«GROUND WATER INFORMATION BOOKLET MANDYA DISTRICT, KARNATAKA SOUTH WESTERN REGION BANGALORE AUGUST, 2012 FOREWORD Groundwater is an essential ...»
GOVERNMENT OF INDIA
MINISTRY OF WATER RESOURCES
CENTRAL GROUND WATER BOARD
GROUND WATER INFORMATION BOOKLET
MANDYA DISTRICT, KARNATAKA
SOUTH WESTERN REGION
FOREWORDGroundwater is an essential component of the environment and economy. It sustains the flow in our rivers and plays an important role in maintaining the fragile ecosystems. The groundwater dependence of agrarian states like Karnataka is high. Recent studies indicate that 26 percent of the area of Karnataka State is under over exploited category and number of blocks is under critical category. In view of the growing concerns of sustainability of ground water sources, immediate attention is required to augment groundwater resources in stressed areas. Irrigated agriculture in the state is putting additional stress on the groundwater system and needs proper management of the resources.
Central Ground Water Board is providing all technical input for effective management of ground water resources in the state. The groundwater scenario compiled on administrative divisions gives a better perspective for planning various ground water management measures by local administrative bodies. With this objective, Central Ground Water Board is publishing the revised groundwater information booklet for all the districts of the state.
I do appreciate the efforts of Dr. K.Md.Najeeb, Regional Director and his fleet of dedicated Scientists of South Western Region, Bangalore for bringing out this booklet. I am sure these brochures will provide a portrait of the groundwater resources in each district for planning effective management measures by the administrators, planners and the stake holders.
Dr. S. C. Dhiman
PREFACEGround water contributes to about eighty percent of the drinking water requirements in the rural areas, fifty percent of the urban water requirements and more than fifty percent of the irrigation requirements of the nation. Central Ground Water Board has decided to bring out district level ground water information booklets, highlighting the ground water scenario, its resource potential, quality aspects, resource estimation, vulnerability area etc., for all the districts of the country. As part of this, Central Ground Water Board, South Western Region, Bangalore, is preparing such booklets for all the 30 districts of Karnataka state during the annual action plan of 2012-13.
The Mandya district Ground Water Information Booklet has been prepared based on the information available and data collected from various state and central government organisations by several scientists of Central Ground Water Board with utmost care and dedication. This booklet has been prepared by Smt. Sangita P.
Bhattacharjee, Assistant Hydrogeologist, under the guidance of Dr. K.R.
Sooryanarayana, Scientist-D. The figures were prepared by Sri. J.
Sivaramakrishnan, Assistant Hydrogeologist and the rainfall data provided by Shri H.P.Jayaprakash Scientist-C. The efforts of Report processing section in finalising and bringing out the report in this format are commendable.
I take this opportunity to congratulate them for the diligent and careful compilation and observation in the form of this booklet, which will certainly serve as a guiding document for further work and help the planners, administrators,academicians, hydrogeologists and engineers to plan the water resources management in a better way in the district in coming years.
1.0 Introduction Mandya district was created from Mysore on 1st July, 1939. It is called as the land of sugar because of its famous sugarcane cultivation. The district is considered one of the fertile districts of Karnataka.
1.1 Location The Mandya district lies between North latitude 12o 13” to 130 04’ and East longitudes 76 019’ to 770 20’ falling in the survey of India degree sheet Nos –57 H and 57D. The district is bounded on northern and northwest side by Hassan district.
To the north and northeast side lies the Tumkur district, on the east of Mandya district, lie Ramnagara and Bangalore district and to the south and south western side lies Chamarajnagara and Mysore districts.
1.2 Administrative Setup The total geographical area of the district is 496100 hectare with its district headquarter at Mandya. The district is divided in to seven taluks coming under two sub divisions namely Mandya and Pandavpura. The Mandya sub division comprises of Mandya, Maddur and Malavalli taluks. The Pandavapura sub division comprises of Pandavapura, S.R.Patna, Nagamangala and K.R.Pet taluks.The Administrative Setup is shown in fig- 1
1.3 Population As per 2011 census, the total population in the district is around 1,808680 with a population density of 365 persons per sq km. The total male and female in the district is 909441 and 899239 respectively. The average literacy of the district is 70.14% and the sex ratio is 989 among 1000 males.
The rural population is 1499891 constituting 82.92% and urban population is 308849 comprising 17.08% of the total population.
1.4 Drainage The Cauvery river system drains the district towards the Bay of Bengal. The important rivers in the district are Cauvery, Hemanvathy, Shimsha, Lokapavani and Viravaishnavi all of which flow towards south and finally eastwards cutting through eastern range of hills. Apart from these rivers the district is endowed with number of streams, which along with the rivers form sub dendritic drainage pattern. The district is characterized by sub dendritic drainage probably dissected by numerous streams.
The drainage density in the district ranges from 1.12 to 2.73 km sq km. The drainage pattern is shown in fig- 2
The agriculture land utilization of the district is that 46.3% is the gross area under cultivation, 50.4% is net area sown, 5% comprises of forest area, 13.5% is the total fallow land and 30% is net irrigated area.
1.6 Agriculture and Principal Crops Agriculture is the main occupation of the people of the district. The agro climatic zone is Southern dry zone and following are the main crops grown (District Profile, 2011 Karnataka State Agricultural Produce Processing and Export ) Cereals: Ragi, Paddy, Maize, Jowar Pulses: Cowpea, Green gram, Red gram, Tur Oilseeds: Groundnut, sesame, Castor, Soyabean Commercial crop: Sugarcane Among horticulture product, plantation crops, vegetables, fruits, spices and flower are grown like Plantation crops: Coconut, Arecanut Vegetables: Tomato, Lady finger, Brinjal, chilli, Bean Spices: Tamarind, Coriander, Ginger, Turmeric Fruits: Banana, Mango, Guava, Chickoo Flower: Jasmine, Marigold, Crossandra The following table 2 shows the area (in hectare) under the respective principal crops.
Table 2: Area (Hectare) under principal crops (2009-10) Crop Area (Hectare)
1.8 Industries The main industries of the district are sugar mill, several khandasari sugar units, jiggery producing units, rice, oil and solvent extract units. The sugar factory at Mandya is one of the biggest in India. Others in Pandavapura, K.M.doddi and Koppa are also significant. Chemical and Paper mill at Belagula near to Mandya town, Milk dairy at Gejjalagere, BPL battery factory and several small scale industries are there in the district.
Among the major industries are;
Thus the main thrust areas in agriculture field for the district are Area expansion of vegetables Composite orchards/ dry land Horticulture.
Crop intensification in coconut garden Organic farming
1.9 Studies carried out by CGWB The Central Ground Water Board has carried out Systematic hydrogeological surveys and Ground water exploration in the district. The C.G.W.B has conducted exploratory drilling of 20 exploratory bore well and 6 observation wells in the first phase of exploration. In the second phase of exploration drilling 20 exploratory bore well and 6 observation wells were drilled.
The Systematic hydrogeological surveys were carried out by Shri.
N.R.Bhagat, Shri. T.M.Hunse, Shri. K.R.Sooryanarayana and Shri.V.Saivasan.
The Reappraisal hydrogeological surveys were carried out by Shri.
A.Suresha and Shri N.Jyoti kumar.
The C.G.W.B. and Department of mines and geology Govt. Karnataka has carried out ground water resource evaluation of all taluks as per Groundwater estimation Committee (GEC), 2009.
During the AAP of 2011-12, groundwater management studies in over exploited blocks of Mandya, Malavalli and Maddur taluks was carried out by Sri K.N.
Nagaraja, Sc-D and Dr K. Rajarajan, AHG.
As per Directorate of Economics and statistics department data of February, 2012, there was excess rainfall in 4 taluks, normal 3 taluks during the pre-monsoon period. The rainfall pattern of South-West monsoon was found to be normal in 1 taluk, deficit in 4 taluks and scanty in 2 taluks. During the North-East monsoon, 4 taluks had excess and 2 taluks had normal rainfall and deficit in 1 taluk. The annual rainfall pattern shows that, 3 taluks received excess, 3 taluks received normal rainfall and deficit in 1 taluk. The annual rainfall of the district was 750 mm, 4 percent more than the normal rainfall of 722 mm.
In the South west monsoon, the dry weeks ranging between 9 to 15 weeks in all the taluks. The weekly rainfall during North-East monsoon season was good in first month of October and first week of December and in the remaining weeks it was practically dry.
3.0 Geomorphology and Soil types
3.1 Geomorphology The district is located in the southern maidan region of the state. The surface topography is in the form of undulating plain situated at an average elevation of 750m amsl. There are few sporadic out crops of rocks as hills and few fertile shallow valleys. In the southeastern part of the district the Biligirirangana bett ranges extending from Mysore District tapers off here. In this portion Cauvery river breaks through the hill ranges and forms the famous Gaganachukkiand and Barachukki waterfalls. The Melukote range of hills fallen a broken series of conspicuous peaks, which reach the altitude of 1159m amsl, 1064m amsl, 1050m amsl and 1046m amsl.
The Hulikere-Kartigatta hill range near S.R.Patna and bold rugged low peaks near Sindhugatta are also conspicuous. The general slope in the district is in southeast direction.
3.2 Soil types The soil of Mandya district is derived from granites and gneisses interpreted with occasional patches of schist in SR Patna, Mandya and Pandavapura taluks.
The soils range from red sandy loams to red clay loam very thin in ridges and higher elevations and comparatively thick in valley portions. The soils in Mandya, Malavalli, Maddur and Nagamangala taluks are thin gravelly and underlain with a murrum zone containing weathered rock. The soils are highly leached and poor in bases.
The water holding capacity is low. On the othere hand the soil under the old channel areas of Malavalli, Pandavapura and S.R. Patna are high in clay. The infiltration rates of red loamy and red soils are 2 to 12 cm/ hr and 1 to 3 cm/ hr.
4.0 Ground Water scenario 4.1.1 Occurrence of Ground Water Mandya district is covered by the geological formations ranging in age from Archaean, Granitic gneiss, Dharwar etc to recent alluvium. Various intrusive later traverse these formations. Based on the hydro geological conditions in different rock types occurring in the district, the entire district can be categorized under hard rock area except for areas adjacent to the major streams and rivers where alluvium occurs as local pockets. The ground water occurs in the secondary porosity of weathered formations like granitic gneiss, granite and schists etc under water table conditions at shallow depth up to 25 m and generally under semi-confined to confined conditions in the jointed and fractured portions of the above rocks down to the depth of 200 m bgl. The ground water also occurs in the inter-granular spaces in the alluvial patches along the stream courses under water table conditions at shallow depth.
Hydrogeological features are shown in fig -3 The regional ground water flow systems of Mandya districts described under three zones as shallow, moderately deep, and deep zone.
Shallow zone: The aquifers occurring within the depth of 25 m below ground level are constituted of weathered and fractured granite gneisses, granites and schist.
Ground water occurs in the open spaces of weathered and fractured formations under water table conditions. Ground water of this zone is utilized through structures like dug wells, dug cum bore wells and shallow bore wells. In the 12% of the areas of the district the weathered zone thickness is less than 5 m falling in parts of northeastern K.R.Pet, southwestern Nagamangala and north and western parts of Pandavapura taluks.In 64% areas of the district the weathered thickness is in the range of 5 to 10 m. In the remaining 24% areas of the district falling in parts of southern K.R.Pet, eastern Maddur, eastern Malavalli, small portion in eastern part of Nagamangala, southern part of Moderately deep zone: The aquifers occurring within the depth of 50 m below ground levels are grouped in this category. The aquifers of this category constituted of weathered and fractured granite gneisses, granites and schist. Ground water occurs in the open spaces of weathered and fractured formations under semiconfined conditions.
Deep zone: The aquifers occurring within the depth of 200 m below ground levels are grouped in this category. The aquifers of this category constituted of fractured and jointed granite gneisses, granites and schist. Ground water occurs in the open spaces of fractured and jointed formations under semi-confined to confined conditions.