«Annual Report 2011-2012 WaterAid in Madagascar WaterAid à Madagascar – Rapport annuel 2011-2012 Executive summary With the efforts of all the ...»
661 NN The project contributed to exchanges on the interventions in urban areas by organizing a field visit at Mahabo that was focused on the management of household waste. The project sponsored the participation of representatives of WaterAid Madagascar at WASH Forum organized by WSSCC in Mumbai.
Concerning the Analamanga region the actions focused on the set up of an information center, the publication of an information bulletin, the development of a website and the facilitation of 2 workshops on good governance and transparency. Among other things brochures on the management of water and the GTF case-study were realized this year.
WaterAid à Madagascar – Rapport annuel 2011-2012 661 NE : 06 research activities were planned and 3 were completed and circulated. WaterAid and its partners have recruited 11 interns, 3 of which are from the university of Bordeaux, Columbia University, and England.
Project organizational effectiveness
661 ED: Regarding the monitoring of the contract the finance officer and budget holders collaborate to apply the monitoring requirements of donors. The country programme has updated policies related to procedures, security, and human resource. For the implementation of IT policies, WaterAid has supported direct partners for the funding of connection equipments and backup system. The 3 interns helped SEA department with the computerization of administrative tools.
11. Conclusions and recommendations WaterAid Madagascar continues to play its role as catalyst in the sector of water and sanitation through the facilitation of key events in the sector Workshop on the monitoring and evaluation system in the sector Preparatory phase and participation of Madagascar in Africa San 3 Sector review Diorano-WASH general assembly Organization of World Days for water, toilets, and hand washing with soap Workshop on the formulation of the national plan of action for sanitation At the end of the negotiations among USAID, WaterAid, and the members of Diorano-WASH, the latter finally entrusted WaterAid Madagascar with the management of the Executive Secretariat. The country programme was able to make use of opportunities that were offered by the launch of the flagship report « Off track-off target” at national and international levels appealing for more investment, revision of the system of targeting projects and programmes, and introduce good governance in the sector. The influencing activities of the organization were consolidated in policy dialogues such as the process Water and Sanitation for All and the preparation of the high level meeting and monitoring and evaluation of the sector such as Global Assessment and Analysis for Sanitation and Drinking Water the Joint Monitoring Programme WHO-UNICEF Concerning the supply of drinking water and sanitation, the country programme has demonstrated remarkable successes of the leasing system of water provision at Miandrivazo in collaboration with the Ministry of water and the commune. This shows evidence that publicprivate partnership is one of the solutions for the sustainability of the service and an upgrading of the system. Sanitation marketing that we developed in the suburban zones of Antananarivo for WSUP Project confirms that it is important to take the context into consideration to succeed in creating the demand and achieving a match between the offer and the capacity of the clients to pay.
WaterAid à Madagascar – Rapport annuel 2011-2012 In the rural area the problem of insecurity on the 3 sites of intervention has provided lessons for the choice of future intervention sites. We will also have to review the implementation of CLTS approach in the rural area to avoid discrepancies with the set up of water supply systems based on important subsidies for initial investments.
Despite the mobilisation of an amount of £ 207,649 the county programme was able to complete the fiscal year with funding deficit of about £103,172
For the next fiscal year the country programme will focus on the following strategies:
- Mobilization of funds to secure the implementation of the country strategy
- Planning for CLTS before starting water supply projects
- Empower the leadership of the Ministry of water by emphasizing sanitation, planning, monitoring and evaluation, and devolution
- Documentation of experiences in equity, inclusion, sustainability, small towns, and reconciliation of data
- Planning for the right to water and sanitation
- Consolidation of the social marketing approach
Sanitation marketing : for a sustainable access to sanitation products and services a. What was the situation before the intervention?
The first phase of the project for improving access to sanitation products and services in the intervention zones of WaterAid, mainly in the 4 suburban communes of Antananarivo was based on providing direct subsidy approach to very poor households.
But, when targeting sustainability and access of all to sanitation services the second phase was focused on the marketing approach to sanitation and was extended to 2 new suburban communes of Antananarivo where there was no subsidies targeting all categories of the population with no access to hygienic latrines. In addition, the challenge remains true access of the poor to the realizations, the will to acquire latrines and sustainability. In effect, without the support and permanent assistance from local facilitators the households that have received subsidies take time before constructing latrines and neglect their maintenance.
b. In a tangible manner and concretely, what changes has the intervention brought?
The market was able to create jobs for the community. 11 local operators have become makers of sanplat slabs and earning about 1500Ar/slab. 22 outlet tenants were interested to work with slab makers. 2 organizations in charge of managing revolving funds and hiring local facilitators - middlemen for facilitating the acquisition of latrines through the project targets. The facilitators work closely with resellers of slabs who earn 500 Ar/slab.
In average slabs about 10 slabs are sold per month c. How do we know things have changed? (Provide evidence) In the 2 new suburban communes of Antananarivo where no direct subsidy approach was practiced, change and marketing were growing faster than predicted whereas in the 4 old communes where subsidies were available slab sales are very slow and the adaptation to change is very difficult for the population. (1720 slabs sold in 6 months compared with 1463 in 12 month-intervention in the 4 communes mentioned above.) In the 6 communes where 11 slab makers work, 22 outlets and 2 organizations of local managers of the revolving funds were working together to facilitate the acquisition of latrines by poor households.
40 local facilitators work for those organizations. They collect applications for latrines. A strategy and effective communication plan were used to convince targeted people to buy slabs and build hygienic latrines. Several tools and materials such as commercials (radio and TV) posters, flyers and sending facilitators to outlet sites were used.
d. What are the distinguishing characteristics of this group? (For instance who were the stakeholders in this case: community, citizens as they relate to gender, disability, place of residence, cast origin, tribe, indigenous population, age, urban or rural setting, service providers, beneficiaries, rights, groups for mutual help, etc.) The first target groups of this project are the families that have no access to hygienic latrines or have no latrines at all. Those families represent all categories of people (very poor, average poor, average rich, and rich). The very poor and average poor are closely targeted by the project by determining their capacity to pay through the revolving funds. They can pay in 3 installments the amount of 15000 Ar for a slab. For the other categories of targeted families directly pay 12000 Ar at different sales points. But to make sure the project will be properly managed partnerships and collaborations are used with the local actors and authorities. For example the communes, the fokontany, public institutions and private ones (schools, basic health facilities) are greatly involved. Commune WASH committees composed of local actors have also participated in the sensitization of the populations.
e. What are the main reasons that explain why this group cannot benefit from the intervention?
(Think for example of the characteristics of the group in institutional, environmental terms or aspects related to their attitude or any other important reason) The main reason that prevents the targeted group from benefiting the project is poverty. The very poor and average poor families represent 38% of the total population (based on ECA 200- investigation).
They cannot build a latrine in a short time or purchase a slab for 12000 Ar cash from resellers. Their monthly average income is less than 15000 Ar. So, to support their behavior change effort they need help with an extension of the payment period so that they can acquire hygienic slabs.
f. Access to land and space is another obstacle because they need negotiations among neighbors and family members for the construction of hygienic family latrines
- The latrine technology being promoted is accessible to all categories of the population. It is adapted to all soil types on intervention sites. The cost is acceptable and accessible to other target groups. It is easy to be produced and sold locally.
- Local organizations that manage revolving funds have purposely been formed and trained to meet the needs of the target groups. The role of those associations is to provide easy payment conditions with a very low interest rate for poor families.
- The different members of the Commune WASH committee are mobilized for sensitization activities of the local population to hygiene and sanitation issues.
g. Estimation of the percentage the target group represents in the case study compared with the entire population of the Project area (0, 1 à 25 %, 26 à 50 %, 51 à 75 %, 75 à 99 %, 100%), This shows its proportion in the total population of the partner’s project.
The target population represents 51 to 75% of the total population of the partners’ project. According to the study conducted by the firm ATW in February 2011, in average, 67.5% of the population of the intervention commune does not have access to hygienic latrines. And, according to the investigation realized by ECA in 2009 the category of very poor population (Type I) and average poor (Type II) represents 38% of the total population on the site of intervention.
h. Estimation of the number of people who represent this group (percentage multiplied by the number of people in total), that is, how many people represent this group in the urban or rural project/programme zone so as to give an idea of the impact of this case study on the larger population.
The total number of the population in the 6 Communes is 44,114. Indeed, based on the percentage mentioned above 67.5% of the population do not have access to adequate sanitation; in other words 164,777 people. 92,763 of them are from poor and relatively poor which comprise 38% of the total population.
High Level Meeting, 20 April 2012 in Washington:
The missed opportunity for the Minister of water and the Minister of finance and budget of Madagascar i. What was the intervention?
Universal access to water and sanitation in Madagascar After launching the Diorano-WASH national campaign to strengthen the position of the water, sanitation, and hygiene sector in 2002, Madagascar naturally adheres to the partnership sanitation and Water for All (SWA) in 2011. It should be noted that Madagascar is one of the rare Sub-Saharan African countries with a very low access rate to drinking water (less than 45% in 2010) and the access rate to sanitation is 35,2% in 2010. Then, the Ministry of water, UNICEF, and WaterAid combined their efforts to mobilize all the local stakeholders to join in SWA vision of partnership.
The objectives of this partnership are:
increase the political prioritization for sustainable drinking water and sanitation services support planning of objectives, investment, accountability, and reliable supply systems improve the targeting and impact of resources for sustainable water and sanitation supply services support effective decision making to provide detailed information and evidence on drinking water and sanitation strengthen accountability between governments and development partners j. What tangible and specific evidence show the changes in life brought by the intervention ?
Thus Madagascar has put in place some milestones to helping them achieve SWA objectives, namely :
In October 2011 Global Annual Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking-Water (GLAAS) to which the country was committed with all the key actors including the Ministry of finance and budget.
In December 2011 and in a logic manner the SWA process to lead to the participation of Madagascar in the high level meeting of the Ministers of finance and of water on April 20 in Washington.
k. How do we know that change has occurred ? (Please provide the elements of proof)
1. An ad hoc committee was formed at the end of the launching workshop and the main assigned mission was successful completion of SWA process
2. In parallel, WaterAid team in Madagascar even supported the campaign Water Works through:
3. A series of solemn appeals for advocacy circulating the following message: “Water and Sanitation is a sine qua non for the development of the other sectors: health, education, environment, hotel business and tourism, hence the development of the country itself. More funding and support for the AEH policy.”
4. The production of a flashmob with the Scout project circulating the same message.
5. A media plan focused on artist Samoëla’s clip entitled “Raha fanjakana mahavoa (transl. A capable government must…) » accompanied by a live radio programme on Radio Antsiva “Ny Marina” involving WaterAid Representative.