«EXPLORING THE ROLE OF OFSTED IN DEVELOPMENT OF CREATIVITY SKILLS ON VOCATIONAL BUSINESS STUDIES COURSES IN FURTHER EDUCATION COLLEGES Jesvir Mahil ...»
The question remains however, who decides what is creative and what is not; and how do we measure the value of a new idea and therefore, how creative it is?
Is creativity individual or collective?
We began with a simple pragmatic definition of creativity, taken from Robinson (2011) stating that creativity is the process of generating original ideas that have value and took into consideration Csikszentmihalyi’s (2013: 27) concern that the value of these original ideas has to be judged by experts in the field and within the “domain which consists of a set of symbolic rules and procedures”. In Csikszentmihalyi’s view, the individual person is merely the third component of the creative system (the first being the domain and the second being the field). Robinson (2011) agrees that ”Creativity is about making connections and is usually driven more by collaboration than by solo efforts.” (Robinson, 2011: 211) Therefore, in a business curriculum, it seems fair to assume that creativity is collective rather than individual. An idea may seem highly original and valuable to the individual who generated it but in a business environment, the value of an idea is judged by those willing to buy it in some shape or form.
How important is the context in defining creativity?
An idea may be creative because it has value in one context, but in a different context, the same idea may have no value at all and therefore it would lack creativity (defined as a new idea that has value). For example, the price people are willing to pay for an idea, at any point in time, is an indication of its value, although the value may increase or decrease over time. So, the simple definition of creativity being the 6 process of generating original ideas that have value needs to be understood within the various dynamics of collaboration that create the context in which the idea emerges. An idea cannot be said to be of value unless someone, within a particular context in time, evaluates it as having value.
Summary A clear definition of the concept of creativity in a business context is necessary to enable teachers and students on vocational business studies courses to communicate more effectively, with a shared understanding of what is expected as an expression of creativity skills.
Although the most popular definitions of creativity include the concepts of originality and value, a systems thinking perspective takes a much broader view and defines creativity within a range of contextual factors including the characteristics and motivation of the creative person; the creative process, the creative product and the capacity of these elements to persuade the gatekeepers in our society to recognise the creativity. Csikszentmihalyi (2013) argues that if it is not recognised as being creative, can we really say that creativity occurred?
A definition of creativity based on the concepts of originality and value is a useful starting point. However, ‘what is original?’ and ‘what is valuable?’ are relative to the culture and context in which creativity is expressed. This paper has focused solely on one aspect within the definition of creativity; the creative person. There are various other aspects for example the creative process, the creative product and the capacity to persuade gatekeepers that must also be taken into consideration, in order to formulate a definition of creativity that is useful within a holistic, systems thinking way of seeing the world as proposed by Capra and Luisi (2014) References AMABILE, T. M. 1996. Creativity In Context: Update To The Social Psychology Of Creativity, New York, New York : Westview Press.
BANAJI, S. & BURN, A. 2010. The rhetorics of creativity : a literature review, Newcastle upon Tyne, Creativity, Culture and Education.
BARRON, F. 1969. Creative Person and Creative Process, UK, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.
CAPRA, F. & LUISI, P. L. 2014. The Systems View of Life: A Unifying Vision, UK, Cambridge University Press.
CHOE, I.-S. 2006. Creativity - A sudden rising star in Korea. In: KAUFMAN, J. C. & STERNBERG, R.
J. (eds.) The International Handbook of Creativity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
CSIKSZENTMIHALYI, M. 2013. Creativity: The psychology of discovery and invention, New York, HarperCollins.
DOWD, E. T. 1989. The Self and Creativity. In: GLOVER, J., RONNING, R. & REYNOLDS, C. (eds.) Handbook of Creativity. New York: Plenum Press.
GENOVARD, C., PRIETO, M. D., BERMEJO, M. R. & FERRANDIZ, C. 2006. History of Creativity in Spain. In: KAUFMAN, J. C. & STERNBERG, R. J. (eds.) The International Handbook of Creativity.
Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
HENNESSEY, B. 2004. The Social Psychology of Creativity: The Beginnings of a Multicultural Perspective. In: LAU, S., HUI, A. N. N. & NG, G., Y. C. (eds.) Creativity: When East meets West.
London: World Scientific Publishing Ltd.
KNELLER, G. F. 1965. The Art and Science of Creatvity, London, Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
LUBART, T. I. 1999. Creativity across cultures. In: STERNBERG, R. J. (ed.) Handbook of Creativity.
UK: Cambridge University Press.
MAHIL, J. 2013. The Complexity in Using Questions to Develop Creative Thinking Skills in Learners Doing BTEC Business Studies courses in Further Education Colleges. UK: Institute for Learning.
MAHIL, J. 2014. University of Birmingham Three Minute Thesis Final (2014): Jesvir Mahil.
MAHIL, J. 2016. The Seven Ps of Creativity [Online]. online: University for Life. Available:
http://jesvir.com/sevenpscreativity.jpg [Accessed 19 January 2016 2016].
MARTINDALE, C. 1989. Personality, Situation and Creativity. In: GLOVER, J., RONNING, R. & REYNOLDS, C. (eds.) Handbook of Creativity. New York: Plenum Press.
NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON CREATIVE AND CULTURAL, E. N. 1999. All Our Futures:
Creativity, Culture and Education. London: DCMS/DfES.
ROBINSON, K. 2007. Do schools kill creativity? In: ROBINSON, S. K. (ed.) TED Talks. YouTube.
ROBINSON, K. 2009. The Element: How finding your passion changes everything, New York, USA, Viking Penguin.
ROBINSON, K. 2011. Out of our minds, UK, Capstone Publishing Ltd.
STERNBERG, R. J. 2006. Introduction. In: KAUFMAN, J. C. & STERNBERG, R. J. (eds.) The International Handbook of Creativity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
STORR, A. 1972. The Dynamics of Creation, London, Secker and Warburg Ltd.
TARDIF, T. & STERNBERG, R. J. 1988. What do we know about creativity? In: STERNBERG, R. J.
(ed.) The nature of creativity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
THOMAS, G. 2011. How to do your case study, London, UK, Sage Publications Ltd.
Biography Jesvir Mahil taught for over thirty years, in London, Spain, Italy and the USA, with a large proportion of this career being in Further Education Colleges in the UK, teaching on vocational business studies courses for 16 to 19 year olds. She has inspected over 30 Further Education Colleges and Training Providers as part of the official Ofsted inspection process. www.jesvir.com