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«IF IT’S HEALTHY AND YOU KNOW IT, DO YOU EAT? HEALTH PROMPTS REDUCE PRESCHOOLERS’ CONSUMPTION Michal Maimaran Northwestern University Ayelet ...»

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health, which relies on actual fat and calorie content and complex implicit associations (Chandon and Wansink 2007a; Finkelstein and Fishbach 2010), develops at a later age. Therefore, among older children, who process information in a more complex manner (e.g., John 1999) acquire information differently (e.g., Peracchio 1992), and might rely less on taste when making food decision due to higher self-control, we may find different results.

Marketing Implications To conclude, our findings contribute to the understanding of what affects young children’s motivation and consumption behavior, as well as how health-related marketing affects their behavior. Our work suggests that when encouraging children to eat healthy food, focusing on the health benefits may backfire. Emphasizing the taste benefits, assuming these are credible, or even not mentioning the benefits at all, is superior to emphasizing health benefits in terms of encouraging consumption and creating a positive experience. This conclusion is consistent with Reicks et al. (2012), who find that merely placing pictures of vegetables on school lunch trays, without any accompanying messages, increased consumption of vegetables.

Marketing food as healthy may still have a positive impact on consumption among children, by influencing parents (and other caregivers) to purchase and serve this food. Parents affect children’s food choices by making specific foods available, by acting as models for their children, and by adjusting their behavior in specific situations (e.g., Young, Fors, and Hayes 2004). To the extent that parents are convinced some food is healthy, they can play a crucial role in increasing their children’s consumption of the healthy food, by simply serving these food

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Aydınoğlu, Nilufer, Z. and Aradhna Krishna (2011), “Guiltless Gluttony: The Asymmetric Effect of Size Labels on Size Perceptions and Consumption,” Journal of Consumer

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Balasubramanian, Siva K. and Catherine Cole (2002), “Consumers' Search and Use of Nutrition Information: The Challenge and Promise of the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act,” Journal of Marketing, 66 (3), 112-27.

Birch, Leann L., Sheryl I. Zimmerman, and Honey Hind (1980), “The Influence of SocialAffective Context on the Formation of Children’s Food Preferences,” Child Development, 51 (3), 856-61.

Blosser, Betsy J. and Donald F. Roberts (1985), “Age Differences in Children’s Perceptions of Message Intent: Responses to TV News, Commercials, Educational Spots, and Public Service Announcements,” Communication Research, 12 (4), 455-84.

Borzekowski, Dina L.G. and Thomas N. Robinson (2001), “The 30-second Effect: An Experiment Revealing the Impact of Television Commercials on Food Preferences of Preschoolers,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 101 (1), 42-6.

Brownell, Kelly D. and Katherine B. Horgen (2004), Food Fight: The Inside Story of the Food

Industry, America’s Obesity Crisis, and What We Can Do About It, Chicago, IL:

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Chandon, Pierre and Brian Wansink (2007a), “The Biasing Health Halos of Fast-Food Restaurant Health Claims: Lower Calorie Estimates and Higher Side-Dish Consumption Intentions,” Journal of Consumer Research, 34 (October), 301-14.

______ (2007b), “Is Obesity Caused by Calorie Underestimation? A Psychophysical Model of Meal Size Estimation,” Journal of Marketing Research, 44 (February), 84–99.

_____ (2012), “Does Food Marketing Need to Make us Fat? A Review and Solutions,” Nutrition

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Choi, Jinhee and Ayelet Fishbach (2011), “Choice as an End versus a Means.” Journal of Marketing Research, 48, 544-554.

Coelho Do Vale, Rita, Rik Pieters, and Marcel Zeelenberg (2008), “Flying under the Radar:

Perverse Package Size Effects on Consumption Self‐Regulation,” Journal of Consumer Research, 35 (October), 380–90.

Cooke, Lucy J., Lucy C. Chambers, Elizabeth V. Añez, Helen A. Croker, David Boniface, Martin R. Yeomans, and Jane Wardle (2011), “Eating for Pleasure of Profit: The Effect of Incentives on Children’s Enjoyment of Vegetables,” Psychological Science, 22 (2), 190-96.

Crum, Alia J., William R. Corbin, Kelly. D. Brownell, and Peter Salovey (2011), “Mind Over Milkshakes: Mindsets, Not Just Nutrients, Determine Ghrelin Response,” Health

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Deci, Edward L. (1971), “Effects of Externally Mediated Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 18 (1), 105-15.

Desrochers, Debra M. and Debra J. Holt (2007), “Children’s Exposure to Television Advertising:

Implications for Childhood Obesity,” Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 26 (2), 182Dubois, David, Derek D. Rucker, and Adam D. Galinsky (2012), “Super Size Me: Product Size as a Signal of Status,” Journal of Consumer Research 38, 1047-62.

Egan Brad, Louisa C. and Daniel Diermeier (2012), “Culture, Development, and Zero-Sum Thought,” working paper, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, PA 19010.

Finkelstein, Stacey R. and Ayelet Fichbach (2010), “When Healthy Food Makes You Hungry,” Journal of Consumer Research, 37 (October), 357-67.





Fishbach, Ayelet and Jinhee Choi (2012), “When Thinking About Goals Undermines Goal Pursuit,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 118 (1), 99-107.

Gibbs, Brian J. (1991), “The Self-Manipulation of Tastes: Experiments on Expedient Utility,” unpublished dissertation, Behavioral Science and Marketing Department, Booth School of Business, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637.

Higgins, E. Tory and Yaacov Trope (1990), “Activity Engagement Theory: Implications of Multiply Identifiable Input for Intrinsic Motivation,” in Handbook of Motivation and Cognition: Foundations of Social Behavior, Vol. 2, ed. E. Tory Higgins and Richard M.

Sorrentino, New York, NY: Guilford Press, 229-64.

Hill, James O. and John C. Peters (1998), “Environmental Contributions to the Obesity

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Irmak, Caglar, Beth Vallen, and Stefanie R. Robinson (2011), “The Impact of Product Name on Dieters’ and Nondieters’ Food Evaluations and Consumption,” Journal of Consumer Research, 38 (August), 390-405.

John, Deborah R. (1999), “Consumer Socialization of Children: A Retrospective Look at Twenty-Five Years of Research,” Journal of Consumer Research, 26 (December), 182Kahkonen, Paivi and Hely Tuorila (1999), “Consumer Responses to Reduced and Regular Fat Content in Different Products: Effects of Gender, Involvement and Health Concern,” Food Quality and Preference, 10 (2), 83-91.

Kiesel, Kristin, Jill J. McCluskey, and Sofia B. Villas-Boas (2011), “Nutritional Labeling and Consumer Choices,” Annual Review of Resource Economics, 3, 141-58.

Lepper, Mark R., David Greene, and Richard E. Nisbett (1973), “Understanding Children’s Intrinsic Interest with Extrinsic Reward: A Test of the “Overjustification” Hypothesis,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 28 (1), 129-37.

Levin, Stephen R., Thomas V. Petros, and Florence W. Petrella (1982), “Preschoolers’ Awareness of Television Advertising,” Child Development, 53 (4), 933-37.

Macklin, M. Carole and Karen A. Machleit (1990), “Measuring Preschool Children’s Attitude,” Marketing Letters, 1 (3), 253-65.

Martz, Denise M., Ellie T. Sturgis, and Sigrid B. Gustafson (1996), “Development and Preliminary Validation of the Cognitive Behavioral Dieting Scale,” International Journal

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Miller, Dale. T. and Rachel Karniol (1976a), “The Role of Rewards in Externally and SelfImposed Delay of Gratification,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1976, 33, 594-600.

Miller, Dale T. and Rachel Karniol (1976b), “Coping Strategies and Attentional Mechanisms in Self-Imposed and Externally Imposed Delay Situations,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 310-16.

Mischel, Harriet N. and Walter M. Mischel (1983), “The Development of Children's Knowledge of Self-Control Strategies,” Child Development, 54, 603-19.

Mischel, Walter, Yuichi Shoda, and Monica L. Rodriguez (1989), “Delay of Gratification in Children,” Science, 244 (4907), 933–38 Moorman, Christine, Rosellina Ferraro, and Joel Huber (2012), “Unintended Nutrition Consequences: Firm Responses to the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act,” Marketing

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Peracchio, Laura A. (1990), “Designing Research to Reveal the Young Child’s Emerging Competence”, Psychology and Marketing, 7 (4), 257-276.

Peracchio, Laura A. (1992), “How Do Young Children Learn to Be Consumers? A Scriptprocessing Approach”, Journal of Consumer Research, 18 (March), 425-440.

Powell, Lisa M., Glen Szczypka, and Frank J. Chaloupka (2007), “Adolescent Exposure to Food

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Preacher, Kristopher J. and Andrew F. Hayes (2004), “SPSS and SAS Procedures for Estimating Indirect Effects in Simple Mediation Models,” Behavior Research Methods, 36 (4), 717Provencher, Véronique, Janet Polivy, and C. Peter Herman (2008), “Perceived Healthiness of Food. If It's Healthy, You Can Eat More!” Appetite 52, 340–44.

Raghunathan, Rajagopal, Rebecca W. Naylor, and Wayne D. Hoyer (2006), “The Unhealthy = Tasty Intuition and Its Effects on Taste Inferences, Enjoyment, and Choice of Food Products,” Journal of Marketing, 70 (4), 170-84.

Reicks, Marla, Jospeh P. Redden, Traci Mann, Elton Mykerezi, and Zata Vickers (2012), “Photographs in Lunch Tray Compartments and Vegetable Consumption Among Children in Elementary School Cafeterias,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, 307 (8), 784-85.

Robinson, Thomas N., Melissa N. Saphir, Helena C. Kraemer, Ann Varady, and K. Farish Haydel (2001), “Effects of Reducing Television Viewing on Children’s Request for Toys: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 22 (3), 179-84.

Rossiter, John R. and Thomas S. Robertson (1974), “Children’s TV Commercials: Testing the Defenses,” Journal of Communication, 24 (Autumn), 137–44.

Ryan, Richard M. and Edward L. Deci (2000), “Self-determination Theory and the Facilitation of Intrinsic Motivation, Social Development, and Well-Being,” American Psychologist,

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Shah, James Y. and Arie W. Kruglanski (2002), “Priming Against Your Will: How Accessible Alternatives Affect Goal Pursuit,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38 (4), 368-83.

Vartanian, Lenny R., Peter C. Herman, and Brian Wansink (2008), “Are We Aware of the External Factors That Influence Our Food Intake?” Health Psychology, 27 (5), 533-38.

Wansink, Brian and Pierre Chandon (2006), “Can “Low-Fat” Nutrition Labels Lead to Obesity?” Journal of Marketing Research, 43 (4), 605-17.

Wang, Youfa and May A. Beydoun (2007), “The Obesity Epidemic in the United States— Gender, Age, Socioeconomic, Racial/ Ethnic, and Geographic Characteristics: A Systematic Review and Meta-regression Analysis,” Epidemiologic Reviews, 29 (1), 6–28.

Ward, Andrew and Traci Mann (2000), “Don’t Mind If I Do: Disinhibited Eating under Cognitive Load,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78 (April), 753–63 Young, Elizabeth M., Stuart W. Fors, and David M. Hayes (2004), “Associations between Perceived Parent Behaviors and Middle School Student Fruit and Vegetable Consumption,” Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 36 (2), 2-12.

Zhao, Xinshu, John G. Lynch, and Qimei Chen (2010), “Reconsidering Baron and Kenny: Myths and Truths about Mediation Analysis,” Journal of Consumer Research, 37 (August), 197

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  Yummy condition This is Tara. Tara likes Today Tara ate the Tara thought the And she was happy to to eat a snack before ‘Wheat Thins crackers were yummy, play outside.

she goes out and play. Crackers’ for snack.

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8.00 7.31 7.00 6.00 5.00 4.00 3.10 3.00 2.00 1.00

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40% 35% 30% 20% 10%

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* Children place a card with the picture of the Wheat Thins crackers on one of the empty boxes. If they think the crackers are similar to ice cream [onion], thus indicating liking [disliking], they place the crackers next to the ice cream [onion], or in the middle if they are not sure.

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