the basis of the monetary value of energetic, mineral, and forest resource exhaustion. The total surface covered by forests has decreased by 7% between 1990 and 20088. Madagascar was hit by Cyclones Giovanna and Irina, making 110 000 victims with 27 deaths in 2012.
2. Overview of Drinking Water Supply, Hygiene, and Sanitation
The reorganization of the Ministry of Water was a key event of the fiscal year 2011-12. The new minister of water created two new departments in the ministry: Department of Development and Partnership and Department of Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation to strengthen the coordination within the sector. The ministry has also established 8 new regional departments for water, which brings to a total of 19 the number of regional and inter regional departments. The CP has now specific focal points for each issue with respect to water and sanitation and benefited from the presence of the ministry at local level.
To consolidate the results of the workshop on mapping organized in 2010, a workshop on monitoring and evaluation took place in May 2011. This workshop focused on all the practical experiences of actors in monitoring and evaluation. A monitoring and evaluation committee was formed as a result of this workshop. The committee worked on the first draft of the operating mode of monitoring and evaluation. In the same vein, UNDP was pursuing the development of master plans for water and sanitation issues, and the results were expected in November 2011.
After two years of interruption the sector review took place in October 2011. This review was also an opportunity for a baseline study of the sector during the last three years. One of the objectives of this review was also to lay out the outline of the National Program for Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation. The ministry of water has used the results of that review to formulate its sector orientation note that was distributed to all actors of the sector in January 2012. The ministry of water also did a mapping of all he interventions in the sector and defined priority zones based on low access rate to water and sanitation.
Under the impulsion of the Ministry of Water, UNICEF, and WaterAid, Madagascar had joined the “Sanitation and Water for All” process, the highlight of which was a high level meeting held in Washington on April 20, 2012.
For the implementation of the commitments made during Africa San 3 that was held in Kigali in July 2011, the Ministry of Water organized a workshop to draw a national plan of action for sanitation in January 2012.
That workshop was followed by the General Assembly of Diorano-WASH whose members renewed their trust in Herivelo Rakotondrainibe to lead the coalition for a two-year mandate.
In reference to financial laws, the budget allocated to the sector was reduced by 80% between 2008 and 2012 because of the socio political situation in the country. The budget allocated to the Ministry of Water went from 68 to 35 billion Ariary from 2011 to 2012, that is 17,5% million USD whereas the country would need 198 million USD in average per year to achieve the MDGs9 Based on the figures of the Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP), MDGs target in Madagascar in 2015 are respectively 68% for drinking water and 54 % for sanitation in the entire country. 2012 JMP report shows that Madagascar compared with her southern Africa neighbours stays way behind in terms of access to drinking water and shares with Democratic Republic of Congo the lowest ranking with 46% and 45% respectively. The same report shows an access rate of 15% to improved latrines in Madagascar which is the lowest ranking in Southern Africa with Mozambique.
3. Progress, targeted objectives, and indicators
Please see the first worksheet (Excel spreadsheet) for this information.
Please also see the second worksheet (entitled “SPIs”) in the supporting Excel spreadsheet.
4. Number of people benefiting from support and access to services, water quality tests, and renovated equipment The graphs below show that the CP has exceeded by 2% the initial total predicted number of users: 36367 compared with 35691 people. The reason is that the amount of money allocated to certain partners allowed them to set up additional hand washing facilities. As for the urban and pre urban program the completion rate of users’ access to drinking water is 99% (12918 compared with 13,062 initially forecast). The difference was due to JIRAMA delay in making the water booths operational under projects 661UK and 661UH.
9 Country Status Overview (CSO2) commissionné par Conseil des Ministres Africains en charge de l’Eau (AMCOW) et réalisé par le Programme Eau et Assainissement (WSP) de la Banque Mondiale, en collaboration avec la Banque Africaine de Développement (BAD), le Fonds des Nations Unies pour l’enfance (UNICEF), la Banque Mondiale et l’Organisation mondiale de la santé (OMS) en 2010 WaterAid à Madagascar – Rapport annuel 2011-2012 Under the rural program 23,449 people were able to have access to drinking water compared with 22,629 in the forecast. However, 7 projects out of 9 were actually able to reach their objectives. It should be noted that AMI was forced to close Project 661RI on its site of intervention for lack of community compliance.
In sanitation, the achievement rate is about 114% compared with midterm forecast that was 32,509 users out of the 28,827 initially forecast. For urban and suburban projects results were way beyond the targeted objective. 12,827 users could have access to toilets whereas we had planned to reach 7,853 people.. It was actually difficult to predict the exact user numbers for institutional toilets (school and health centers) due to our demand driven approach. With regards to the rural program 95% of predicted results were achieved, that is 19,682 users out of the 20,721 initially targeted. Because of insecurity reasons the Mihaingo team was unable to conduct activities appropriately. As soon as the community knew that the Mihaingo team would be leaving at the end of the fiscal year they never honored their commitment vis-à-vis CLTS.
Information on water safety
and sites under exploitation show a “low” risk level corresponding to scores 1 to 3. The main observations concerned fields of crops using chemical fertilizers upstream. Urgent actions will be undertaken by local stakeholders with the support of concerned partners to reduce those risks….
In other terms the 7 water sources show a minimal forecast flow rate which would be sufficient with regards to water needs of the populations beyond 15 years and 2 represent a minimal predicted flow rate just for 15 years. Concerned partners will support local stakeholders in increasing infiltration and retention capacity in recharging zones and also periodically following up and reporting on the evolution of water flow rate. The National Water Company, JIRAMA, supported us for the testing of water in the urban area.
Monitoring results of water quality on previous sites (FY2010/11) show that all sources and water sites under exploitation are potable. There is a neat increase in the characteristics of chemical parameters because of the protection of water catchment sites as indicated in the results of sanitation investigation.
Excel files in annex show details and archives are available in the project-program department at WaterAid Madagascar.
5. Programme progress
3. Program Progress